Comparative Legilinguistics <p class="oczasopismie">Comparative Legilinguistics (International Journal for Legal Communication) is published four times a year by the Faculty of Modern Languages and Literatures, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland. We are pathfinders in mapping the contours of legal linguistics and legal translation especially in its comparative aspects. Comparative Legilinguistics is equally devoted to forensic linguistics, theory of the law and the intersection of legal language and legal translation. We welcome submissions in English, French and German. Guest edited volumes at the request of the guest editor may be published in Italian, Polish, Russian and Chinese. The reviews are stored in the journal’s editorial office. The articles are peer-reviewed by two reviewers (double-blind review) via our online submission platform <a title="PRESSto" href=""></a> with well-established expert reviewers from all over the world. The editors reserve the right to appoint a third reviewer in case of doubts. The editorial board reserves the right to publish selected articles without two reviews. We reserve a right to have one review in cases where the topic of the paper is very niche and it is not possible to find two competent reviewers.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="">ARCHIVE</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong> <p>WorldCat; Google Scholar; Primo Central Index, ERIH Plus, DOAJ, Scopus, ICI Journals Master List (Index Copernicus Value 2020 = 100.00 pkt; ICV 2021 = 100.00 pkt)<br /><br /><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:<br /></strong>Ministry of Education and Science (2021): <strong>20<br /><br /></strong><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/cl</a><br /><strong>ISSN: </strong>2080-5926 <strong>ISSN (online): </strong>2391-4491<br /><strong><strong><a href=""><img id="licensebutton" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br /></strong></strong><strong><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS </strong></strong><strong><strong><a class="enhancr_card_2499183924" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Creative Commons - Attribution 4.0 International - CC BY 4.0</a></strong></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong> </strong></strong></div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Comparative Legilinguistics 2080-5926 <p align="left">When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.</p> <p align="center"><strong>PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT</strong></p> <p>This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform</p> <p>&nbsp;(“Article”) to be published in <em>Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication </em>(“Journal”).</p> <p>The parties to this Agreement are:</p> <p align="left">the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and <em>Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication</em> (“Publisher”), address al. 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LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at <a class="enhancr_card_2499183924" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0</a> copyright license in the Article to the general public.</p> <p>b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.</p> <p>c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.</p> <p>d)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.</p> <p align="center"><strong>§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.</p> <p align="center"><strong>§3.&nbsp; WARRANTIES</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.</p> <p>b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.</p> <p>c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.</p> <p align="center"><strong>§4. TERM</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The agreement&nbsp;was concluded for&nbsp;an unspecified time.</p> <p align="center"><strong>§5. PAYMENT</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive <strong>no payment</strong> from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.</p> <p>b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.</p> <p align="center"><strong>§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT</strong></p> <p>a)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.</p> <p>b)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall&nbsp;apply.&nbsp;</p> <p>c)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Any disputes arising&nbsp;from&nbsp;the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.</p> <p>d)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Any&nbsp;amendments&nbsp;or additions to the&nbsp;Agreement&nbsp;must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.&nbsp;</p> <p>e)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This Agreement&nbsp;is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.</p> <p>f)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general</p> <p>g)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.</p> <p align="center"><strong>I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong>The Author &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Publisher</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Legal phraseology within the context of Polish-German legal translation – a new monograph by Paweł Bielawski <p>The article attempts to provide a comprehensive assessment of the new monograph by Paweł Bielawski. For this purpose, the paper has been divided into four parts. The first part provides an introduction. The second part presents the theoretical basis, which the author of the monograph demonstrated in individual chapters. The third chapter assesses the monograph in terms of structure, editorial aspects and the compilation of literature. Finally, the last part is devoted to the possible addressees of the monograph and its advantages with regard to them.</p> Justyna Katarzyna Sekuła Copyright (c) 2022 Justyna Katarzyna Sekuła 2022-11-28 2022-11-28 51 279 291 10.14746/cl.51.2022.12 Erratum <p>Erratum</p> Editorial Team Copyright (c) 2022 Editorial Team 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 51 292 292 Literal translation, functional equivalence and descriptive translation as strategies for translation of French and Czech legal terms <p>In the process of deciding upon an appropriate equivalent for a legal term, the translator can choose between several possible strategies. The goal of the article is to analyse the translation strategies of French and Czech legal terms that do not have a direct equivalent in accessible terminographic sources of the target language. Among the possible strategies, it deals in particular with literal translation, functional equivalence and descriptive. It observes that all of the three strategies are used, to a greater or lesser extent, by the analysed terminographic sources and seeks to point out the problems that the use of each of the previously mentioned strategies may cause.</p> Zuzana Honová Copyright (c) 2022 Zuzana Honová 2022-11-24 2022-11-24 51 195 210 10.14746/cl.51.2022.9 "Time is of the essence" : time avatars in common law agreements <p>The paper focuses on time marks that may be detected in common law agreements and the translation issues they imply. In the first section, the author discusses the relation between time and law. The legal time governs the social time, as it ensures order and security. If memory is the manifestation of the legal past, the promise is the expression of the legal future. Depending on the legal culture taken into account, the legislator’s time may be more or less important than the time of the judge. The second section of the paper deals with time avatars that may be identified at the macrotextual level. The contract is understood as a promise that becomes obligation. The legal time is also expressed in contracts by the predictive capability of the parties, its acceleration and backwardness, its finiteness. The last section is an analysis of the translation of terms, collocations and metaphors expressing time in common law contracts.</p> Carmen-Ecaterina Ciobaca Copyright (c) 2022 Carmen-Ecaterina Ciobaca 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 51 211 240 10.14746/cl.51.2022.10 Foundations of pragmatic legal linguistics <p>In this review essay, I describe some basic problems in the research into the legal language that are methodologically connected to linguistic and philosophical pragmatics. I call this area of knowledge pragmatic legal linguistics. Pragmatic legal linguistics deals with the processes that are constitutive of the emergence of meaning in law. Its basic concepts are coined in the course of developments in linguistic and philosophical pragmatics. It applies pragmatic theoretical approaches to clarify the functioning of the legal language and discovers new areas of pragmatic relevance in the research into the legal language. The final goal of pragmatic legal linguistics is to re-formulate our laws in accordance with linguistic findings about the use of language.</p> Marcus Galdia Copyright (c) 2022 Marcus Galdia 2022-11-16 2022-11-16 51 241 278 10.14746/cl.51.2022.11