Artium Quaestiones https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq <p>„Artium Quaestiones” jest jednym z najważniejszych w Polsce recenzowanych czasopism naukowych z dziedziny historii sztuki, rocznikiem Instytutu Historii Sztuki Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Ukazuje się od 1979 roku nakładem Wydawnictwa Naukowego UAM i od początku koncentrowało się na teoretycznych i metodologicznych zagadnieniach historii sztuki. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie dotyczą zarówno sztuki nowoczesnej i współczesnej, jak i dawnej, w tym architektury, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem problematyki sztuki w Europie Środkowo-Wschodniej. „Artium Quaestiones” publikuje oryginalne i pogłębione studia, które wyznaczają nowe perspektywy badawcze i/lub stanowią świadectwo recepcji i krytycznego przepracowania istniejących koncepcji metodologicznych oraz ich zastosowania, tak w kontekście sztuki rodzimej, jak i obcej.</p> <p>Charakterystyczną cechą „Artium Quaestiones” są krytyczne omówienia najnowszej literatury dziedziny, a zwłaszcza przekłady ważnych, teoretycznych i analitycznych tekstów, artykułów i rozdziałów książek. Dotychczas ukazały się tłumaczenia publikacji takich autorów jak Rosalind Krauss, Hal Foster, Mieke Bal, William J. T. Mitchell, Nicholas Mirzoeff, Griselda Pollock, Georges Didi-Huberman, Louis Marin, Max Imdahl, Michael Brötje, Horst Bredekamp czy Hans Belting. W wielu przypadkach były to pierwsze przekłady tekstów tych badaczy w Polsce.</p> <p>Redakcja „Artium Quaestiones” zaprasza do nadsyłania propozycji artykułów zarówno polskich i zagranicznych, uznanych naukowców, jak i młodych badaczy sztuki i kultury wizualnej. Publikujemy teksty w języku polskim, angielskim i niemieckim. Od XXVIII (2017) &nbsp;numeru czasopismo zawiera sekcję tematyczną, do której corocznie ogłaszany jest „call for papers”.&nbsp;Zgłaszane do „Artium Quaestiones” artykuły są recenzowane przez międzynarodowe, ciągle powiększające się grono starannie wybranych specjalistów w danej tematyce. Oprócz wersji papierowej, nowe numery „Artium Quaestiones” (od numeru XXVI, 2015) są możliwe do pobrania w postaci elektronicznej stronie czasopisma w ramach platformie wolnego dostępu Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza – PRESSto (tam też znajdują się wszelkie niezbędne metadane, numery DOI etc.). Archiwalne numery czasopisma (z wyjątkiem najnowszego) są również dostępne w wersji cyfrowej na stronie biblioteki Uniwersytetu w Heidelbergu. Odpowiednie linki można znaleźć na stronie czasopisma.</p> <p>„Artium Quaestiones” jest indeksowane w European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI) a także&nbsp;figuruje w bazie The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH).&nbsp;W 2021 roku będzie dostępne również w bazie Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL) oraz w wolnym dostępie na platformie EBSCO.</p> <p>W 2019 roku czasopismo otrzymało dwuletni grant Ministerstwa Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego Wsparcie dla Czasopism Naukowych. Artykuły publikowane w czasopiśmie otrzymują 40 punktów (zgodnie z ministerialną listą czasopism naukowych).&nbsp;</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/aq/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>European Index for the Humanities (ERIH) oraz Index Copernicus International (ICI), CEJSH (CEEOL i EBSCO od 2021)</p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA:</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>MNiSW 40 (2019 r.)</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI:&nbsp;</strong>10.14746/aq</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;0239-202X</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>Prace publikowane w czasopismie dostepne są na&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong><strong><strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a></strong></strong></div> pl-PL <p>Prawo autorskie regulowane jest oświadczeniem autora przygotowanym przez Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM a od nr XXVIII także umową licencyjną na publikację online zawartą pomiędzy Autorem i Uniwersytetem im. Adama Mickiewicza. Autorzy ponoszą odpowiedzialność za oryginalność zamieszczanego materiału tekstowego oraz regulację praw autorskich dotyczących materiałów ilustracyjnych. W przypadku, gdy materiały pochodzą od redakcji - odpowiedzialność ponosi redakcja czasopisma.</p> <p><strong>Ten utwór dostepny jest&nbsp; na&nbsp; <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa - Użycie niekomercyjne - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong><strong><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-nd/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a></strong></p> aq.redakcja@amu.edu.pl (Filip Lipiński) pressto@amu.edu.pl (Pressto) wto, 19 sty 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Spis treści https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26398 <p>-</p> Filip Lipiński Copyright (c) 2020 Filip Lipiński https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26398 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Cinematic Art (History) and Mieke Bal’s Thinking in Film https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26353 <p><span lang="EN-US">The article focuses on Mieke Bal’s theoretical considerations of art in terms of film and movement in general. This cinematic frame offers her a conceptual framework for “thinking in film”, a way to rethink not only diverse forms of art, moving and still images, but also, as I argue, methodological models for art history. The text begins with a general outline of the tensions and relations between art history and film/film studies, with a discussion of several cases of the theoretical application of film in the field of art history. Bal’s case, the main subject of the article, is perhaps the most consistent and theoretically advanced attempt at reconceptualizing diverse aspects of art in interdisciplinary, cinematic terms within a larger phenomenon which might called a theoretical dimension of the “cinematic turn”. While I acknowledge the importance and complementary nature of Bal’s artistic practice as a video artist with her theoretical work, due to the limited space of this article, the focus of my text is on her writing. I closely trace and discuss a variety of Bal’s texts, predominantly written over the last 20 years, in which she theorizes and analyzes works in which movement is either explicit, such as video or video installation or implicit, such as painting. In her crucial, relevant books, <em>Thinking in Film. The Politics of Video Installation According to Eija-Liisa Athila</em> (2013) or <em>Emma&amp;Edvard Looking Sideways: Loneliness and the Cinematic</em>, Bal, referring to a number of scholars and thinkers, but most prominently and consistently to Henri Bergson, points to four kinds of movement: literal or represented movement of/in the image, movement related to perception, affective movement and, finally, its political dimension, all of which are discussed in this article. Video installation is an art form which for Bal becomes the best concretization (a contact space) of all of the above aspects of movement, activating “thinking in film”. This involves new reformulations of spatial and temporal dimensions of art, with such concepts as heterochrony and timespace. Moreover, with reference to video art, Bal coined the notion of &nbsp;“migratory aesthetics”, where migration not only literally concerns migrants and immigration but offers a platform to reflect on and renegotiate the issues of movement, stagnation, the everyday and their political dimensions. Last but not least, film, according to Bal, also offers a useful framework for analyzing the experience of art exhibitions. In discussing Bal’s work, I argue that her &nbsp;“cinematic”, conceptual travels in art offer a radical opening of a number of art historical categories and procedures, and I propose to regard her project of &nbsp;“thinking in film” as indicative of a larger changes across disciplines already visible in her earlier work in the 1990s, which involve the productive redefinition of historical and temporal experience, mobilization of perception and the body, relational mode of thinking and vision, affective dimension of experiencing art and the acknowledgment of agency both on the part of the viewer and the artwork.</span></p> Filip Lipiński Copyright (c) 2020 Filip Lipiński https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26353 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Film jako instalacja. Przestrzeń, narracja i afekt w ekspozycji Mieke Bal „Madame B". https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26354 <p class="Domylne"><span lang="EN-US">The article discusses the construction of space and the position of the viewer in the video installation <em>Madame B. Explorations in Emotional Capitalism, </em>presented at the turn of 2013 at the Museum of Art in Łódź. Directed and designed by Mieke Bal and Michelle Williams Gamaker, the installation was produced in parallel with a full feature film of the same title. Both the installation and the film constitute an intersemiotic translation of a literary work – Gustave Flaubert’s<em>Madame Bovary</em>. Part of the inspiration for this experiment was the proto-cinematic quality of Flaubert’s style (narrative simultaneity resembling parallel editing, the suppression of drama, dissolution of the time-flow). The museum installation, with its use of dark exhibition space and multiscreen projection, provided an innovative interpretation of the novel by bringing to the fore its acute audio-visuality: the non-verbal level of meaning found in the presentation of material surroundings, fashion, gesture, facial expressions, sound, tone, and tempo of action. In this respect, the exhibition had an advantage over the continuous version of the feature film, which tends to focus the viewer’s attention more directly on the plot. In the case of the museum installation, the narrative continuity was disregarded in favor of the affective resonance of selected scenes from Emma’s life. Walking through a series of episodes split across nineteen screens, the viewer had to choose his or her own way through a complex narrative (the whole comprised 450 min. of filmic material), so in a sense it was the viewer who “performed the piece”. The narrative of <em>Madame B.</em> partly diverged from Flaubert’s story to bring it closer to our times. The anachronistic intermingling of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and contemporary realities set it away from the conventions of costume movies and suggested the actuality of Emma’s story – its relevance for contemporary questions of “emotional capitalism”. These anachronisms and the spatialization of the narrative occasioned a specific position for the viewer, who, despite the immersive effect of the images, remained conscious of his or her participatory presence here and now. Thus, while attending to the scenes of Emma’s life, the viewer might also reflect on the emotional effects they raised in him/herself. This analytic outlook did not necessarily inhibit the viewer’s sympathetic engagement with the protagonists’ emotions and experiences, but gave it a more informed character. The spatial arrangement of images, as well as the situations performed in several episodes, also invited reflections on the social function of looking and being seen. In this sense, the installation may be counted as a part of Mieke Bal’s practice of visual culture analysis.</span></p> Agnieszka Rejniak-Majewska Copyright (c) 2020 Agnieszka Rejniak-Majewska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26354 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tony Morgan’s Performative Cinema in the Age of the “Cinematic Turn”: “Relational Films” (1969-1970), “Structural Films” (1969-1971) and Produkt Cinema (1971) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26356 <p><span lang="EN-US">This article analyses the films, installations, performances and film projects of British artist, Tony Morgan, who is associated with Fluxus. Focusing on the years 1969–1971, we show the process of dematerialization and rematerialization inherent in his films – a distinctive feature of a cinematographic turning point in conceptual and postconceptual art. We discuss his film gallery, Produkt Cinema, an exceptional venue for producing and exhibiting films created exclusively for this specific location. We finally argue that, through the introduction of performative elements, his installations, generically entitled <em>Structural Films</em>, disrupt the minimalist ethos of ‘structural film’ (a term coined by P. Adams Sitney).</span></p> François Bovier Copyright (c) 2020 François Bovier https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26356 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Fotografia i film w praktyce artystycznej oraz propozycjach teoretycznych Davida Hockneya https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26367 <p>In his diverse works, David Hockney has used, and still uses, various media, which in some periods of his activity gained leading significance, while in the following they were abandoned or temporarily abandoned. But no matter what medium in the given period was the main form of creativity, the focus of his interest has always been the issue of image and imaging. The article is devoted to the practice and theoretical recognition of photography, which was a kind of introduction to experiments with a moving image. The author refers to the artist's numerous publications on the theory and history of image and imaging (including <em>Secret Knowledge</em>, <em>History of Images</em>, <em>On Photography</em>). Photography led to Hockney's audiovisual realizations. This is a kind of repetition of the natural evolution and developmental progression of the media, also, and perhaps above all, in the technological dimension. The article is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author presents Hockney as a practitioner and theoretician, in whose activities both these activities are closely intertwined. This is a sign of the times: practice and theory are equally important, awareness of the medium, or artistic and aesthetic self-awareness of artists, is an expression of the spirit of the era in which an intuitive approach to art today seems inefficient, not to say impossible. Hockney appears to be an exemplary artist, who is extremely conceptual in his artistic practice as a consequence of his research on the history of art and a constantly developed set of his own theoretical findings. He is an artist discursively commenting not only on his work as an artist in many media (painting, drawing, graphics, set design, photography, film, computer graphics), but also an art and media theoretician reflecting on the fate of images in a changing media landscape. The second part of the article is devoted to the reconstruction of Hockney's theoretical reflections on photography and the analysis of his photographic projects. First of all, experimental Polaroid compositions created in the early eighties, named by the artist <em>joiners</em>, as well as photographic collages and photographic images realized in the later periods of the British artist's work. The third part considers <em>digital movies</em>, as Hockney calls them, audiovisual realizations referring to both his previous photographic works and experimental video films in which multi-camera systems are used.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Piotr Zawojski Copyright (c) 2020 Zawojski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26367 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 "Treasures from the Wreck of the Unbelievable" - archeologia jako element strategii artystycznej Damiena Hirsta https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26369 <p>The most important element of Damien Hirst's multimedia project "Treasures from the Wreck of Unbelivable" was the exhibition, presented from April 9 to December 3, 2017 in Venice, in the galleries of the Pinault Foundation in Punta della Dogana and Palazzo Grassi. It was completed by several book publications and a 90-minute film of the same title, made available globally on the Netflix online platform on January 1, 2018. The exhibition included over a hundred objects, mainly sculptures, made in various techniques and materials in a wide range of sizes. The film, stylized as a popular science documentary, presents the fictional story of their discovery and exploration at the bottom of the Indian Ocean, and their transport to Venice. It develops the main idea of the exhibition – a fictitious vision of the origin of these objects from an ancient wreck, filled with artistic collections, belonging to a fabulously rich ancient Roman freedman, with the significant name Cif Amotan II (anagram from “I am a fiction”). Realizing this fancy artistic vision, most of the works were made as if they had been damaged by the sea waves and overgrown with corals and other marine organisms. Hirst created a comprehensive and all-encompassing narrative using the principle of "voluntary suspension of unbelief," formulated by Samuel T. Coleridge. The artist sets himself and the viewer on a fantastic journey into the ancient past, taking up subjects central to his <em>ouevre</em> for decades: faith, relations of art and science, transience and death. He does this by means of numerous references to the artistic and mythological heritage of antiquity, not only Graeco-Roman, but also of other great cultures and civilizations.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Although the formal and technical aspects of the project will also be discussed, the main goal of the author is to analyze how Hirst used the knowledge of antiquity (<em>classics</em>) to create both the exhibition itself and the mockumentary. The artist made archeology an element binding his narrative together, showing in the film not only how artefacts were obtained from the bottom of the ocean. He also presented a number of tasks that scientists deal with at various stages of the project – from the first discovery, through interpretation and conservation, to the presenting at the museum-like exhibition. Of course, his purpose was not to create a study in the methodology of underwater exploration, but to reflect on the cognitive power of science examining remains of ancient times. By juxtaposing two possible attitudes towards relics of the past, i.e. the strict discipline of the scholar and the imagination of the treasure hunter, he concludes that narratives arising from them will both have the character of a mythical tale. The ontic status of the artefacts themselves, as the things of the past, left in a fragmentary state by the passage of time, sets all the stories related to them within the discourse of faith.</p> Wojciech Brillowski Copyright (c) 2020 Wojciech Brillowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26369 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Mediateka Babel. YouTube jako temat, rama formalna i platforma sztuki https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26370 <p class="Domylne"><span lang="EN-US">The text focuses on the specific features of the so-called 'cinematic turn' within the scope of visual culture emergent within the YouTube platform, particularly during its first, formative years. This turn takes place on the meta-level of the existing circulation of content enabled by YouTube, often being an autothematic reflection on this tool of cultural production. The vernacular aesthetics, a specific formal framework and a particular <em>modus operandi</em> of YouTube became the subject of artistic statements, sometimes in a form of subversive remix. Therefore I think of YouTube as a realm of art because of its meta-media practice that made the cinematic turn visible. It does not rely on straightforwardly understood production of (moving) images, but &nbsp;postproduction, as understood by Nicolas Bourriaud. Moreover, the cinematic turn taking place within YouTube is different from the one practised by the avant-garde of 20<sup>th</sup> century, due its being not “seeing” or “writing” (as Dziga Vertov understood montage) but rather “overwriting”, to use language more adequate to the described sphere of digital culture. Artists use YouTube as an open library, working with its resources, applying techniques such as postproduction, remix, re-contextualisation and appropriation. Therefore it becomes a multimedia library, a “Mediateca Babel” of a kind, to recall J. L. Borges' idea. The examples mentioned in the text are of a postproductional nature, such as to-camera-performance and subversive “overwriting” of contents enabled with the circulationism typical for social media. Equally important are the strategies of recognising the cultural framework of YouTube, in the context of 20<sup>th</sup>-century media art history, as well as the platform’s interface. Also, there is the issue of relations between vernacular creativity and the art system because of “capturing” the amateur-generated content and transferring it to mainstream artworld. These examples let me argue that the cinematic turn is a form of postproduction, which enables the hidden mechanisms behind the circulation of moving images in the overloaded global network. The cinematic turn in the context of YouTube does not mean that cinema and its language are at home within this platform. Also, the meta-artistic way of “making” platform art does not turn YouTube into “art platform” (as understood by Olga Goriunova). Nevertheless, platform art may happen in this context as a result of working with the cinematic turn in its vernacular aspect, which makes it possible to reveal its key features and move them to the meta-level.</span></p> Ewa Wójtowicz Copyright (c) 2020 Ewa Wójtowicz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26370 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 André Bazin’s Film Theory: Art, Science, Religion . https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26371 <p><span lang="EN-US">Always keen on the spectators’ freedom of interpretation, André Bazin’s film theory not only asks the famous question “What is cinema?,” but it also explores what is a human. By underlining the importance of personalist ethics, Angela Dalle Vacche is the first film specialist to identify Bazin’s “anti-anthropocentric” ambition of the cinema in favor of a more compassionate society. </span><span lang="EN-US">Influenced by the personalist philosophy of his mentor, Emmanuel Mounier, Bazin argued that the cinema is a mind-machine that interrogates its audiences on how humankind can engage in an egalitarian fashion towards other humans. According to Bazin, cinema</span><span lang="EN-US">’s ethical interrogation places human spirituality or empathy on top of creativity and logic. Notwithstanding Bazin’s emphasis on ethics, his film theory is rich with metaphors from art and science. The French film critic’s metaphorical writing lyrically frames encounters between literary texts and filmmaking styles, while it illuminates the analogy between the <em>élan vital</em> of biology and cinema’s lifelike ontology. </span><span lang="EN-US">A brilliant analyst of many kinds of films from Europe, Asia, and Latin America, ranging from fiction to documentary, from animation to the avant-garde, Bazin felt that the abstractions of editing were as important as the camera’s fluidity of motion. Furthermore, he disliked films based on a thesis or on an <em>a priori</em> stance that would rule out the risks and surprises of life in motion. Neither a mystic nor an animist, Bazin was a dissident Catholic and a cultural activist without &nbsp;membership of a specific political party. Eager to dialogue with all kinds of communities, Bazin always disliked institutionalized religions based on dogmas.</span></p> Angela Dalle Vacche Copyright (c) 2020 Angela Dalle Vacche https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26371 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Film fabularny jako narzędzie kuratora i badacza sztuki https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26389 <p class="Tre"><span lang="EN-US">In the essay, the author, Łukasz Ronduda, relates his own work as an artist, a film director, an art historian and curator, discussed in the light of the cinematic turn and the formation of common ground between cinema and contemporary art in both artistic and institutional sense. Ronduda looks closely at his two full-length feature films: <em>Performer </em>(2015) and <em>Serce miłości (Heart of Love) </em>(2017) and highlights their wider context. The first frame of reference spans from experimental films to contemporary full-length productions dedicated to wide audience. The second reference is his own work involving academic research, curating, writing a novel and the creation of a found footage film. In this self-presentation, Ronduda discloses his different attempts to find the right medium to speak about and analyze contemporary art. The full-length film turned out to be particularly effective medium in its ability to express the truth by means of fiction, placing him between creation and institutional structure. Film as a medium of interpreting art &nbsp;seems to productively question fixed boundaries between research, criticism and art. </span></p> Łukasz Ronduda Copyright (c) 2020 Łukasz Ronduda https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26389 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Studia nad kinem a historia sztuki https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26391 <p>Translation of&nbsp;<span lang="EN-US">Franç</span><span lang="FR">ois Albera's article originally published in French</span></p>  François Albera; Małgorzata Grąbczewska Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26391 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ruch: kinowość w malarstwie i literaturze https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26390 <p>Translation of Mieke Bal's chapter into Polish&nbsp;</p> Mieke Bal; Filip Lipiński Copyright (c) 2020 Filip Lipiński https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26390 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Leonardos da Vinci Wende in der Schlacht bei Anghiari: Poetik und genetische Kritik der zeichnerischen Entwürfe https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26393 <p><span lang="EN-US">In 1505 or 1506, Leonardo da Vinci abandoned his project of the <em>Battle of Anghiari</em>, which </span>was to <span lang="EN-US">depict the historical victory in 1440 of Florence over Milan. The last traces of the wall painting were obliterated in the 1560s </span>when <span lang="EN-US">Giorgio Vasari and his collaborators restructured and redecorated the once <em>Sala del Maggior Consiglio </em>of the Florentine Republic. </span>More<span lang="EN-US"> or less contemporary foreign copies seem to reproduce </span>what is <span lang="EN-US">believed </span>to be the <span lang="EN-US">central part of the composition, known even by the same Vasari’s description as the group of horsemen fighting for a standard, “vn groppo di caualli, che combatteuano vna bandiera”, and only one colour detail, an old soldier in a red cap, “vn soldato vecchio con vn berretton rosso”. Vasari’s words do not identify in the scene any protagonist of the historical event. Only in the eyes of recent interpreters </span>did <span lang="EN-US">it become the confrontation of two Milanese horsemen on the left and two Florentine on the right. Observations on Leonardo's method of projecting allow a new approach. The exhibition “Europe in the Renaissance”, organized in 2016 by the Swiss National Museum in Zürich, </span>showed a<span lang="EN-US"> computer animation produced </span>based on<span lang="EN-US"> the author’s screenplay by the studio xkopp creative in Berlin. The </span>succession<span lang="EN-US"> of sequential images demonstrate how both the final composition and the depicted action emerge from Leonardo’s drawing process. The present essay completes the silent animation with the necessarily verbal commentary. The inquiry concerns five original drawing-sheets in the collections of the <em>Gallerie dell'Accademia</em> in Venice and the <em>Szépmüvészeti Múzeum</em> in Budapest. Leonardo calls the first shaping of figures, the rough composition sketch, <em>componimento inculto</em>. From classical poetics he borrows the word, the term, and the priority of suitable actions which the same figures should demonstrate Genetic criticism distinguishes in the simultaneity of unerased strokes the variations of tools and their handling. Arranging the step</span>-<span lang="EN-US">by</span>-<span lang="EN-US">step changes, first traces, insertions and alternatives in the individual sketch and from sheet to sheet we recognize earlier and later positions and postures of the same protagonists. Just in the first sketch we discern the future “old soldier in a red cap” emerging victorious from the duel. His action represents the <em>causa</em> <em>efficiens </em>of the extreme left horseman’s finally twisted posture. At the beginning of the internal drawing procedure we recognize the same horseman in a different position, how he rides from right to left, holding the staff of the standard like a lance directed to the left. The counterattacking “old soldier”, coming from the left side and evading the mortal thrust, grips the enemy’s standard and turns it in the opposite direction. With few rapid modifications, the draftsman dramatically creates the “reversal” in the battle, Aristotle’s “change from bad fortune to good, or from good fortune to bad” (<em>Poetics</em>, 1451a). The final composition shows the “old soldier” fighting simultaneously at least three enemies like the paradigmatic Hercules defeating the multi-headed Hydra. The victorious “old soldier in the red cap” embodies the Florentine Republic.</span></p> Albert Boesten-Stengel Copyright (c) 2020 Albert Boesten-Stengel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26393 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Obraz Artura Grottgera „Modlitwa konfederatów barskich przed bitwą” (pod Lanckoroną?): historia, literatura, ogląd https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26395 <p class="Domylne"><span lang="EN-US">The subject of the paper is a painting by Artur Grottger, which has not yet been </span>the sub<span lang="EN-US">ject of &nbsp;close art historical analysis, hindered by the complicated history of the painting as a material object: from its creation (1861–63) and being exhibited in Vienesse Kunstverein in 1864 (titled <em>Das Gebet vor der Schlacht. Episode aus der vergangenen Zeit in Polen</em>), via its appearances and disappearances in the arena of history, till its present status of an object in a private collection, </span>which<span lang="EN-US">limit</span>s<span lang="EN-US"> its accessibility. The reconstruction of the process of constitutin</span>g<span lang="EN-US"> its present title (<em>The Bar Confederates Pray Before the Battle of Lanckorona</em>), reveals </span>the<span lang="EN-US"> problematic status of the reference to the specific battle fought during the Bar Confederation (1768–1772). The confrontation of the pictorial presentation with a real course of the battle of Lanckorona (23 May 1771) proves that it was not Grottger’s imperative to reconstruct </span>in a <span lang="EN-US">probabilistic </span>manner n<span lang="EN-US">either the place </span>n<span lang="EN-US">or the course of the specific historical event. The analysis of the common for the artist and its public cultural competence, whose basis </span>during <span lang="EN-US">&nbsp;that epoch was literature, does not yield an unequivocal identification of specific historical figures or literary motifs as references for the painting. This probabilism of heteronomous, historical and literary references, increases the autonomy of Grottger’s painting as a visual medium. </span><span lang="EN-US">Following the tenet of art historical hermeneutics that it is not contextual references but the pictorial potential activated by the artist that defines the actual status of the represented event, </span>the sub<span lang="EN-US">ject of the </span>next<span lang="EN-US"> part of the text is the vision-oriented logic of the painting. The main reference is Michael Brötje’s theory, according to which the surface of the painting (not the material, covered with paint, picture plane – <em>die Flache </em>– but immaterial, invisible instance –<em> die Ebene</em>) constitutes the ultimate instance for both represented reality, </span>which <span lang="EN-US">it transcends and whose boundaries it establishes, and for the spectator, who confronts this reality in the process of viewing with the pictorial surface and its boundaries. In the process of viewing, which consists in the interaction between structural properties of the painting and the postulated by the viewer relating to the surface, the spectator experiences, as his or her own, the truth about the confederates’ origin, their connection with nature, their religiosity, rootedness in the motherland, death as their destiny, </span>and <span lang="EN-US">their devotion to the ultimate absolute instance. The very experience, residing in the medium, ultimately determines the status of the heteronomous in relation to the painting, historical and literary references.</span></p> Mariusz Bryl Copyright (c) 2020 Mariusz Bryl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26395 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Abstrakcji przestrzeń wieloraka. Kategoria przestrzenności w twórczości Wojciecha Fangora, Jerzego Grabowskiego i Ryszarda Winiarskiego - studium porównawcze https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26396 <p class="Tre"><span lang="EN-US">If one were to indicate some tendencies characteristic of the art of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, </span>the<span lang="EN-US"> pursuit of making artwork more spatial would certainly be one of them. This tendency manifests itself in the myriad of symptoms: an avant-garde redefinition of sculpture with its negative space; a proliferation of kinetic works enabling spectators to (re)shape artwork’s matter more actively; a dissemination of ephemeral forms, especially happening and performance; beginnings of installation art, to mention but a few. The present paper sets out to examine an artistic phenomenon &nbsp;which is not as spectacular as </span>the <span lang="EN-US">aforementioned examples, but it could be somehow placed at the intersection of them. One can consider the particular type of abstract painting, embedded in a pictorial plane and slightly opening for surrounding space, but simultaneously reconceptualising the relation between the imagined and the physically present. </span><span lang="EN-US">The first part of the article deals with methodology. As far as research is concerned, the author assumes moderate scientism as </span>the <span lang="EN-US">methodological perspective. It is based on the belief that mathematical sciences throughout history have developed notions and analytical methods allowing the observable and communicable features of things</span>,<span lang="EN-US"> including artworks and artistic phenomena, to </span>be explained <span lang="EN-US">in an effective way, i.e. more faithfully and usefully. Because of the fact that mathematical truths are not absolute, the methodological perspective is called ‘moderate’. Taking into account these assumptions, the second part of the article defines </span>the <span lang="EN-US">analytical category of spatiality, which expresses painting’s ability to evoke variously conceptualised spaces. </span>The three<span lang="EN-US"> subsequent sections of the article are devoted to some paintings </span>by<span lang="EN-US"> three Polish artists active in the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, i.e. Wojciech Fangor, Jerzy Grabowski, Ryszard Winiarski. Each of them combined two differently understood spatial orders in their works: physical (related to phenomenological and sensual experience) and conceptual (related to notions and theories proposed by exact sciences). Having analysed a number of paintings </span>by<span lang="EN-US"> Fangor, Grabowski and Winiarski, one can define notions of cosmogonic, transcendence and probabilistic space, respectively. In summary, </span>the <span lang="EN-US">specificity of works analysed in the context of ideas drawn from exact sciences is examined.</span></p> Łukasz Rozmarynowski Copyright (c) 2020 Łukasz Rozmarynowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26396 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Biogramy https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26397 <p>Biogramy</p> Filip Lipiński Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/aq/article/view/26397 nie, 20 gru 2020 00:00:00 +0000