Investigationes Linguisticae https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong></p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/il/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/il/issue/current">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/il/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>JSTOR; CEEOL; Google Scholar; WorldCat<strong><br></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong> <p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_9.png" alt=""><br><!--<br /> <img src="/ojs_3/public/piotr/ikonki/ic_6_87.png" alt="" /></p>--></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il/index">10.14746/il</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>1426-188X<strong> ISSN (online): </strong>1733-1757</div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan pl-PL Investigationes Linguisticae 1426-188X The Japanese ‘X wa Y o shiteiru’ pattern as simple stative expressions https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il/article/view/31958 <p>This paper discusses the Japanese ‘X <em>wa</em> Y <em>o shiteiru</em>’ form, which represents the simple state or property of an object. After illustrating the basic features of the linguistic pattern, the paper examines how the pattern is formed by focusing on the conceptualizer’s cognition regarding objects. To conclude, the paper argues that the simple stative interpretation of the pattern derives from the process of subjectification proposed in the field of cognitive grammar.</p> Yuichiro Ogami Copyright (c) 2020 Yuihiro Ogami 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 44 1 14 10.14746/il.2020.44.1 The Reduplication Process of Balantak Language: A Minority Austronesian Language of Eastern Sulawesi https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il/article/view/31963 <p>Indonesia has many local languages. One of the local languages used in Indonesia is Balantak language. It is used by people who live in 5 (five) sub-districts in Banggai Regency, Central Sulawesi. In Balantak language, there are a number of words which are formed by using reduplication.</p> <p>Reduplication is found in many languages but is quite diverse as a process and in its. Due to reduplicated words in Balantak language, the writers are interested in analyzing the problem statement about: What are the forms of reduplicated words in Balantak language?</p> <p>Reduplication is the repetition of an entire word or part of the word. According to Haspelmath and Sims (2010), reduplications are a very common morphological operation, whereby part of the base orthe complete base is copied and attached to the base (either preceding or following it). In Balantak language both forms of reduplication are found full reduplication and partial reduplication, and each form consists of various kind of words.</p> Valentino Pamolango Cho Young Ho Copyright (c) 2020 Valentino Pamolango Cho Young Ho 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 44 15 21 10.14746/il.2020.44.2 Analysis of an invented writing system for the Shanghainese language https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il/article/view/31964 <p>The present study uses qualitative methods to analyze and restore an invented missionary writing system for the Shanghainese language, and uses the restoration to check for historical sound change. The project consists of two parts: the analysis and restoration of the orthography and the confirmation of historical sound changes in Shanghainese. The restoration of the writing system provides all symbols with equivalent International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbols. Following the restoration to IPA is an explanation of the rules for combining initial and final symbols to form a single character, as well as rules for tonal distinction. The analysis of the restored orthography compares its development with the academic criteria for orthography development, and finds that it is a sound writing system. The evaluation also reviews the sociolinguistic criteria crucial for orthography acceptance, and shows that the writing system does not meet these criteria in present day Shanghai. The results of the check for historical sound change confirm that many of the sounds not found in present day Shanghainese existed in this writing system. The phones found in this writing system are able to confirm the disappearance or merger of various sounds in Shanghainese since the mid 19<sup>th</sup> century. Overall, the study shows that the invented writing system is sound, but would not be accepted in Shanghai today. However, it should be reviewed by other linguists as having the possibility to represent other languages.</p> Logan Simpson Copyright (c) 2020 Logan Simpson 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 44 22 42 10.14746/il.2020.44.3 Reflexives are Results of Impoverishment https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/il/article/view/31965 <p><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04939);" role="presentation">For</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 151.848px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05915);" role="presentation">decades,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 224.442px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 256.442px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09265);" role="presentation">central</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 317.218px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02912);" role="presentation">issues</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 368.655px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08131);" role="presentation">surrounding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 470.338px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06322);" role="presentation">Binding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 539.355px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04201);" role="presentation">have</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 581.972px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07183);" role="presentation">been</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 625.588px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06875);" role="presentation">investigation</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 732.657px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 754.112px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0521);" role="presentation">mechanisms</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 855.403px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 876.857px; top: 496.524px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00007);" role="presentation">co-</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07065);" role="presentation">referentiality.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 231.947px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06903);" role="presentation">Most</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.29px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 299.362px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12446);" role="presentation">literature</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 379.338px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04201);" role="presentation">have</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 421.573px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16629);" role="presentation">attempt</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 491.442px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14082);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 514.022px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03313);" role="presentation">find</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 550.697px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1286);" role="presentation">out</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 583.33px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 614.947px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0521);" role="presentation">mechanisms</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 715.838px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 736.868px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.20126);" role="presentation">binding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 810.907px; top: 530.285px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.29779);" role="presentation">condition </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06692);" role="presentation">(Chomsky</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 208.245px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01113);" role="presentation">1981,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 254.135px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03114);" role="presentation">1986).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 310.078px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09582);" role="presentation">This</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 349.95px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11271);" role="presentation">paper</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.365px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998972);" role="presentation">will</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 432.022px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06296);" role="presentation">shed</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 471.888px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0337);" role="presentation">new</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 507.673px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07088);" role="presentation">light</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 547.888px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05405);" role="presentation">on</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 571.542px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 601.208px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06674);" role="presentation">Binding,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 673.243px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.22141);" role="presentation">that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 710.987px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00625);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 727.677px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04726);" role="presentation">morphological</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 843.092px; top: 564.159px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08912);" role="presentation">aspects </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 140.757px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00454);" role="presentation">reflexive</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 213.317px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09412);" role="presentation">anaphors</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 292.678px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11509);" role="presentation">and </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.555px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07771);" role="presentation">pronouns,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 415.298px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11509);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 452.17px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 484.97px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04562);" role="presentation">source</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 542.128px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 564.365px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10725);" role="presentation">subject</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 628.963px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09495);" role="presentation">orientation.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 732.888px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10759);" role="presentation">The</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 771.778px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07063);" role="presentation">purposes</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 848.648px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 870.885px; top: 598.032px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11712);" role="presentation">this </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11229);" role="presentation">paper</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 169.392px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09487);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 199.632px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14082);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 221.722px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05019);" role="presentation">claim</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 270.03px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.22141);" role="presentation">that</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 309.228px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10307);" role="presentation">Apparent</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 389.827px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.21917);" role="presentation">se</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 408.177px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">s</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 421.327px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11483);" role="presentation">(Pica</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 468.833px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05442);" role="presentation">(1985))</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 532.232px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0696);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 553.322px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02856);" role="presentation">some</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 598.762px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05661);" role="presentation">languages</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 681.45px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09487);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 711.69px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0696);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 732.762px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0935);" role="presentation">fact</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 768.452px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08277);" role="presentation">pronoun</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 839.995px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11509);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 875.217px; top: 631.905px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span><br role="presentation"><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1069);" role="presentation">subject</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 182.135px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09396);" role="presentation">orientation</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 274.915px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00625);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 293.75px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05515);" role="presentation">emerged</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 365.96px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07367);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 388.887px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">a</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 404.65px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10284);" role="presentation">result</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 455.702px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 476.98px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.33587);" role="presentation">person/gender</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 614.295px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0817);" role="presentation">-feature</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 681.91px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">(</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 688.922px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">φ</span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 699.7px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0899);" role="presentation">-feature)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 774.332px; top: 665.779px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06144);" role="presentation">impoverishment </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0416);" role="presentation">(cf.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 152.208px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02265);" role="presentation">Noyer</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 204.698px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04658);" role="presentation">(1997),</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 266.15px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03895);" role="presentation">Halle</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 313.025px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05885);" role="presentation">(1997)).</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 383.582px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09474);" role="presentation">To</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 410.365px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05019);" role="presentation">claim</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 458.727px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08678);" role="presentation">these,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 510.142px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11712);" role="presentation">this</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 545.448px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11271);" role="presentation">paper</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 596.408px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0252);" role="presentation">looks</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 642.862px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.23137);" role="presentation">at</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 665.042px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12123);" role="presentation">Thai</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 708.385px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11509);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 743.697px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09957);" role="presentation">Japanese</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 820.657px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.15996);" role="presentation">data.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 869.037px; top: 699.652px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10759);" role="presentation">The </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08173);" role="presentation">organization</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 222.335px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.965746);" role="presentation">of</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 243.007px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11712);" role="presentation">this</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 278.297px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11283);" role="presentation">paper</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 329.257px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04367);" role="presentation">from</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 372.133px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1122);" role="presentation">next</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 412.89px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10529);" role="presentation">chapter</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 477.925px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00625);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 496.16px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07367);" role="presentation">as</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 518.47px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.990539);" role="presentation">follows.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 585.08px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05483);" role="presentation">Section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 648.495px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">2</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 663.658px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03156);" role="presentation">briefly</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 719.563px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02949);" role="presentation">reviews</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 783.633px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07105);" role="presentation">binding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 849.08px; top: 733.525px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09809);" role="presentation">theory </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.977868);" role="presentation">we</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 147.228px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12289);" role="presentation">adopt.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 211.535px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10807);" role="presentation">Then</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 260.862px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06021);" role="presentation">section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 323.313px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03634);" role="presentation">3,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 345.917px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12123);" role="presentation">Thai</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 391.207px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07105);" role="presentation">binding</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 458.6px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16713);" role="presentation">data</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 501.873px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09487);" role="presentation">are</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 534.13px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.08997);" role="presentation">introduced.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 637.712px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0649);" role="presentation">Based</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 692.947px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05405);" role="presentation">on</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 720.11px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.12123);" role="presentation">Thai</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 765.4px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.16713);" role="presentation">data</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 808.672px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06194);" role="presentation">provided</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 885.213px; top: 767.399px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0696);" role="presentation">in </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06021);" role="presentation">section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 180.317px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03634);" role="presentation">3,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 202.102px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06021);" role="presentation">section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 263.898px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">4</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 280.372px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04912);" role="presentation">provides</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 353.313px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07228);" role="presentation">proposal</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 427.838px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11509);" role="presentation">and</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 464.455px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06661);" role="presentation">analysis,</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 539.252px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0696);" role="presentation">in</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 561.71px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0319);" role="presentation">which</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 614.888px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 647.397px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06647);" role="presentation">morpho-semantic</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 790.442px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04444);" role="presentation">framework</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 881.02px; top: 801.272px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05175);" role="presentation">by </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07229);" role="presentation">Middleton</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 205.372px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04045);" role="presentation">(2018)</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 261.607px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00625);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 279.588px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09003);" role="presentation">introduced.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 377.207px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05483);" role="presentation">Section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 440.4px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">5</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 455.328px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01359);" role="presentation">shows</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 507.203px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.13601);" role="presentation">the</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 538.18px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.10676);" role="presentation">current</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 600.955px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0787);" role="presentation">account</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 667.735px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00625);" role="presentation">is</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 685.717px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03722);" role="presentation">also</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 721.898px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06755);" role="presentation">applicable</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 807.242px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.14082);" role="presentation">to</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 829.187px; top: 835.145px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09957);" role="presentation">Japanese </span><span dir="ltr" style="left: 118.52px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01167);" role="presentation">reflexives.</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 203.647px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05483);" role="presentation">Section</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 267.075px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif;" role="presentation">6</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 282.22px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04272);" role="presentation">concludes</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 363.907px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.11712);" role="presentation">this</span> <span dir="ltr" style="left: 399.213px; top: 869.13px; font-size: 18.1817px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.1377);" role="presentation">paper.</span></p> Yusuke Yoda Copyright (c) 2020 Yusuke Yoda 2020-12-30 2020-12-30 44 43 55 10.14746/il.2020.44.4