https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/issue/feed Artium Quaestiones 2020-09-26T11:02:00+00:00 Filip Lipiński aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl Open Journal Systems <p>„Artium Quaestiones" jest jednym z najważniejszych w Polsce recenzowanych czasopism naukowych z dziedziny historii sztuki, rocznikiem Instytutu Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Ukazuje się od 1979 roku nakładem Wydawnictwa Naukowego UAM i od początku koncentrowało się na teoretycznych i metodologicznych zagadnieniach historii sztuki. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie dotyczą zarówno sztuki nowoczesnej i współczesnej, jak i dawnej, w tym architektury, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problematyki sztuki w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej. „Artium Quaestiones" publikuje oryginalne i pogłębione studia, które wyznaczają nowe perspektywy badawcze i/lub stanowią świadectwo recepcji i krytycznego przepracowania istniejących koncepcji metodologicznych oraz ich zastosowania, tak w kontekście sztuki rodzimej, jak i obcej.</p> <p>Charakterystyczną cechą „Artium Questiones" są krytyczne omówienia najnowszej literatury dziedziny, a zwłaszcza przekłady ważnych&nbsp; teoretycznych i analitycznych tekstów, artykułów i rozdziałów książek. Dotychczas ukazały się tłumaczenia publikacji takich autorów jak Rosalind Krauss, Hal Foster, Mieke Bal, William J. T. Mitchell, Nicholas Mirzoeff, Grisellda Pollock, Georges Didi-Huberman, Louis Marin, Max Imdahl, Michael Brötje, Horst Bredekamp czy Hans Belting. W wielu przypadkach były to pierwsze przekłady tekstów tych badaczy w Polsce.</p> <p>Redakcja „Artium Quaestiones" zaprasza do nadsyłania propozycji artykułów zarówno uznanych naukowców, jak i młodych badaczy sztuki i kultury wizualnej. Od XXVIII numeru czasopismo zawiera sekcję tematyczną, do której corocznie ogłaszany jest „call for papers". Oprócz wersji papierowej, nowe numery „Artium Quaestiones" (od nr 26, 20015) są możliwe do pobrania w postaci elektronicznej na platformie wolnego dostępu Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza – PRESSto. Od 2019 roku czasopismo będzie także dostępne w międzynarodowej bazie czasopism elektronicznych EBSCO. Archiwalne numery czasopisma (z wyjątkiem najnowszego) są również dostępne w wersji cyfrowej na stronie biblioteki Uniwersytetu w Heidelbergu. Odpowiednie linki można znaleźć na stronie czasopisma.</p> <p>„Artium Quaestiones" jest indeksowane w European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI).&nbsp;</p> <p>W 2019 roku czasopismo otrzymało dwuletni grant Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego Wsparcie dla Czasopism Naukowych. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie otrzymują 40 punktów (zgodnie z ministerialną listą czasopism naukowych).&nbsp;</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI)</p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA:</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>MNiSW 40 (2019 r.)</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI:&nbsp;</strong>10.14746/aq</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;0239-202X</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>Prace publikowane w czasopismie dostepne są na&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong><strong><strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a></strong></strong></div> https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21917 Strona tytułowa 2020-02-28T09:08:22+00:00 - - aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Strona tytułowa</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21918 Spis treści 2020-02-28T09:38:34+00:00 - - aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Spis treści</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21915 Editor's Note 2020-02-28T09:19:31+00:00 Piotr Korduba aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>-</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21112 Facing the Work of Art. Memories of My Student Years 2020-03-11T07:54:21+00:00 Piotr Skubiszewski p.skubiszewski@uw.edu.pl <p>The present essay includes the author’s memories of his university studies and the intellectual formation that he received as a student of art history at the University of Poznań in 1949-1954. His first professor who opened to him the door to art history and exerted on him a strong intellectual influence, was Szczęsny Dettloff, a disciple of Heinrich Wölfflin in Munich and Max Dvořák in Vienna. Dettloff taught his students that the foundation of studying art in history is the study of the form of an individual artwork He believed that without a proper analysis of form it is impossible to construct appropriate series of the works of art and specify their position in the culture of the times of their origin. Similar sensitivity to form and the understanding of its significance for the art historian’s work were represented by two other professors important for the author, both educated by Dettloff already before World War II: Gwido Chmarzyński and Zdzisław Kępiński. When in 1957-1968 the author was a postgraduate student in the Centre d’Études Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale at the University of Poitiers (CÉSCM), it turned out that the local methodological tradition was similar to what he had learned in Poznań before. The CÉSCM was founded as a multidisciplinary institute for the study of the Middle Ages, combining history, art history, literary history, and the history of ideas. It was important that one of them could shed light on an object studied by another, but each of them, including art history, kept its material and methodological identity. In the French tradition, art history had an “autonomous” status, focusing on artistic creation as a special sphere of human activity. That idea influenced also quite strongly the study of medieval architecture, originated in the early 19th century by Arcisse de Caumont, and continued until today by many generations of French scholars. What is characteristic of their research is meticulous analysis of form, articulated with a precise, detailed, and comprehensive specialist vocabulary. The lectures of French scholars on medieval architecture, which the author attended in Paris and Poitiers, taught him precision in the analysis of the artwork’s structure and its components, as well as responsibility for every single statement made on art. For a young art historian who did not specialize in architecture but in representational arts, that French experience was a lesson of methodological rigor necessary in the intellectual pursuits of the humanities scholar.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21872 Turning Points, Crises, Evolutions 2020-02-28T09:20:13+00:00 Wojciech Bałus aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>When Aristotle asked at what particular moment we can say that an army is fleeing, which is certainly not when individual soldiers start leaving the battlefield, he formulated a problem that is important also for today’s art history: are there any moments in the history of art that can be called turning points? In individual artistic careers, such points are related to crises, allowing the artist to overcome an impasse and find a way toward reaching a goal. Quite often, such a turn occurs suddenly, at some particular moment which ancient Greeks called the kairos. The changes in art approached en bloc also happen thanks to the background of values and some goal of artistic creation. A turning point may imply overcoming a crisis or a period of decline and decadence – always a state of affairs defined in negative terms. A separate case is definitely a political decree that triggers off a change, which implies violence committed on culture. Finally, in academic art history a turning point may be related not only with a crisis, but also with evolution. It’s perception is relative, but because of that the history of art can be rewritten.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/22105 On Belatedness. The Shaping of Portuguese Art History in Modern Times 2020-03-11T08:49:16+00:00 Mariana Pinto dos Santos pressto@amu.edu.pl <p>Portuguese art history experienced remarkable development after World War II, especially with the work of José-Augusto França, who was responsible for establishing a historiographic canon for nineteenth- and twentieth-century Portuguese art that still endures. José-Augusto França developed a narrative that held Paris up as an artistic and cultural role model in relation to which he diagnosed a permanent delay in Portuguese art. This essay analyses França’s idea of belatedness in the context of Portuguese art historiography and political history and how it is part of a genealogy of intellectual thought produced in an imperial context, revisiting previous art historians and important authors, such as Antero de Quental and António Sérgio. Moreover, it aims to address how the concept of belatedness was associated with the idea of “civilisation” and the idea of “art as civilisation.” Belatedness also has implications in the constraints and specificities of writing a master narrative in a peripheral country – a need particularly felt in the second half of the twentieth century, to mark a political standpoint against the dictatorship that ruled from 1926 to 1974. Part of the reaction to fascism expressed the desire to follow other nations’ democratic example, but the self-deprecating judgements on Portuguese art were frequently associated with the identification of essentialist motifs – the “nature” of the Portuguese people, their way of thinking, of living, their lack of capacities or skills – and of a self-image of being “primitive” in comparison with other European countries that has antecedents going back to the eighteenth century. I will address the nostalgia for the empire and the prevailing notion of belatedness throughout the twentieth century regarding unsolved issues with that nostalgia.</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21875 “A History of Polish Art” by Michał Walicki and Juliusz Starzyński in Poland between the World Wars. The West, Poland, the East 2020-02-28T09:20:12+00:00 Adam S. Labuda aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Writing an academic history of Polish art was an urgent task of art historians after World War I, when the country regained its political independence. An important and creditable achievement in that respect was a study by Michał Walicki and Juliusz Starzyński, published in 1934 as a kind of supplement to the monumental Geschichte der Kunst von der altchristlichen Zeit bis zur Gegenwart by the Marburg historian Richard Hamann, translated at that time into Polish. In 1936, the work of the Polish scholars was published again in the form of a separate book. The paper focuses on three problems that were addressed in it: the cultural and artistic ties of Poland to the West, the vernacular features of Polish art, and the presence of the “Eastern art” in Polish artistic heritage. The author examines also the question whether those issues were related to the political, social, and cultural reality of the Second Polish Republic.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21876 Romanian Art Historiography in the Interwar Period. Between the Search for Scholarship and Commitment to a Cause 2020-02-28T09:20:10+00:00 Vlad Ţoca aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>At the end of World War I, Romania emerged as a much stronger nation, with a greatly enlarged territory. During the two world wars, the Romanian state was permanently looking for the best way to preserve the newly created national state and defend its frontiers. This was the only matter all Romanian parties seemed to agree on. The threat of territorial revisionism coming from Hungary, the Soviet Union and, to a lesser extent, Bulgaria united all the political actors in defending the peace system of Versailles and supporting the League of Nations as the guarantor of this peace and stability. The interwar period was a remarkable time for Romania’s cultural history. Between the two world wars, the Romanian cultural scene was dominated by what Keith Hitchins calls the ‘Great Debate’ about national identity and development. The opponents were those advocating synchronism with the West, on the one hand, and those pleading for tradition, on the other, with many others looking for a third way. In Romanian interwar culture, the country’s modernity was emphasized in order to place the country within the larger family of European nations. An opposing, and at the same time, complementary line of thought was that of presenting the long and noble Romanian history, tradition and ancestral roots. These two themes have been present in Romanian culture since the mid-19th century. They were used by various authors, sometimes in a complementary fashion, while at others, in a conflicting manner in literature, historical writing or political discourse. This process did not end with the creation of the Greater Romania after the end of World War I. New threats, which are mentioned above, maintained the need to continue this discourse. In this context, historical arguments became political arguments and were used by the Romanians in order to justify the new territorial gains and the Versailles system. Art history, part of the family of historical disciplines, came to play an important part in this. Romanian art historical writing or political discourse. This process did not end with the creation of the Greater Romania after the end of World War I. New threats, which are mentioned above, maintained the need to continue this discourse. In this context, historical arguments became political arguments and were used by the Romanians in order to justify the new territorial gains and the Versailles system. Art history, part of the family of historical disciplines, came to play an important part in this. Romanian art historical writing did not exist as such until the end of the 19th century. It was only in the first years of the next century that the number of scholarly works produced following western standards steadily increased. As part of a general tendency of aligning Romanian academic practices with those in the West, art historiography established itself as a respectable academic discipline, a process which went hand in hand with the establishment of new institutions such as museums, university departments, research institutions and the Commission for historical monuments. All these institutions were founded and financed by the Romanian state, and most scholars were involved with these institutions in one way or another. Although Romanian art historiography of the period is dominated by the desire to produce academic works to the highest standards, the ideas of the Great Debate are present in the works of that time. At the same time, in several texts, the most prominent art historians of the day strongly affirm the necessity of putting their work in the service of the national cause. In this paper, we will be looking at the general histories of Romanian art written between the two world wars. The choice of these texts is motivated by the fact that these works are the result of larger research projects and have a broader scope and as such better summarise the trends of the interwar period.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21877 “1945” as a Turning Point in German Art History? Challenging the Paradigm of Rupture and Discontinuity 2020-02-28T09:20:08+00:00 Christian Fuhrmeister aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The historiographical article looks at “1945” as a turning point, inquiring whether the end of both the Second World War and National Socialism also implied a radical break for art history in Germany. In evaluating both contemporary perspectives (like Herbert von Einem’s opening lecture of the First German Art Historians Meeting in 1948) and recent historiographical studies, the paper questions the concept of “Stunde Null” or “hour zero,” and intends to challenge the established paradigm of rupture and discontinuity. Arguing for a more nuanced and holistic understanding of the transformation processes in the postwar situation, three major reasons are identified why simplistic categorizations often prevail: (1) a very narrow definition of the art historian in the history of art history, (2) the disjunction between the humanities and the larger political context, which allow the individual to imagine himself/herself untainted and uncompromised by ideology, and (3) the high degree of continuity, in particular if compared to the radical changes that took place in 1933. The article thus resumes that the idea of “turning points” deserves further differentiation, and calls for the integration of the political dimension into historiography. Essentially, the challenge remains to distinguish between factual processes, false or fraudulent labelling, and symbolic gestures.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21878 Around 1948: The “Gentle Revolution” and Art History 2020-02-28T09:20:06+00:00 Anna Markowska aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Just like after World War I Italy experienced a transition from modernism to fascism, after World II Poland experienced a passage from modernism to quasi-communism. The symbol of the first stage of the communist revolution in Poland right after the war, the so-called “gentle revolution,” was Pablo Picasso, whose work was popularized not so much because of its artistic value, but because of his membership in the communist party. The second, repressive stage of the continued came in 1949–1955, to return after the so-called thaw to Picasso and the exemplars of the École de Paris. However, the imagery of the revolution was associated only with the socialist realism connected to the USSR even though actually it was the adaptation of the École de Paris that best expressed the revolution’s victory. In the beginning, its moderate program, strongly emphasizing the national heritage as well as financial promises, made the cultural offer of the communist regime quite attractive not only for the left. Thus, the gentle revolution proved to be a Machiavellian move, disseminating power to centralize it later more effectively. On the other hand, the return to the Paris exemplars resulted in the aestheticization of radical and undemocratic changes. The received idea that the evil regime was visualized only by the ugly socialist realism is a disguise of the Polish dream of innocence and historical purity, while it was the war which gave way to the revolution, and right after the war artists not only played games with the regime, but gladly accepted social comfort guaranteed by authoritarianism. Neither artists, nor art historians started a discussion about the totalizing stain on modernity and the exclusion of the other. Even the folk art was instrumentalized by the state which manipulated folk artists to such an extent that they often lost their original skills. Horrified by the war atrocities and their consequences, art historians limited their activities to the most urgent local tasks, such as making inventories of artworks, reorganization of institutions, and reconstruction. Mass expropriation, a consequence of the revolution, was not perceived by museum personnel as a serious problem, since thanks to it museums acquired more and more exhibits, while architects and restorers could implement their boldest plans. The academic and social neutralization of expropriation favored the birth of a new human being, which was one of the goals of the revolution. Along the ethnic homogenization of society, focusing on Polish art meant getting used to monophony. No cultural opposition to the authoritarian ideas of modernity appeared – neither the École de Paris as a paradigm of the high art, nor the folklore manipulated by the state were able to come up with the ideas of the weak subject or counter-history. Despite the social revolution, the class distinction of ethnography and high art remained unchanged.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21879 University Art History in Slovakia after WWII and its Sovietization in 1950s 2020-02-28T09:20:04+00:00 Katarina Kolbiarz Chmelinová aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>In post-WWII Slovakia, art history was available only as a university field of study at Bratislava University (in 1954 regaining its name Comenius University) at the Seminár pre dejiny umenia / Seminar of Art History, a separate part of the Faculty of Arts of the university, where art history had been taught as an independent discipline since 1923 before its conversion to a department. Post-war changes in state structures and the new political system radically affected Slovak society and the education system in the country. This article is the very first attempt to present in detail the extent and character of changes in university art history instruction in the part of the socialist era of the Czechoslovak Republic. It is based on the study and comparison of previously unprocessed sources from various university and state archives and their classification in the context of known historical facts. This contribution represents an in-depth probe into the post-war efforts to build a new university foundation and system of art history instruction in Slovakia within the Czechoslovak Republic, and its Sovietization as well. The text analyzes the university environment, the curriculum, the study program of art history and the relevant changes resulting from political pressure from 1945 to 1960. They were the consequence of two directly related, significant moments in the history of Slovakia: the establishment of the Third Czechoslovak Republic in 1945 and the communist coup in 1948, which was followed by the most totalitarian period in the history of the state. The article also discusses the personal changes in the art history staff forced by the political situation (J. Dubnický, V. Wagner, V. Mencl, A. Güntherová-Mayerová, R. Matuštík, T. Štrauss, K. Kahoun). After a brief presentation of the situation in Czechoslovakia at the time, the article first deals with the ad hoc activities and efforts of scientists seeking to maintain art history studies in Slovakia at the university level immediately after the end of the war. The central issue in the article is the changes in the way of teaching resulting from the political upheaval in February 1948. Against the background of political and social changes, the new law on higher education (Act No. 58/1950), which forces significant organizational transformations, is discussed. As part of the process of Sovietization of university education in Slovakia, the modified Seminar of Art History lost its independent status for a long time, and its staff was largely replaced. At the same time, throughout this period, there was a visible tendency to stabilize the teaching system and attempts to become independent again and to develop discipline, undertaken contrary to the imposed system. The 1950s, with their new rhetoric and propaganda optimism, appear to be a decade devoid of internal consistency. It started the most totalitarian period, which lasted until Stalin’s death in 1953, but was followed by a short thaw and then by a new wave of repression after 1957, which chose victims even at the beginning of the next decade. The article focuses on two sides of the 1950s – centralization and the dominant ideological control of the Communist Party, on one hand, and on the other, the obvious effort to unify and professionalize the teaching of the discipline. The factual material presented here shows the scale of changes interpreted in the context of the political and social changes of that time. The case study provides an analysis of system efforts made in the 1940s and 1950s to establish new principles of university teaching for the history of art in Slovakia as part of the Czechoslovak Republic. It aims to broaden the factual basis and existing overview of knowledge of art history in Slovakia and supplement existing studies on the history of art history in the country (J. Bakoš, I. Ciulisová, B. Koklesová).</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21880 Towards the Theory of the Naïve Art – Grgo Gamulin and the Understanding of Modernism 2020-02-28T09:20:02+00:00 Ivana Mance aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The article presents the theory of naïve art of the Croatian art historian Grgo Gamulin (1910–1997), which he developed in a number of texts written from early 1960s. In his theory, Gamulin tried to explain the phenomenon of naïve art on the basis of the modernist paradigm by applying the type of argumentation that is characteristic for the discourse of high-modernity. Gamulin’s postulates on the naïve can be summarised with a few basic lines of speculation. First of all, Gamulin claims that the phenomenon of the naïve was epistemologically possible only in the context of modernism, and that it should therefore be considered an equally valuable movement of contemporary art. However, in order to defend its authenticity, he began adhering to the ab ovo theory, the notion that naïve art does not arise as a cumulative result of the historical development of art, but that it ontologically precedes that development. The naïve artist, according to Gamulin, always starts from the beginning, independent of events in the art world, and immune to influences. A naïve artist is therefore necessarily authentic, or rather original: not having any role models, he develops an individual style, independently building his own visual arts language. Gamulin further posits that the visual arts language of the naïve is not based on a naive imitation of reality, or mimesis, but on an instinctive, spontaneous symbolisation of subjective experience, and as such is completely autonomous in relation to the laws of reality, i.e. it is ontologically grounded in the artist’s imagination. Finally, in an effort to explain the social significance of naïve art, Gamulin interprets the emergence of the naïve in the context of the culture of modernism as compensation – a supposedly naïve attitude to aesthetic norms, as well as an imaginarium that evokes “lost spaces of childhood,” necessarily functions as a therapeutic substitute for the alienation of art and the modern life in general. As such, Gamulin’s theory vividly testifies to the character of naïve art as a phenomenon that is constitutive of the culture of modernism, but that also reflects a number of contemporary polemics and split opinions, not only on the topic of the naïve but of modernism as a whole. The split of opinions on naïve art, especially with regard to its genesis, partly reflects the positions of the so-called conflict on the left, discussions that were taking place between the interwar period and early 1950s with the aim of defining the relationship of leftist ideology to modernism, or rather the relationship between the values of socially-critical engagement and aesthetic autonomy. The discussion on the naïve, however, experienced a certain changing of sides– Grgo Gamulin, a one-time advocate for socialist realism, began supporting naïve art and thus rose to the defence of basically liberal understanding of modernism, while former opponents of socialist realism denounced the phenomenon of the naïve as ideologically inconsistent and aesthetically doctored. In conclusion, Gamulin’s theory, as well as the entire polemic around naïve art that was taking place during the 1960s and which the theory necessarily ties in with, demonstrates the complex contextual reality of a seemingly integral modernist paradigm, illustrating the confrontation of positions that is by no means peculiar to Yugoslav society.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21881 Toward a New Concept of Progressive Art: Art History in the Service of Modernisation in the Late Socialist Period. An Estonian Case 2020-02-28T09:20:00+00:00 Krista Kodres aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The paper deals with renewal of socialist art history in the Post-Stalinist period in Soviet Union. The modernisation of art history is discussed based on the example of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR), where art historians were forced to accept the Soviets’ centrally constructed Marxist-Leninist aesthetic and approach to art and art history. In the art context, the idea of progressiveness began to be reconsidered. In previous discourse, progress was linked with the “realist” artistic method that sprang from a progressive social order. Now, however, art historians found new arguments for accepting different cultures of form, both historical and contemporary, and often these arguments were “discovered” in Marxism itself. As a result, from the middle of 1950’s Soviet art historians fell into two camps in interpreting Realism: the dogmatic and revisionist, and the latter was embraced in Estonia. In 1967, a work was published by the accomplished artist Ott Kangilaski and his nephew, the art historian Jaak Kangilaski: the Kunsti kukeaabits – Basic Art Primer – subtitled “Fundamental Knowledge of Art and Art History.” In its 200 pages, Jaak Kangilaski’s Primer laid out the art history of the world. Kangilaski also chimed in, publishing an article in 1965 entitled “Disputes in Marxist Aesthetics” in the leading Estonian SSR literary journal Looming (Creation). In this paper the Art Primer is under scrutiny and the deviations and shifts in Kangilaski’s approach from the existing socialist art history canon are introduced. For Kangilaski the defining element of art was not the economic base but the “Zeitgeist,” the spirit of the era, which, as he wrote, “does not mean anything mysterious or supernatural but is simply the sum of the social views that objectively existed and exist in each phase of the development of humankind.” Thus, he openly united the “hostile classes” of the social formations and laid a foundation for the rise of common art characteristics, denoted by the term “style.” As is evidenced by various passages in the text, art transforms pursuant to the “will-to-art” (Kunstwollen) characteristic of the entire human society. Thus, under conditions of a fragile discursive pluralism in Soviet Union, quite symbolic concepts and values from formalist Western art history were “smuggled in”: concepts and values that the professional reader certainly recognised, although no names of “bourgeois” authors were mentioned. Kangilaski relied on assistance in interpretation from two grand masters of the Vienna school of art history: Alois Riegl’s term Kunstwollen and the Zeitgeist concept from Max Dvořák (Zeitgeist, Geistesgeschichte). In particular, the declaration of art’s linear, teleological “self-development” can be considered to be inspiration from the two. But Kangilaski’s reading list obviously also included Principles of Art History by Heinrich Wölfflin, who was declared an exemplary formalist art historian in earlier official Soviet historiography. Thaw-era discursive cocktail in art historiography sometimes led Kangilaski to logical contradictions. In spite of it, the Primer was an attempt to modernise the Stalinist approach to art history. In the Primer, the litmus test of the engagement with change was the new narrative of 20th century art history and the illustrative material that depicted “formalist bourgeois” artworks; 150 of the 279 plates are reproductions of Modernist avant-garde works from the early 20th century on. Put into the wider context, one can claim that art history writing in the Estonian SSR was deeply engaged with the ambivalent aims of Late Socialist Soviet politics, politics that was feared and despised but that, beginning in the late 1950s, nevertheless had shown the desire to move on and change.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21889 1968: In Search of “Socialism with Human Face” in Czech Art History 2020-02-28T09:19:58+00:00 Milena Bartlová aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The five or eight years leading up to the failed “Prague Spring” represent the most important period of Czech humanities tradition during the Communist Party dictatorship. Art history did not directly participate in either of the most prominent period discourses, but it was able to develop its own specific methodologies following the Czech continuation of the Vienna School legacy. The contribution analyzes the discourse of Marxist Iconology, developed by J. Neumann and R. Chadraba, and presents the case of F. Šmejkal and his concept of Imaginative Art, which was, interestingly, the sole case during the whole 40 years of the Communist Party rule when the highest Party officials became directly involved in Czech art historical practice. From the point of view of art historical practice, the most important feature of the brief period 1963–1969 was the new possibility of contacts with foreign art historians and of traveling abroad.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21890 Enter the Dragon 2020-02-28T09:19:57+00:00 Maria Poprzęcka aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The paper is a reminiscence of my first meeting with the colleagues from the Institute of Art History of Adam Mickiewicz University, which took place at an annual conference of the Association of Art Historians in 1974, titled “Reflection on Art.” Choosing an unusual title, I wanted to convey the impetus with which a group of young art historians from Poznań entered the decent and somewhat stagnant stage of Polish art history. The critique they presented was directed against Polish academic institutions, the problematic of the conference, the empty rituals of academic life, etc. Even though I did not accept all their objections, the heated debate suddenly turned out for me to be a liberating factor, stimulating continuous critical thinking which is an antidote for spiritual and intellectual captivity.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21891 L’Imagination au pouvoir: Art History in the Times of Crisis, 1960s – 1970s 2020-02-28T09:19:55+00:00 Andrzej Turowski aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The present paper is reminiscence and an attempt to reconstruct the intellectual heritage of art history as it was practiced at the University of Poznań in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s in the context of new developments in cultural theory and changing research interests. Besides, it includes the author’s account of his own academic work in that period, began in the 1960s and inspired in particular by the year 1968 that brought a social crisis and a cultural revolution, as well as introduced the element of imagination into academic knowledge and critical thought. The author draws a wide panorama of intellectual stimuli which contributed to an epistemic and methodological turn, first in his own scholarly work and then in the work of some other art historians in Poznań. Those turns opened art history at the University of Poznań to critical reading of artistic practices approached in relation to other social practices and subjects of power. As a result, four key problems were addressed: (1) the position of contemporary art in research and teaching, (2) the necessity to combine detailed historical studies with critical theoretical reflection, (3) the questioning of genre boundaries and ontological statuses of the objects of study and the semantic frames of the work of art, and finally, in connection to the rise of an interdisciplinary perspective, (4) the subversion of the boundaries and identity of art history as an academic discipline. Then the author reconstructs the theoretical background of the “new art history” that emerged some time later, drawing from the writings of Walter Benjamin, the French structuralism, Theodor Adorno’s aesthetic theory, and Louis Althusser’s interpretation of the concept of ideology. Another important problematic was the avant-garde art of Poland and other East-Central European countries, studied in terms of artistic geography and the relations between the center and periphery. The conclusion of the paper presents a framework marked with the names of Aby Warburg and Max Dvořák, which connected the tradition of art history with new developments, took under consideration the seminal element of crisis, and allowed art historians to address a complex network of relations among the artist’s studio, the curator’s practice, the scholar’s study, and the university seminar, as well as the West, the Center, and the East. At last, the author remembers the revolutionary, rebellious spirit and the lesson of imagination that the Poznań art history took from March and May, 1968.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21892 1989. On the Concept of Modernism 2020-02-28T09:19:53+00:00 Wojciech Włodarczyk aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The author argues that the significance of the year 1989 for Polish art was not determined by political changes, but by the rise of postmodernism. Until that moment, the term “modernism” usually referred in academic art history to Polish art at the turn of the 20th century. The concept of postmodernism brought to the Polish language a new meaning of modernism as simply modern art, and more precisely, as modern art defined by Clement Greenberg. That change made it necessary to draw a new map of concepts referring to modern Polish art, most often defined before by the concept of the avant-garde. In Mieczysław Porębski’s essay “Two Programs” [Dwa programy] (1949), and then, since the late 1960s, in Andrzej Turowski’s publications, the concept of the avant-garde was acknowledged as basic for understanding twentieth-century Polish art. The significance of the concept of the avant-garde in reference to the art of the past century in Poland changed after the publication of Piotr Piotrowski’s book of 1999, Meanings of Modernism [Znaczenia modernizmu]. Piotrowski challenged in it the key role of that concept – e.g., Władysław Strzemiński and Henryk Stażewski, usually called avant-gardists before, were considered by him modernists – in favor of a new term, “critical art,” referring to the developments in the 1990. In fact, critical art continued the political heritage of the avant-garde as the radical art of resistance. The author believes that such a set of terms and their meanings imposes on the concept of the avant-garde some limits, as well as suggests that scholars and critics use them rather inconsistently. He argues that concepts should not be treated as just label terms, but they must refer to deeper significance of tendencies in art. He mentions Elżbieta Grabska’s term “realism,” also present in the tradition of studies on modern Polish art, and concludes with a postulate of urgent revision of the relevant vocabulary of Polish art history.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21893 Remarks on the Margin of Wojciech Włodarczyk’s Article “1989. On the Concept of Modernism” 2020-02-28T09:19:51+00:00 Andrzej Turowski aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Remarks on the Margin of Wojciech Włodarczyk’s Article “1989. On the Concept of Modernism”</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21894 Remarks on the “Margin” 2020-02-28T09:19:50+00:00 Wojciech Włodarczyk aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Remarks on the “Margin”</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21916 Vom Berliner Schloss zum Humboldt Forum: ein Paradigma Deutscher Konfliktgeschichte 2020-02-28T09:19:29+00:00 Horst Bredekamp aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The lecture concerns the Berlin Palace (Stadtschloss) and presents a view of its long history, starting with its construction in the Baroque style by an artist of the Polish origin, Andreas Schlüter, up to its contemporary reconstruction with a new institutional function (Humboldt Forum). The ten sections of the text not only present architectural and artistic history of this residence but also pivotal historical events and contexts which affected the dimensions and meaning of its functioning. The Palace, entangled into German history but also reflecting it, especially as regards the 19th and 20th centuries, becomes both a starting point for an evaluation of this history and posing questions about the future. Along with the ferociously debated, present-day reconstruction and its museum function, it also seems to be a psychogram of diverse stages of the condition of German spirit.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21895 Od Redaktora 2020-02-28T09:19:48+00:00 Piotr Korduba aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Od Redaktora</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21905 Przed dziełem sztuki. Wspomnienia ze studiów 2020-02-28T09:39:50+00:00 Piotr Skubiszewski aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The present essay includes the author’s memories of his university studies and the intellectual formation that he received as a student of art history at the University of Poznań in 1949-1954. His first professor who opened to him the door to art history and exerted on him a strong intellectual influence, was Szczęsny Dettloff, a disciple of Heinrich Wölfflin in Munich and Max Dvořák in Vienna. Dettloff taught his students that the foundation of studying art in history is the study of the form of an individual artwork He believed that without a proper analysis of form it is impossible to construct appropriate series of the works of art and specify their position in the culture of the times of their origin. Similar sensitivity to form and the understanding of its significance for the art historian’s work were represented by two other professors important for the author, both educated by Dettloff already before World War II: Gwido Chmarzyński and Zdzisław Kępiński. When in 1957–1968 the author was a postgraduate student in the Centre d’Études Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale at the University of Poitiers (CÉSCM), it turned out that the local methodological tradition was similar to what he had learned in Poznań before. The CÉSCM was founded as a multidisciplinary institute for the study of the Middle Ages, combining history, art history, literary history, and the history of ideas. It was important that one of them could shed light on an object studied by another, but each of them, including art history, kept its material and methodological identity. In the French tradition, art history had an “autonomous” status, focusing on artistic creation as a special sphere of human activity. That idea influenced also quite strongly the study of medieval architecture, originated in the early 19th century by Arcisse de Caumont, and continued until today by many generations of French scholars. What is characteristic of their research is meticulous analysis of form, articulated with a precise, detailed, and comprehensive specialist vocabulary. The lectures of French scholars on medieval architecture, which the author attended in Paris and Poitiers, taught him precision in the analysis of the artwork’s structure and its components, as well as responsibility for every single statement made on art. For a young art historian who did not specialize in architecture but in representational arts, that French experience was a lesson of methodological rigor necessary in the intellectual pursuits of the humanities scholar.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21906 Przełomy, kryzysy, ewolucje 2020-02-28T09:19:45+00:00 Wojciech Bałus aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>When Aristotle asked at what particular moment we can say that an army is fleeing, which is certainly not when individual soldiers start leaving the battlefield, he formulated a problem that is important also for today’s art history: are there any moments in the history of art that can be called turning points? In individual artistic careers, such points are related to crises, allowing the artist to overcome an impasse and find a way toward reaching a goal. Quite often, such a turn occurs suddenly, at some particular moment which ancient Greeks called the kairos. The changes in art approached en bloc also happen thanks to the background of values and some goal of artistic creation. A turning point may imply overcoming a crisis or a period of decline and decadence – always a state of affairs defined in negative terms. A separate case is definitely a political decree that triggers off a change, which implies violence committed on culture. Finally, in academic art history a turning point may be related not only with a crisis, but also with evolution. It’s perception is relative, but because of that the history of art can be rewritten.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21907 Michała Walickiego i Juliusza Starzyńskiego „Dzieje sztuki polskiej” w II Rzeczypospolitej. Zachód, Polska, Wschód 2020-02-28T09:19:44+00:00 Adam S. Labuda aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Writing an academic history of Polish art was an urgent task of art historians after World War I, when the country regained its political independence. An important and creditable achievement in that respect was a study by Michał Walicki and Juliusz Starzyński, published in 1934 as a kind of supplement to the monumental Geschichte der Kunst von der altchristlichen Zeit bis zur Gegenwart by the Marburg historian Richard Hamann, translated at that time into Polish. In 1936, the work of the Polish scholars was published again in the form of a separate book. The paper focuses on three problems that were addressed in it: the cultural and artistic ties of Poland to the West, the vernacular features of Polish art, and the presence of the “Eastern art” in Polish artistic heritage. The author examines also the question whether those issues were related to the political, social, and cultural reality of the Second Polish Republic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21908 Wokół roku 1948: „rewolucja łagodna” i historia sztuki 2020-02-28T09:19:42+00:00 Anna Markowska aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Just like after World War I Italy experienced a transition from modernism to fascism, after World War II Poland experienced a passage from modernism to quasi-communism. The symbol of the first stage of the communist revolution in Poland right after the war, the so-called “gentle revolution,” was Pablo Picasso, whose work was popularized not so much because of its artistic value, but because of his membership in the communist party. The second, repressive stage of the continued came in 1949–1955, to return after the so-called thaw to Picasso and the exemplars of the École de Paris. However, the imagery of the revolution was associated only with the socialist realism connected to the USSR even though actually it was the adaptation of the École de Paris that best expressed the revolution’s victory. In the beginning, its moderate program, strongly emphasizing the national heritage as well as financial promises, made the cultural offer of the communist regime quite attractive not only for the left. Thus, the gentle revolution proved to be a Machiavellian move, disseminating power to centralize it later more effectively. On the other hand, the return to the Paris exemplars resulted in the aestheticization of radical and undemocratic changes. The received idea that the evil regime was visualized only by the ugly socialist realism is a disguise of the Polish dream of innocence and historical purity, while it was the war which gave way to the revolution, and right after the war artists not only played games with the regime, but gladly accepted social comfort guaranteed by authoritarianism. Neither artists, nor art historians started a discussion about the totalizing stain on modernity and the exclusion of the other. Even the folk art was instrumentalized by the state which manipulated folk artists to such an extent that they often lost their original skills. Horrified by the war atrocities and their consequences, art historians limited their activities to the most urgent local tasks, such as making inventories of artworks, reorganization of institutions, and reconstruction. Mass expropriation, a consequence of the revolution, was not perceived by museum personnel as a serious problem, since thanks to it museums acquired more and more exhibits, while architects and restorers could implement their boldest plans. The academic and social neutralization of expropriation favored the birth of a new human being, which was one of the goals of the revolution. Along the ethnic homogenization of society, focusing on Polish art meant getting used to monophony. No cultural opposition to the authoritarian ideas of modernity appeared – neither the École de Paris as a paradigm of the high art, nor the folklore manipulated by the state were able to come up with the ideas of the weak subject or counter-history. Despite the social revolution, the class distinction of ethnography and high art remained unchanged.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21909 Wejście smoka 2020-02-28T09:19:41+00:00 Maria Poprzęcka aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The paper is a reminiscence of my first meeting with the colleagues from the Institute of Art History of Adam Mickiewicz University, which took place at an annual conference of the Association of Art Historians in 1974, titled “Reflection on Art.” Choosing an unusual title, I wanted to convey the impetus with which a group of young art historians from Poznań entered the decent and somewhat stagnant stage of Polish art history. The critique they presented was directed against Polish academic institutions, the problematic of the conference, the empty rituals of academic life, etc. Even though I did not accept all their objections, the heated debate suddenly turned out for me to be a liberating factor, stimulating continuous critical thinking which is an antidote for spiritual and intellectual captivity.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21910 L’Imagination au pouvoir: historia sztuki w czasach kryzysu lat 60./70 2020-02-28T09:19:39+00:00 Andrzej Turowski aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The present paper is reminiscence and an attempt to reconstruct the intellectual heritage of art history as it was practiced at the University of Poznań in the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s in the context of new developments in cultural theory and changing research interests. Besides, it includes the author’s account of his own academic work in that period, began in the 1960s and inspired in particular by the year 1968 that brought a social crisis and a cultural revolution, as well as introduced the element of imagination into academic knowledge and critical thought. The author draws a wide panorama of intellectual stimuli which contributed to an epistemic and methodological turn, first in his own scholarly work and then in the work of some other art historians in Poznań. Those turns opened art history at the University of Poznań to critical reading of artistic practices approached in relation to other social practices and subjects of power. As a result, four key problems were addressed: (1) the position of contemporary art in research and teaching, (2) the necessity to combine detailed historical studies with critical theoretical reflection, (3) the questioning of genre boundaries and ontological statuses of the objects of study and the semantic frames of the work of art, and finally, in connection to the rise of an interdisciplinary perspective, (4) the subversion of the boundaries and identity of art history as an academic discipline. Then the author reconstructs the theoretical background of the “new art history” that emerged some time later, drawing from the writings of Walter Benjamin, the French structuralism, Theodor Adorno’s aesthetic theory, and Louis Althusser’s interpretation of the concept of ideology. Another important problematic was the avant-garde art of Poland and other East-Central European countries, studiedin terms of artistic geography and the relations between the center and periphery. The conclusion of the paper presents a framework marked with the names of Aby Warburg and Max Dvořák, which connected the tradition of art history with new developments, took under consideration the seminal element of crisis, and allowed art historians to address a complex network of relations among the artist’s studio, the curator’s practice, the scholar’s study, and the university seminar, as well as the West, the Center, and the East. At last, the author remembers the revolutionary, rebellious spirit and the lesson of imagination that the Poznań art history took from March and May, 1968.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21911 Rok 1989 – wokół pojęcia modernizmu 2020-02-28T09:19:37+00:00 Wojciech Włodarczyk aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The author argues that the significance of the year 1989 for Polish art was not determined by political changes, but by the rise of postmodernism. Until that moment, the term “modernism” usually referred in academic art history to Polish art at the turn of the 20th century. The concept of postmodernism brought to the Polish language a new meaning of modernism as simply modern art, and more precisely, as modern art defined by Clement Greenberg. That change made it necessary to draw a new map of concepts referring to modern Polish art, most often defined before by the concept of the avant-garde. In Mieczysław Porębski’s essay “Two Programs” [Dwa programy] (1949), and then, since the late 1960s, in Andrzej Turowski’s publications, the concept of the avant-garde was acknowledged as basic for understanding twentieth-century Polish art. The significance of the concept of the avant-garde in reference to the art of the past century in Poland changed after the publication of Piotr Piotrowski’s book of 1999, Meanings of Modernism [Znaczenia modernizmu]. Piotrowski challenged in it the key role of that concept – e.g., Władysław Strzemiński and Henryk Stażewski, usually called avant-gardists before, were considered by him modernists – in favor of a new term, “critical art,” referring to the developments in the 1990. In fact, critical art continued the political heritage of the avant-garde as the radical art of resistance. The author believes that such a set of terms and their meanings imposes on the concept of the avant-garde some limits, as well as suggests that scholars and critics use them rather inconsistently. He argues that concepts should not be treated as just label terms, but they must refer to deeper significance of tendencies in art. He mentions Elżbieta Grabska’s term “realism,” also present in the tradition of studies on modern Polish art, and concludes with a postulate of urgent revision of the relevant vocabulary of Polish art history.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21912 Na marginesie artykułu Wojciecha Włodarczyka „Rok 1989 – wokół pojęcia modernizmu” 2020-02-28T09:19:36+00:00 Andrzej Turowski aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Na marginesie artykułu Wojciecha Włodarczyka „Rok 1989 – wokół pojęcia modernizmu”</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21913 Uwagi do „marginesu” 2020-02-28T09:19:34+00:00 Wojciech Włodarczyk aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>Uwagi do „marginesu”</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/21914 Od Zamku Berlińskiego do Forum Humboldtów: paradygmat konfliktu w niemieckiej historii 2020-02-28T09:19:33+00:00 Horst Bredekamp aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>The lecture concerns the Berlin Palace (Stadtschloss) and presents a view of its long history, starting with its construction in the Baroque style by an artist of the Polish origin, Andreas Schlüter, up to its contemporary reconstruction with a new institutional function (Humboldt Forum). The ten sections of the text not only present architectural and artistic history of this residence but also pivotal historical events and contexts which affected the dimensions and meaning of its functioning. The palace, entangled into German history but also reflecting it, especially as regards the 19th and 20th centuries, becomes both a starting point for an evaluation of this history and posing questions about the future. Along with the ferociously debated, present-day reconstruction and its museum function, it also seems to be a psychogram of diverse stages of the condition of German spirit.</p> 2019-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/24616 Bios 2020-09-26T11:02:00+00:00 - - aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl <p>-</p> 2020-09-26T11:01:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 - -