https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes en-US pjakubowski@ymail.com (Piotr Jakubowski) pressto@amu.edu.pl (Pressto) Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:05 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Słowo wstępne https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15225 Anna Grzegorczyk, Kazimierz Ilski, Piotr Jakubowski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15225 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:58 +0000 Odwieczność - okiem przyrodnika czyli meandry filogenezy świata zwierząt https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15558 <p>In the present review, an attempt to define the animal kingdom against a background of other kingdoms in the domain of eukaryotic organisms is presented,showing the common features linking the animal kingdom with the kingdom of fungi.The animals were clearly separated from other kingdoms through two unique systemscharacteristic of them: nervous and muscular. The matter is complicated by the fact that in the four types of the animal kingdom (Porifera, Placozoa) the nervous and muscular systems are absent. Therefore, zoologists proposed the name Metazoa multicellularanimal – for the animal kingdom. The main problematic issues of monophyly based onselected phylogenetic groups and phyla are discussed. In addition to the phylogenetictree (based on monophyly) the punctuated equilibrium was established for four independentgroups: Porifera, Cnidaria, Protostomia, Deuterostomia. Finally, the position ofthe animal kingdom in the monophyletic point of view and against a background of all other organisms is presented.</p> Czesław Blaszak Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15558 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:58 +0000 Kontekst filozoficzno-antropologiczny funkcjonowania pojęcia czasu w filozofii medycyny: dyskursy nieśmiertelności, teraźniejszości oraz wieczności https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15559 <p>This paper gives an overview of three discourses of time in philosophy ofmedicine distinguished by the authors: the discourse of immortality (aiming at an objectiveprolongation of life), the discourse of the present (aiming at the quality of subjectivetemporal experience) and the discourse of eternity (aiming at transgressing the limits oftemporality). Views of renowned representatives of each of these discourses are beingdiscussed, including members of the so-called Polish School of Philosophy of MedicineH. Nusbaum, H. Święcicki), phenomenological psychiatrists (L. Binswanger, V. E. vonGebsattel, E. Straus) as well as some more contemporary authors (Z. Bauman, A. de Grey,A. Szczeklik).</p> Marcin Moskalewicz, Jan Zamojski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15559 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:58 +0000 Uwieczniać się jako gatunek ludzki https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15560 <p>In this article author analyses the value on being itself as a basis and reason for prolongation of the mankind. Against some nihilistic and existentialist philosophers and writers who denied the value of life-giving, author refers to thoughts of Emmanuel Levinas and Remi Brague and shows that, like in the ancient and scholastic philosophy, we can find here the belief that Being is essentially connected with the Good itself. Neitherscience (as well as ideologies it evolves), nor pessimistic overview can give us such a powerful perspective to mankind’s durability and its genuine value as a humanism,strengthened with religious faith, can do.</p> Marek Jędraszewski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15560 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:59 +0000 "Czy pójdę do nieba?"-Prolegomena do badań nad duchowością dzieci https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15561 <p>The subject of the article is the religious experience in the period of childhood.Beginning with the presence of children in the Bible, there follows an overview of different situations, opinions and concepts that explicate religious attitudes of children:for example towards death or serious illness. The author brings closer the cases of childrenwho had mystical experiences, like Ellen Organ (1903-1908) or Antonietta Meo(1930-1937).</p> Malgorzata Grzywacz Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15561 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:59 +0000 Ciało, intymność, wieczność. Śladami Józefa Tischnera https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15562 <p>The main problem of this article is Jozef Tischner’s thought about the disease, death and mercy. The experience of the disease, which are also experienced Tischner– makes the area of intimacy, so very personal and even closed can be reduced. So arranged the body enters a new area of dialogue – values and meetings, which in the longillness and death radically change their character. Disease and related existential experiencemade a special return in thought Tischner directing them to the mercy of the problemand resuming the problem of death situated in the context of eternity.</p> Agnnieszka Kaczmarek Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15562 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:59 +0000 Dwa pojęcia wieczności i niektóre konsekwencje wynikające z tego rozróżnienia https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15563 <p>Eternity could be considered as both timeless “now” as well as the totalityof infinite time. In Western thought those two notions (or two meanings) coexist fora long time, however their senses, origins and context of functioning are different. Distinctionbetween those two meanings leads us to better comprehension of the very co cept of the eternity, and also provides us an useful tools to solve some classical philosophicalproblems connected with this concept, for example: problems of the eternity of the mathematics truths, eternity of the God or of the world.</p> Maciej Chlewicki Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15563 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:20:59 +0000 Konieczność - nieoczywisty wymiar wieczności w koncepcji św. Anzelma z Canterbury https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15564 <p>The main aim of this article is to describe and analyze St. Anselm concept of eternity to present a non-obvious dimension of this idea. Because his philosophical andtheological notion of eternity does not involve only – as common sense suggests – the idea of time but also the very concept of necessity. However, this time, it goes far beyond the understanding of the necessity only in logical terms like it was in case of his ontologicalproof for the existence of God.</p> Wiesław Małecki Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15564 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:00 +0000 Obecność - doczesne oblicze wieczności https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15565 <p>Eternity is not only an impersonal factor of the world nor the conception that organizes our notion of time. More importantly eternity is presence – interpersonal connection and constancy of being towards one another. Understood in such way, it becomes not so much the eternity that refers to something, but the unfailing, unwaveringpresence of one man towards the other – such presence, that one can rely on. It is “asstrong as death”, but unlike death it raises hope. It is more than present time. Present refer to objects, which in a certain moment last “here and now”. Whereas eternity, as presence, is the expression of people's mutuality. It's icon can be “face” within the meaningof Levinas. It also brings to mind his category of infinity – prior to finitude anddetermining its understanding. Likewise the presence, it is a source concept, as it determinesexperiencing the phenomenon of being a person.</p> Witold Glinkowski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15565 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:00 +0000 Wieczność jako niezgoda: Stein, Levinas, Ricoeuer https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15566 <p>SummaryIn this contribution I try to show how E. Stein, E. Levinas and P. Ricoeurexpress their disagreement with Heideggerian conception of being-towards-death and propose their vision of eternity and its experience. The three main images are commented:the death as a discontinuity and condition of a new life, suspension of the time to the resurrection by the other, the intensification of the experience of time.</p><p><strong> </strong></p> Mirosław Loba Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15566 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:00 +0000 Nadzieja na wieczność według Chantal Delsol https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15567 <p>Monique Atlan and Roger-Pol Droit both propose a reassessment of the dominant rationalistic pessimism of people through the perspective of hope. From this point of view, one should definitely learn thinking also in terms of hope. According toChantal Delsol, European pessimism can be overcome with Christian faith. The hope of eternal life derives from the Jewish and Christian principles of faith. The respect for eternityoriginated the great achievements of civilization. The philosopher attempts to transpose this spiritual program and values onto a social plan.Similar perception of hope in the perspective of faith coincides, despite the distinctarticulation, in the Peguy’s poem. For Peguy the figure of a little girl personifies the frailand weak hope. According to Delsol, the European hope can be rebuilt through the anthropologicalvision of a fragile man. Her concept of hope is based on the acceptance ofhuman imperfection.</p> Nelli Przybylska Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15567 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:00 +0000 Teoria partycypacji w myśli Grzegorza Palamasa https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15568 <p>Gregory Palamas creates philosophical and theological synthesis, which originates from his own mystical experience of hesychasm. Palamas claims that man can participate in non created, eternal <em>energeiai </em>of God, which are the external activities ofGod’s <em>uosia </em>– essence. Palamas says that all things participate in God, and they are constituted by this participation, they do not, however, participate in His nature, but in Hisactivity. A man participates in God’s eternal activities and in this way can achieve moral and ontic perfectness.</p> Anna Palusińska Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15568 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:01 +0000 Antycypacja królestwa w ujęciu Franza Rosenzweiga https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15569 <p><em>The Star of Redemption, </em>thinker Franz Rosenzweig’s life’s work, has beenanalysed and interpreted across a variety of disciplines and perspectives for almosta hundred years. Future generations will continue to use and appreciate this text for itsenduring variety and multiplicity of ideas. This article aims to provide a hermeneutical insight into Rosenzweig’s idea of the anticipation of the Kingdom. Rosenzweig deriveshis ideas from the <em>Tanakh</em>. Eternity, according to Rosenzweig, is neither an infinite nor an indeterminately long period of time, but ‘<em>a Tomorrow that could as well be Today’</em>. Redemption occurs as eternity projected in time. The author understands time not only as a sequence of moments as occurrence in history. For him history will be newly decided inevery moment of encounter between the Other and the Self. History moves forward only because of the individual, who decides. Rosenzweig therefore considersprayer as the constitutive element of the human world order, which can anticipate and accelerate the coming of the Kingdom. Rosenzweig’s conception of prayer is fully developed in the third part of the <em>Star</em>, especially in the introduction, titled <em>On the Possibility of Soliciting (erbeten) the Kingdom by Prayer</em>. Here the author introduces different types of prayers andasks the most crucial question of the last part of the <em>Star</em>: Can a human being tempt Godsimply by praying? Subsequently, we must recognize the significance of Rosenzweig’scontribution to the interpretation of prayer as the anticipation of the Kingdom. His analysisremains current and a precious resource for further reflection.</p> Anna Firla Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15569 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:01 +0000 Augustyńska koncepcja rationaes aeternae a badania Edyty Stein nad zagadnieniem sensu https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15570 <p>In this article I discuss St. Augustine’s conception of divine or eternal ideas (<em>rationes divinae </em>or <em>aeternae</em>) in respect to its implications concerning the notion of eternity. The analysis of a passage of <em>De diversis octoginta tribus quaestionibus </em>– a classical formulation of the conception of <em>rationes aetearnae </em>– is contrasted with the XX-century exposition of the problem presented in Edith Stein’s <em>Endliches und ewiges Sein. Versuch eines Aufstiegs zum Sinn des Seins</em>. I discuss parallels between these two conceptions, drawing conclusionsregarding their similarity. An important common denominator in both approachesis the intelligibility of God understood as Logos that manifests itself in creation and canbe an object of human cognition. Eternity is understood not only as an unending state ofconstant timelessness, but also as an cognitive activity of <em>visio beatifica </em>orientated towardsntelligible God<em>.</em></p> Jadwiga Guerrero van der Meijden Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15570 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:01 +0000 "Nie mamy tu miasta trwałego". Edyta Stein o bycie wiecznym https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15571 <p>In this article I analyze the cognitive possibilities lying on the boundary of the finite and eternity being with reference to Saint Thomas Aquinas and Edith Stein’sthought. According to Saint Thomas, the rational cognition, which covers what is calleda natural world, is the highest form of knowledge and fixes its limit. Edith Stein, on thecontrary, claims that a mystical cognizance, which bases on experience and empathy,enriched by the message of the Gospel, should complement the rational one. What’scommon in those two concepts is a reference to God’s grace – the moments of revelationenlighten the efforts of human intellect. Thus knowledge on the eternal being merges both natural and supernatural cognizance.</p> Anna Grzegorczyk Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15571 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:01 +0000 Filozofia jako poszukiwanie wiecznego bytu i ponadczasowej mądrości https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15572 <p>In the first introductory part of the article, I discuss the contemporary paradigmin philosophy, which tends to avoid addressing some crucial subjects and issues. It seems that contemporary philosophy surrenders to the paradigm of promissorymaterialism, dominant in the particular sciences, whereas searching for the eternalshould be the main task of the love of wisdom.In the second part of the article I focus on the issue of eternity, being inspired by theworks of such authors as: A. Huxley, P. D. Uspienski, L. Kołakowski, M. Kojfman,R. Sheldrake, M. Beauregard, B. Griffiths and P. van Lommel. The eternal dimension isreal and it is expressed in the spiritual aspirations. To achieve them certain practise isnecessary to discover what is non-dual (such ideas may be found i.e. in the PatanjaliYoga). In the paper, I assume that the direct contemplation of truth is possible and it requiresintegration of the inner attitude and the external exercises (spirit and body), mindand intuition, rationality and spirituality.</p> Jan Wadowski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15572 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:02 +0000 Wieczność jako pozaludzka czasoprzestrzeń w światopoglądzie ludowym. https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15573 <p>In the magical-religious folk worldview the basic division of time separatedthe temporal time from the eternal time. The first one consists of the cycle of human life where the livelihood of agricultural communities defined by the annual pace of seasonschanges in the nature. The most important dates for a traditional farmer organizationof his work on the farm were marked by holidays and special days devoted toa specific Saint. The eternal time is situated in a completely different dimension. It is theafterlife, “the second world” or “the other world” – a form of the space-time where thespiritual beings exist. From it souls and spirits penetrate into the human world. Theyfulfill specific tasks, voluntarily or recalled by the people who host them during specialmoments of the ritual year.</p> Jan Grad Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15573 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:02 +0000 Idea Aeternitatis Augusti - początki i kierunek rozwoju https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15574 <p>Although the first unambiguous original proofs of the <em>aeternitas Augusti</em> idea come from the Flavian dynasty, its origin lies in the period of the late Republic and Principate. <em>Aeternitas </em>was a deified abstraction, which expressed the state the emperor could obtain as a result of deification. It was also an attribute of the emperor, the property of his divine nature. Analysis of the places and contexts of the occurrence of the eternity phenomenon with respect to the emperor in preserved sources suggests that the ideas of the state and the emperor’s eternity were complementary and mutually conditioned.The emperor’s <em>aeternitas </em>was declared to emphasize his religious and political role in thestate, in the process of granting him everlastingness. It was discussed in the context ofconcerns about his health and safety, particularly in the context of neutralizing plots toassassinate him, and in the context of the implications to the policy of the throne. Despite the fact that proclaiming the emperor’s <em>aeternitas </em>in the Julio-Claudian dynasty had noofficial character, the number and diversity of its original evidences prove the significantpopularity of this idea in society.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><p><strong> </strong></p> Katarzyna Balbuza Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15574 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:02 +0000 Koncentryczność. Wieczność miasta w świetle semiotyki kultury https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15575 <p>There are two ways of considering the eternity presented in this paper: the eternity as a fundamental value, in the context of <em>sacrum</em>, and the eternity expressed as a temporal phenomenon. The author collates linguistic and semiotic view with the ontological and metaphysical one. The text is built on two axes: theoretical and methodological optic founded by authors representing Tartu-Moscow Semiotic Group on the one hand, and the metaphysical way of describing the presence. There is one notion that combines these two approaches: the centre. The text presents characteristic relations betweencultural system and its centre (centres), as well as the centre as a place of presenceand sense (according to the Western metaphysics) or, in contrary, as a “sacred nothing” (according to the Eastern metaphysics). The last part of the article discusses some Old Testament texts presenting Babylon and Jerusalem. Author refers mainly to the conceptsof Lotman, Toporow, Barthes and Derrida.</p> Katarzyna Machtyl Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15575 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:02 +0000 Wieczne Jeruzalem vs ziemski Babilon. Wyobrażenie miasta i conditio humana https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15576 <p>The main inquiry of the article is a question of anti-modern and anti-urbanimagery of a 19th century metropolis, that was a reaction to the rapid changes of a moderncity space and culture (both in its physical and spiritual dimension). This imagerywas constructed first and foremost by people, who were attached to tradition, conservativevalues and Christian belief, therefore, the author pays particular attention to theopposition of two, dichotomic urban metaphors: Jerusalem and Babylon, which symbolize not only a materialistic and social sphere of a modern city, but – considered froma perspective of the Christian vision of culture – a condition of human being as well.</p><p><strong> </strong></p> Malgorzata Nieszczerzewska Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15576 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:03 +0000 Muzyczna złożoność i pewna specyficzna forma doświadczenia estetycznego https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15577 <p>The main topic of the article is the explanation of repeatable interpretationsof the experience of music in terms of the experience of eternity. The problem is approachedby introducing Kant's concept of the mathematical/dynamic sublime and then by suggesting that the experience of the mathematical sublime can be also achived on a waywhich Kant did not analyze, i.e. thanks to the contact with aesthetical complexity. Theconditions of such an experience are being researched. The second point of delibarationconcerns the transition from experiencing the complex as sublime to interpreting it assymbol of the eternal. The examples used are coming mainly from the field of music,including J.S. Bach and O. Messiaen.</p> Krzysztof Moraczewski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15577 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:03 +0000 Sztuczny instynkt kultury https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15578 Marcin Berdyszak Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15578 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:03 +0000 Czy Bóg chce istnienia tylko jednej religii? https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15579 Ireneusz Ziemiński Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15579 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:03 +0000 O ekumenizmie z filozoficznym optymizmem. Uwagi o diagnozie Jerzego Kopani https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15580 Robert Piłat Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15580 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:04 +0000 Ekumenizm ma sens. Przyczynek do dyskusji nad artykułem Jerzego Kopani https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15581 Piotr Kopiec Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15581 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:04 +0000 Ekumenizm- nie utopia, lecz chrześcijański obowiązek. W odpowiedzi Jerzemu Kopani https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15582 Marcin Składanowski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15582 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:04 +0000 Wielość religii a jedność wiary. W odpowiedzi dyskutantom https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15583 Jerzy Kopania Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15583 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:04 +0000 Noty o autorach https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15584 Piotr Jakubowski Copyright (c) 2018 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/cbes/article/view/15584 Mon, 22 Oct 2018 13:21:04 +0000