Artium Quaestiones https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq <p>„Artium Quaestiones” jest jednym z najważniejszych w Polsce recenzowanych czasopism naukowych z dziedziny historii sztuki, rocznikiem Instytutu Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Ukazuje się od 1979 roku nakładem Wydawnictwa Naukowego UAM i od początku koncentrowało się na teoretycznych i metodologicznych zagadnieniach historii sztuki. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie dotyczą zarówno sztuki nowoczesnej i współczesnej, jak i dawnej, w tym architektury, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problematyki sztuki w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej. „Artium Quaestiones” publikuje oryginalne i pogłębione studia, które wyznaczają nowe perspektywy badawcze i/lub stanowią świadectwo recepcji i krytycznego przepracowania istniejących koncepcji metodologicznych oraz ich zastosowania, tak w kontekście sztuki rodzimej, jak i obcej.</p> <p>Charakterystyczną cechą „Artium Quaestiones” są krytyczne omówienia najnowszej literatury dziedziny, a zwłaszcza przekłady ważnych, teoretycznych i analitycznych tekstów, artykułów i rozdziałów książek. Dotychczas ukazały się tłumaczenia publikacji takich autorów jak Rosalind Krauss, Hal Foster, Mieke Bal, William J. T. Mitchell, Nicholas Mirzoeff, Griselda Pollock, Georges Didi-Huberman, Louis Marin, Max Imdahl, Michael Brötje, Horst Bredekamp czy Hans Belting. W wielu przypadkach były to pierwsze przekłady tekstów tych badaczy w Polsce.</p> <p>Redakcja „Artium Quaestiones” zaprasza do nadsyłania propozycji artykułów zarówno polskich i zagranicznych, uznanych naukowców, jak i młodych badaczy sztuki i kultury wizualnej. Publikujemy teksty w języku polskim, angielskim i niemieckim. Od XXVIII (2017) &nbsp;numeru czasopismo zawiera sekcję tematyczną, do której corocznie ogłaszany jest „call for papers”.&nbsp;Zgłaszane do „Artium Quaestiones” artykuły są recenzowane przez międzynarodowe, ciągle powiększające się grono starannie wybranych specjalistów w danej tematyce. Oprócz wersji papierowej, nowe numery „Artium Quaestiones” (od numeru XXVI, 2015) są możliwe do pobrania w postaci elektronicznej stronie czasopisma w ramach platformie wolnego dostępu Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza – PRESSto (tam też znajdują się wszelkie niezbędne metadane, numery DOI etc.). Archiwalne numery czasopisma (z wyjątkiem najnowszego) są również dostępne w wersji cyfrowej na stronie biblioteki Uniwersytetu w Heidelbergu. Odpowiednie linki można znaleźć na stronie czasopisma.</p> <p>„Artium Quaestiones” jest indeksowane w European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI) a także&nbsp;figuruje w bazie The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH).&nbsp;W 2021 roku będzie dostępne również w bazie Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL) oraz w wolnym dostępie na platformie EBSCO.</p> <p>W 2019 roku czasopismo otrzymało dwuletni grant Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego Wsparcie dla Czasopism Naukowych. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie otrzymują 40 punktów (zgodnie z ministerialną listą czasopism naukowych).&nbsp;</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:<br></strong>European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI), CEJSH, CEEOL, EBSCO.</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><br>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA:</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">Punktacja Ministerstwa Edukacji i Nauki (2021): <strong>70</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><br>DOI:&nbsp;</strong><a href="https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/index">10.14746/aq</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: 0239-202X&nbsp; &nbsp; eISSN 2719-4558</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a></strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>Prace publikowane w czasopismie dostepne są na <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa – Użycie niekomercyjne – Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong></div> Adam Mickiewicz University Press, Poznań pl-PL Artium Quaestiones 0239-202X <p>Prawo autorskie regulowane jest oświadczeniem autora przygotowanym przez Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM a od nr XXVIII także umową licencyjną na publikację online zawartą pomiędzy Autorem i Uniwersytetem im. Adama Mickiewicza. Autorzy ponoszą odpowiedzialność za oryginalność zamieszczanego materiału tekstowego oraz regulację praw autorskich dotyczących materiałów ilustracyjnych. W przypadku, gdy materiały pochodzą od redakcji - odpowiedzialność ponosi redakcja czasopisma.</p> <p><strong>Ten utwór dostepny jest&nbsp; na&nbsp; <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong><strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a></strong></p> Między monografią a koneserstwem. Badania nad polskim dizajnem XX i początków XXI wieku https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32548 <p>The text aims to describe currents, tendencies and fields of interest in design history studies in Poland, which grew in number around the year 2000. There are several characteristic patterns to be observed. First of all, despite the fact that the pioneering monograph on the subject appeared in 1978 (I. Huml), one can still observe terminological diversity, with various terms, such as applied arts and design, being used as synonyms. Secondly, looking at the history of the research, one may draw up a calendar of key events (publications, exhibitions) which led to the development and/or consolidation of the basic vision of Polish design from the end of the 19th century to the beginning of the 21st century, related primarily to the political and artistic history of the country. Thirdly, the increase in historical knowledge on the subject has been generated not only by different environments but also in the context of diverse institutions (academic and museum research, art market, collecting/connoisseurship). Consequently, the research conducted so far has been methodologically diversified, influenced by different goals and results. As a result, in the social reception there is a specific coexistence of projects of a scientific, popular science and commercial nature. A critical point in the dynamics of research was marked by two events which took place at the beginning of the 21st century: the exhibition Rzeczy pospolite and the subsequent publication (2000/2001), and founding of the quarterly “2+3D” (2001). Another marked increase in initiatives has occurred since the end of the 2000s. The demand for knowledge about design history is also, to some extent, animated by the art market. On the one hand, old design collecting generates a spontaneous exchange of messages on social media, while on the other, it stimulates the creation of reliable popular science studies. Research on Polish design has been dominated by the perspective of art history, usually in its traditional version focusing on style as well as the artistic and theoretical context, and highlighting issues of uniqueness and individual authorship, which prevail over functional, technological or social aspects in the discourse. Consequently, there has been no approach that would perceive Polish design and its multiple contexts as a dynamic system, a set of practices and mediations, such as the approach proposed several years ago by Grace Lees-Maffei (Production-Consumption-Mediation Paradigm) for design history. Such a perspective would enhance and stress the importance of research on the relations between various actors in the Polish design community, such as institutions (educational, experimental and research, manufacturing), transmitters (exhibitions, advice) and mediators between production and consumption.</p> Piotr Korduba Copyright (c) 2021 Piotr Korduba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 5 36 10.14746/aq.2021.32.1 Design jako próba przywrócenia kanonu? Pojęcia, metody i dyskursy a niemieckie i śląskie wzornictwo pierwszej połowy XX wieku https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32549 <p>In the article, the concept of canon is related to the process that has been defined as the transition from applied art to design. The thesis is then put forward that this processcan be seen as the canonisation of products intended for mass production. The above statement suggests that a (qualitative?) change has taken place between designing and producing artistic and also utilitarian objects and the phenomenon called design. However, an answer to this problem first requires a clarification of terms. If we understand design and production historically in the context of the transition from handicraft to machine production, i.e. within the narrative socio-economic history, and if we place design in the ontology of visual culture, its pictorial representations and materiality, we will see a shift of focus to aesthetic values, related to form and materiality, and thus canonisation – the establishment of icons (of design). The canon will in this sense be a defence against aesthetic relativism. Escaping into the canon is art history’s way of dealing with the social, economic and knowledge and technology arts was included in the research on searching for connections with Bauhaus as an exemplification of the canon. Design as historically understood industrial design and design as a creative activity, as the energy needed to produce a canonical utilitarian object, i.e. one whose aesthetic or artistic value will go far beyond utilitarian, form the framework in the text for methodological discussion, reflections on defining concepts and critical analysis of scientific discourses and their possible junctures. transfer issues that are indispensable in the study of crafts, arts and craft and design. The history of art (but also popular culture!) has canonised many works and phenomena. One example is the Bauhaus, widely seen as the canon of 20th-century design, although Gropius himself defined its purpose in the words: “das ziel des bauhauses ist eben kein ‘stil’, kein system, dogma oder kanon [...]”. Similar phenomena took place concerning the design of the first half of the 20th century from the Lower Silesia area: the slogan “Breslauer Moderne” referred, in part, to the Werkbund exhibition in 1929 (WuWA), and the activity of the Wrocław Academy in the field of applied arts was included in the research on searching for connections with Bauhaus as an exemplification of the canon. Design as historically understood industrial design and design as a creative activity, as the energy needed to produce a canonical utilitarian object, i.e. one whose aesthetic or artistic value will go far beyond utilitarian, form the framework in the text for methodological discussion, reflections on defining concepts and critical analysis of scientific discourses and their possible junctures.</p> Ksenia Stanicka-Brzezicka Copyright (c) 2021 Ksenia Stanicka-Brzezicka https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 37 66 10.14746/aq.2021.32.2 Vom Paradigma der Guten Form. Deutsch-deutsche Geschmackserziehung und Kontinuitätskonstruktion(en) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32565 <p>Beginning with the Bauhaus anniversary in 2019, new perspectives are being revealed on GDR design. This promises a revision of the German design historiography of the last decades, which was dominated by West-German perspectives. Referring to this trend in research, my essay questions the German history and historiography of design. After the Second World War, the German historiography of art followed the paradigm of the Cold War (Abstraction in the West, Socialist Realism in the East). The historiography of design followed this schema by distinguishing “socialist” from “capitalist” design. To this day, this prevents “transnational” perspectives. In contrast to this, I agree with the argument that the consolidation of the two German states occurred with reference to the (old) concept of “good form”, among other things. Even though the different discourses refer to similar objects and references, they are structured by different interpretations of the term “Good Form”, referring to the ruling ideology of the particular state. It represents a central argument in aesthetic education (Geschmackserziehung), which contained moral and political values. In 1950s West Germany, the Deutscher Werkbund, an organization which was involved in processes of institutionalization in both the political and design historical field, was &nbsp;the main driver of this discourse. In contrast to this, the institutionalization of design in the GDR was organized by the state. Nevertheless, distinctive parallels in the discourses in East and West suggest the lasting impact of the Werkbund. Consequently, I argue that the discursive foundations, which were laid in the 1950s at the latest, had a lasting influence on “German-German” (deutsch-deutsch) design historiography and have recently opened up a pan-German (gesamtdeutsch) perspective.</p> Amelie Ochs Copyright (c) 2021 Amelie Ochs https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 67 88 10.14746/aq.2021.32.3 From Textile to Plastic: Architecture, Exhibition Design, and Abstraction (1930–1955) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32566 <p>This article investigates the growing proliferation of curtains and wall hangings as key elements in the design of art exhibitions in the years 1930–1955. To demonstrate how textiles were successfully employed as mediators on the threshold between architecture, design objects, and fine arts, I first examine the increasing use of curtains in the interwar period, Fascist Italy, and Nazi Germany to subsequently explore how the role of fabrics in both countries’ rationalist and neoclassicist architecture also played a significant part in exhibition design after the Second World War. I chart how the interest in textiles culminated in 1955, when glossy plastic curtains were integrated into the exhibition architecture at the first documenta in Kassel, Germany, one of the country’s most prestigious recurring art events to this day. During these politically turbulent decades, the exchange between exhibition designers in both countries was bound together by a profound reassessment of the relation between architecture, design, and art. The renewed consciousness of design as an integrated practice played a key role in 1930s architecture, also providing the foundation for the Bauhaus curriculum and the work of artists, designers, and architects (e.g., Wassily Kandinsky, Giuseppe Pagano, Le Corbusier, Carlo Scarpa, Willi Baumeister, Arnold Bode). I demonstrate that during this period textiles were essential for creating continuity between exhibitions and exhibits of vastly differing styles and contexts. The wall hangings, veils, and banners that were used as part of the monumental spaces created for the Fascist regimes in Italy and Germany were ultimately appropriated and turned into means to undermine the neoclassicist and rationalist style in a way that echoed, I argue, society’s neobaroque sensibility in the aftermath of World War II. Though the Federal Republic of Germany’s first two decades were characterized by the general will to educate its citizens in the aesthetics of internationalism, this effort and the concomitant return to the interwar period were accompanied by a strong resurgence in religiosity and desire for emotionally compelling experiences, which signify a partial disavowal of modernism’s most radical stipulations.</p> Clemens Ottenhausen Copyright (c) 2021 Clemens Ottenhausen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 89 112 10.14746/aq.2021.32.4 Szkoła na wolnym powietrzu – projekty mebli E. Beaudoina i M. Lodsa dla szkoły w Suresnes (1932–1935) w świetle przemian w pedagogice i projektowaniu wnętrz szkolnych we Francji lat 20. i 30. XX wieku https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32567 <p>The essay is devoted to the relationship between the design of school furniture and other interior design elements in the open-air school (école de plain air) in Suresnes (designed by E. Beaudoin and M. Lods, 1932–1935) and the pedagogical and social assumptions accompanying its construction. The functioning of the school and the role that furniture plays in this program are discussed, as well as how the furniture design responded to the interesting pedagogical program of the international outdoor school movement. The second part of the text discusses the main trends in the design of school furniture in France in the interwar period. Architects’ theoretical views on the problem of so-called “new education” in the design of school buildings and their equipment (mainly texts and projects by Maurice Barret, published in “Architecture<br>d’aujourd’hui”). Trends in furniture design are presented against the background of the pedagogical concepts of that era: Maria Montessori’s pedagogy and progressive trends in teaching, under the influence of which class spaces began to be designed as rooms with flexible functions, thanks to features such as light, multi-functional school furniture using modern shapes and materials.</p> Dorota Jędruch Copyright (c) 2021 Dorota Jędruch https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 113 130 10.14746/aq.2021.32.5 „Pięć milionów dzieci czeka na nowe zabawki…”. O organizacji przemysłu zabawkarskiego i wzornictwie zabawek w Polsce lat 50. i 60. XX wieku https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32568 <p>In the first years after World War II, the task of setting up a toy industry was undertaken&nbsp;in Poland. According to the declarations from the Polish People’s Republic authorities&nbsp;about providing all children with a carefree childhood, access to education and&nbsp;help in developing individual interests, a well-designed and carefully made toy was to&nbsp;reach the hands of 5 million children. It was also supposed to be aesthetic and accessible&nbsp;to the impoverished society after the war. Therefore, toys were mainly produced&nbsp;from waste materials, such as wood, leather, felt, fabrics, provided by state-owned industrial&nbsp;plants or production cooperatives. Toys made in artists’ studios and in the&nbsp;BNEP Toy Factory under the direction of Jan Kurzątkowski met these criteria.&nbsp;A turning point in the history of the organization of the post-war toy industry&nbsp;was the establishment of The Office for Toy Industry Studies and Projects, a facility&nbsp;included in the structures of Cepelia and unique not only on the national, but also on&nbsp;the Europe scale. The office was established on 5 December 1950 by order of the president&nbsp;of the Central Office of Fine Manufacturing. The specialists employed in this&nbsp;institution (artists, educators, psychologists and material scientists) ensured that children&nbsp;received a good educational toy – carefully made, appropriate for their age, safe&nbsp;and nice at the same time. The designs developed under their professional supervision&nbsp;were handed over to Cepelia’s cooperatives for implementation, while providing appropriate&nbsp;instructions on the material and decorations used. One of the Office’s first&nbsp;initiatives was to produce a specific type of wooden and fabric doll, which was exported&nbsp;to Western Europe and the USA and created what was termed the “Polish Doll”.&nbsp;The office only existed for 4 years. Pursuant to the resolution of the Presidium of&nbsp;the Government dated on 18 December 1954, it was transferred to the Board of the&nbsp;Toy Industry at the Central Union of Work Cooperatives. In practice, this meant its&nbsp;liquidation and the cessation of research and development of new toy designs. This&nbsp;decision resulted in a rapid constriction in the development of Poland’s toy industry.&nbsp;The idea of such a holistic, comprehensive approach to the issue of toys has never&nbsp;been returned to, not only from the point of view of aesthetics, but also toys’ role in&nbsp;children’s upbringing and education. This was changed neither by the Central Design&nbsp;Office of the Toy Industry established in 1956 at the Ministry of Education, nor “Plastuś”,&nbsp;a competition for the best toy for children available on the market, launched in&nbsp;1961.</p> Anna Wiszniewska Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Wiszniewska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 131 160 10.14746/aq.2021.32.6 Bez Ludwika i panny służącej. Projekty nowoczesnych kuchni jako zwierciadło przemian roli kobiet w poodwilżowej Polsce https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32570 <p>The development of a post-Stalinist modern kitchen in Poland was informed by the&nbsp;activities of different individual and institutional actors: experts in ‘professional’&nbsp;home engineering, architects and designers and modernist taste-makers. The image&nbsp;of the model kitchen is surprisingly coherent: a rational laboratory kitchen, where the&nbsp;housewife’s work is orchestrated according to Taylorism-inspired rules that aim at&nbsp;reducing the burden of domestic chores and introducing modern and hygienic equipmentand attitudes. The discourse, inspired by similar discussions in Europe and&nbsp;United States, mainly by the works of Swedish Research Institute, reflects the prewar&nbsp;ideas of kitchen-laboratories and ‘home engineering’. What’s new and different is&nbsp;the temporal (limited to a short post-Thaw period) enthusiasm for open-plan kitchens&nbsp;presented as spaces where a housewife can seamlessly perform two duties at the&nbsp;same time: housework and care work. This phenomenon mirrors changing attitudes&nbsp;towards women’s roles in society which, in the post-Stalinist period, were marked&nbsp;by ongoing conservatism. Drawing on the concept of a ‘mediation junction’ and the&nbsp;historical production-consumption-mediation paradigm in design, the article traces&nbsp;changing attitudes towards women’s roles in society, reflected both in popular and professional&nbsp;discourses on kitchen design.</p> Agata Szydłowska Copyright (c) 2021 Agata Szydłowska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 161 185 10.14746/aq.2021.32.7 Socrealizm od środka. Design, sztuka wnętrza i modernizacja https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32571 <p>The article focuses on interior design from the first half of the 1950s. The interior spaces&nbsp;realized at that time in Poland elude unambiguous classifications, both in terms of&nbsp;formal and ideological aspects. I propose to look at the interiors from this time not&nbsp;in terms of style (difficult, complex, hybrid), but in a broader sense, as a political, socio-cultural phenomenon. The interiors were supposed to favor social modernization&nbsp;(assumed in the communist project), especially the idea of promotion and changing&nbsp;class habitus. They precisely modeled new forms of social life (cultural spaces), as well&nbsp;as family life, as they defined the way of eating, “being” (gastronomic interiors), spending&nbsp;free time and holidays. The leap into modernity was particularly noticeable in the&nbsp;architecture and interiors with which everyone interacted on a daily basis. Indicating&nbsp;the participation of interiors in the multifaceted modernization process can make us&nbsp;realize the complexity of the post-war reality, including the interior design from the&nbsp;first half of the 1950s, which was related to many spheres of social and cultural life.</p> Aleksandra Sumorok Copyright (c) 2021 Aleksandra Sumorok https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 187 227 10.14746/aq.2021.32.8 Etnodizajn a ludowość w polskim wzornictwie https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32572 <p>In the first decade of the 2000s, a new wave of “folk inspirations” became visible in the work of Polish designers, which was celebrated by exhibitions, publications, conferences and a special festival. Interestingly, all the Polish-language coverage of these events almost unanimously avoided Polish vocabulary suggesting any connection with “folk” (n.: lud, adj.: ludowy) and used the English-sounding term “etnodizajn” (or “ethnodesign”), which actually did not exist in any official Polish or English dictionary. “Etnodizajn” is definitely not the first case when Polish designers have used the “natural resources” of the “folk art tradition”. This article discusses the early 21st century etnodizajn as embedded in the Romantic tradition of understanding the meaning of the folk, pointing at its endurance both in design practices and cultural politics. Following the design strategies of companies and studios linked to etnodizajn, the author presents, on one hand, projects that neatly fit into a century-old strategies of purely formal inspirations, and on the other, those projects that search beyond the beaten track of folk art.</p> Ewa Klekot Copyright (c) 2021 Ewa Klekot https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 229 250 10.14746/aq.2021.32.9 Paradygmat produkcyjno-konsumpcyjno-mediacyjny https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32573 <p>This is a translation of a seminal, historiographic and methodological article by Grace&nbsp;Lees-Maffei concerning design history as an area of study and an academic discipline,originally published as: “The Production-Consumption-Mediation Paradigm” in:&nbsp;„Journal of Design History” 2009, 22(4), p. 351–376.</p> <p>Translated by Filip Lipiński</p> Grace Lees-Maffei Copyright (c) 2021 Grace Lees-Maffei https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 251 293 10.14746/aq.2021.32.10 „Pozycja prawie idealna”. Związek Polskich Artystów Plastyków wobec przemian politycznych, kryzysu gospodarczego i napięć środowiskowych w latach 1980–1981 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32544 <p>This paper examines the participation of the Polish Artists' Union in the complex transformation of communist Poland in 1980–1981&nbsp;. It is one of the most mythologized phenomena in Polish art history. The main approach to this period assumes that before the of “Solidarity” movement uprising, the Polish Artists' Union was totally dependent on the communist authorities. Then, after August 1980, the Union was to become idealistic, anti-communist organization. The following paper recognizes this kind of historiographical narrative as an example of the 'totalitarian model'. It is a model based on a simple, binary vision of the communist system as a field of permanent struggle between “innocent” society and “oppressive”, omnipotent authorities. The &nbsp;analysis presented here uses the perspective of social history (Sheila Fitzpatrick et al.). From this perspective, communism is viewed as a complex tangle of active, causative social actors (groups and individuals), who could be politically engaged, but may not be. One of those actors was the Polish Artists' Union. Based on various kinds of sources, I show how the Union tried to take the optimal political position after August 1980. To examine this issue I use two types of political mentality, which dominated in those days in the Party, in “Solidarity”, and also in the Union. One is termed “fundamental”, and treats politics in terms of morality, dignity, and so on. The other is called “pragmatic”, and is focused on institutional games, while also allowing compromises or concessions. To track the dynamics of how the Union functioned from August 1980 until martial law was declared (in December 1981), I introduce a division into three phases of the Solidarity revolution: September-December 1980, January-July 1981, and September-December 1981. An analysis of the Union's documents, art magazines, and Party's documents (both official and internal), shows that after the first phase, the Polish Artists' Union was ready to join &nbsp;the new configuration of power, based on Solidarity and the Polish United Workers' Party agreement. According to David Ost's theory, I define this project as a “neo-corporatist” model of the state socialism in the art system.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jakub Banasiak Copyright (c) 2021 Jakub Banasiak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 295 328 10.14746/aq.2021.32.11 Biogramy https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/32589 Filip Lipiński Copyright (c) 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 32 329 333