Pressto.

Nagłowek strony

Rola Nefertiti w religii i polityce okresu amarneńskiego

Maria Kloska

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14746/fpp.2016.21.06

Abstrakt


Nefertiti, the wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten, fulfilled several important functions in both the religion and politics of the Amarna Period. The very name of Nefertiti, Nfr-nfr.w-jtn nfr.t-jj.tj, which translates as The Beautiful is Beauty of Aten, The Beautiful One Has Come, shows how important was the role she played in representing the qualities of the sun god Akhetaten. Nefertiti was presented as The Great Wife of the King but also The Lady of the Two Lands. These titles are indicative of her strong position in politics, because in ancient Egypt, religion and ideology of royal power were inextricably linked. Apparently, the queen was identified with the ruler. This is evidenced, for example, in the scenes from talatat, where Nefertiti was presented on the board of a ceremonial ship pulling a captive by his or her hair and massacring him or her with a khepesh sword, held in the other hand. Very important is the sacral dimension of Nefertiti, because apart from holding significant religious and political functions, she was also deified. Nefertiti’s divine status is best illustrated and confirmed in Akhenaten’s sarcophagus. At each corner, the queen is shown with outstretched arms, covering and protecting the deceased ruler. Recent discoveries in great Wadi Dayr Abu Hinnis indicate that in 16 Year of Akhenaten’s reign, Nefertiti was still alive and was the highest queen. This sheds new light on the Amarna Period. It cannot be ruled out that Nefertiti, as Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaton, held the function of Akhenaten’s coregent, and after her husband’s death, ruled independently as Anchcheperure Semenchakare.


Słowa kluczowe


Nefertiti; Amarna Period; origin of Nefertiti; titulary of Nefertiti; political role; religious role; Anchcheperure Neferneferuaton; Ankhkheperure Semenkhkare

Pełny tekst:

Bibliografia


Allen J.P. 1994 Nefertiti and Smenkh-ka-re. Göttinger Miszellen, 141, pp. 7–17.

Allen J.P. 2009 The Amarna succession. In: P.J. Brand and L. Cooper (eds.), Causing his name to live: studies in Egyptian epigraphy and history in memory of William J. Murnane, (pp. 9–20). Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Arnold D. 1996 The Royal Women of Amarna. Images of Beauty from Ancient Egypt. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Bayer Ch.J. and Eaton-Krauss M. 2012 The Amarna triad. Revue d’Egyptologie, 63, pp. 21–41.

Blyth E. 2006 Karnak. Evolution of a temple. London and New York: Routledge.

Brunner-Traut E. 1982 Nofretete. In: W. Helck, E. Otto and W. Westendorf (eds.), Lexikon der Ägyptologie (vol. IV, col. 519–521). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag.

Collier S.A. 1996 The Crowns of Pharaoh: their Development and Significance in Ancient Egyptian Kingship. [Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, University of California].

Cooney J.D. 1965 Amarna Reliefs from Hermopolis in American Collections. New York: The Brooklyn Museum.

Davies N. de Garis. 1903–1908 The Rock Tombs of Amarna, vol. I–VI. London.

Dodson A. and Ikram S. 1998 The Mummy in Ancient Egypt: Equipping the Dead for Eternity. London: Thames and Hudson.

Dodson A. 2009 Were Nefertiti and Tutankhaten coregents? Kemet, 20(3), pp. 41–49.

Ertman E.L. 1992 Is There Visual Evidence for a ‘King’ Nefertiti? In: Amarna Letters. San Francisco, 2, pp. 50–55.

Ertman E.L. 2006 Smiting the enemy in the reign of Akhenaten: a family affair. Kemet, 17(4), pp. 59–65.

Ertman E.L. and Hoffmeier J.K. 2008 A new fragmentary relief of King Ankhkheperure from Tell el-Borg (Sinai)? The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 94, pp. 296–302.

Fischer H.G. 1977 The Orientation of Hieroglyphs. Part I – Reversals. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Gabolde M. 2013 L’ADN de la famille royale amarnienne et les sources égyptiennes. Égypte nilotique et méditerranéenne, 6, pp. 177–203.

Gardiner A.H. 1957 Egyptian Grammar. Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. Oxford: Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum.

Hawass Z., Gad Y.Z., Ismail S., Khairat R., Fathalla D., Hasan N., Ahmed A., Elleithy H., Ball M., Gaballah F., Wasef S., Fateen M., Amer H., Gostner P., Selim A., Zink A. and Pusch C.M. 2010 Ancestry and Pathology in Tutankhamun’s Family. Journal of American Medical Association, 303(7), pp. 638–647.

Jacq Ch. 2007 Echnaton i Nefertiti. Translated by M.G. Witkowski. Warszawa: Świat Książki.

Lebek G. 2012 Schönheit, Macht und Religion: Nofretete als weibliches Gegenstück des Pharaos. Antike Welt, 6, pp. 10–12.

Loeben Ch.E. 1986 Eine Bestattung der großen königlichen Gemahlin Nofretete in Amarna? – Die Totenfigur der Nofretete. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo, 42, pp. 99–107.

Loeben Ch.E. 1994 Nefertiti’s Pillars. A Photo Essay of the Queen’s Monument at Karnak. In: Amarna Letters, 3, pp. 41–45.

Manniche L. 2010 The Akhenaten Colossi of Karnak. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.

Manniche L. 2010 The cultic significance of the sistrum in the Amarna Period. In: A. Woods, A. McFarlane and S. Binder (eds.), Egyptian culture and society: studies in honour of Naguib Kanawati, 2 (pp. 13–26). [Le Caire]: Supreme Council of Antiquities.

Martin G.T. 1974 The Royal Tomb at El-Amarna, vol. 1–2. London: Egypt Exploration Society. Petrie W.M.F.

Tell El-Amarna. Warminster, Wiltshire; Encino, California: Aris & Philips, Malter.

Redford D.B. 1987 Akhenaten – the heretic king. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Reeves N. 2001 Akhenaten: Egypt’s False Prophet. London: Thames & Hudson.

Samson J. 1977 Nefertiti’s Regality. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 63, pp. 88–97.

Schlögl H.A. 2009 Starożytny Egipt. Dzieje i kultura od czasów najdawniejszych do Kleopatry. Translated by A. Gadzała. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Seyfried F. 2012 Nefertiti: What remains but beauty? In: F. Seyfried (ed.), In the light of Amarna. 100 years of the Nefertiti discovery (pp. 189–194). Berlin: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung.

Tawfik S. 1973 Aton Studies. Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts Abteilung Kairo, 29, pp. 77–86.

Theis Ch. 2010 Das dunkle Ende einer Königin: Diskussion der Theorien zum Verschwinden der Nofretete. Kemet, 3, pp. 14–19.

The Oriental Institute 1980 The Tomb of Kheruef. Theban Tomb 192 by the epigraphic survey in cooperation with

The Department of Antiquities of Egypt. Chicago: The Oriental Institute.

Tyldesley J. 2003 Nefertiti. Słoneczna królowa Egiptu. Translated by J. Aksamit. Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Wydawniczy.

Tyldesley J. 2006 Chronicle of the Queens of Egypt. From early dynastic times to the death of Cleopatra. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Van der Perre A. 2012 Nefertiti’s last documented reference (for now). In: F. Seyfried (ed.), In the light of Amarna. 100 years of the Nefertiti discovery (pp. 195–197). Berlin: Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung.

Van Dijk J. 2008 A colossal statue base of Nefertiti and other early Atenist monuments from the precinct of the goddess Mut in Karnak. In: S.H. D’Auria (ed.), Servant of Mut: studies in honor of Richard A. Fazzini (pp. 246–261). Leiden/Boston: Brill.

Vosburg L.M. 2011 The sistrum as a marker of the divine nature of queenship in the Amarna Period. [Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, The University of Memphis].

PRESSto2AMUR - export

Statystyki

Abstrakt - 104 PDF - 95

Altmetric

Zewnętrzne odnośniki

  • Obecnie brak jakichkolwiek odnośników.




Copyright (c) 2017