Porównania https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p <p>"Porównania” has been published annually since 2004 and biannually since 2011.&nbsp; It includes original works and translations of comparative research within literary studies, theory and history of culture, theory of science, anthropology, art study, the cinema, music but also comparative research on history, postcolonial studies, gender, pedagogy, law, contemporary media and the relationship between the humanities and natural sciences. There are also polemics, reviews, surveys of comparative works and a list of received books.</p> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>ERIH Plus; Index Copernicus; SCOPUS</p> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Porównania 1733-165X <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Utwory opublikowane w czasopiśmie „Porównania”, na platformie Pressto należącej do Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu są udostępniane na&nbsp; licencji Creative Commons<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/"> Uznanie autorstwa - Bez utworów zależnych 4.0 Międzynarodowe (CC BY-ND 4.0) </a></span></span></p> <p style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Tym samym wszyscy zainteresowani są uprawnieni do korzystania z utworów opublikowanych pod następującymi warunkami:</span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">uznania autorstwa — czyli obowiązek podania wraz z rozpowszechnianym utworem informacji o autorstwie, tytule, źródle (odnośniki do oryginalnego utworu, doi) oraz samej licencji</span></span></p> </li> <li class="show"> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">bez utworów zależnych — remiksując, przetwarzając lub tworząc na podstawie utworu, nie wolno rozpowszechniać zmodyfikowanych treści.</span></span></p> </li> <li class="show"> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">brak dodatkowych ograniczeń — nie można korzystać ze środków prawnych lub technologicznych, które ograniczają innych w korzystaniu z utworu na warunkach określonych w licencji.</span></span></p> </li> </ul> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu zachowuje prawo do czasopisma jako całości (układ, forma graficzna, tytuł, projekt okładki, logo itp.).</span></span></p> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Autor zachowuje prawa majątkowe, ale udziela zgody Uniwersytetowi im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu na wykorzystanie dzieła. Autorzy tekstów zakwalifikowanych do publikacji proszeni są o wypełnienie podpisanie i przesłanie <a title="umowy" href="/ojs_3/pliki/p/Porownania_umowa_autorska_PL.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener">umowa (PL)</a></span></span>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="/ojs_3/pliki/p/Porownania_umowa_autorska_EN.pdf">agreement (EN)</a></p> <div class="QmZWSe">&nbsp;</div> <p style="margin-top: 0.18cm; margin-bottom: 0.18cm; line-height: 100%;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman, serif;"><span style="font-size: medium;"><a href="https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/ojs_3/pliki/p/Porównania_umowa%20autorska_EN.pdf">Agreement for granting a royalty-free license to works with a commitment to grant a CC sub-license</a></span></span></p> Introduction. Brexit and Other Contemporary Socio-Political Crises in European Literature https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/30855 Ryszard Bartnik Leszek Drong Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Ryszard Bartnik, Leszek Drong, Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 10 17 10.14746/por.2021.3.1 The Crooked Mirrors of the Crisis? Brexit-Related Socio-Political Conflicts and Divisions in Contemporary British and Irish Fiction https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/30857 <p>The aim of this article is to offer a literary, philosophical and socio-political background to the development of BrexLit, defined by Jon Day (in 2017) as an emerging genre of literature. Our article’s focus is on British and Irish novels, as well as other anglophone fiction from outside the British Isles, which communicate a message to do with the 2016 referendum resulting in the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Novelists have developed a particularly acute and sensitive response to the socio-political transformations in Great Britain and, to a large extent, in Northern Ireland. The key question we address here concerns the role of literary discourse confronting socio-political realities and various ideologies that have affected people living in the UK. Do the novels published over the last few years reflect alternative political scenarios? Or, by involving an inevitable temporal slippage in commenting on European realities, are they only a displaced and ideologically refracted reflection of the social changes, i.e., crooked mirrors of the crisis? Is there, in the contemporary novel, a still inadequately utilized potential to shape and implement fictional narratives with a view to a better future of the culture—and the whole public sphere—in the British Isles? Our answers consist in maintaining close ties between the evolution of the British assessment of sociopolitical realities and European culture at large, including the sort of culture that is only anticipated and projected onto the future. Both British and Irish writers who address Brexit as an issue nearly unanimously emphasize a message about upholding and affirming a supranational community above politics, even in the face of recent rifts and divisions.</p> Ryszard Bartnik Leszek Drong Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Ryszard Bartnik, Leszek Drong, Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-30 2021-12-30 30 3 21 39 10.14746/por.2021.3.2 Northern Soulscapes: Writing through Brexit in the work of Gerald Dawe, Angela Graham and Dara McAnulty https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28221 <p>At a time of when the global crises of pandemic and climate change could be said to offer sufficient challenges to life in the British and Irish Isles, the implementation of Brexit provides a further gargantuan difficulty. Borders, bureaucracies and belief systems dissolve like the certainty that subjects once felt to their connection to states or Unions. Or new borders and systems appear, bringing with them unwieldy new protocols and practices. Shelves empty, goods sit locked in containers; caught up in the holding pattern of another new normal of online retail inertia. Dislocation, fear and anger rise. The epicentre of the Brexit shambles can be said to be located in the ever betwixt and between location of Northern Ireland. Here with its newly imposed sea border with Great Britain and its maintenance of European Union relations with the Republic of Ireland we see a fractured and fractious society struggling as ever to come to terms with how to balance the aspiration of opposing ideologies and national ambitions with an additional level of chaos. In a time of catastrophe what can literature do? This question, often posed during “The Troubles” has very much come back to be painfully reiterated to writers, readers and critics at a time of multiple lockdowns. However, if an examination is made of publishing in Ireland in the last couple of years, we see a buoyant press offering a number of intriguing responses to the significance and efficacy of literature to respond to the current human predicament. In this article I will examine the work of three contemporary writers, Gerald Dawe, Angela Graham, and Dara McAnulty. I will argue that their use of genre (memoir, short story, nature diary) provides a fresh and robust response to the chaotic present of Northern Irish political life. In their separate ways they contest the fixed, static and impermeable political echo chamber of Northern Ireland. Dawe, I contend, seeks a means through his autobiographical work to retrace time and space in the history of the province and articulate alternative ways of interpreting the past. He is able to draw sustenance and restoration from often overlooked times of possibility in his own and the wider story of Belfast. In Graham’s case, I would suggest that her bold and assertive first collection of short stories provides an acerbic and raw inspection of the past but one that also provides glimpses of reconciliation and genuine hope in the face of trauma. I conclude by exploring the work of McAnulty. Ostensibly a diary that traces his engagements with nature, his book is a tour de force that reimagines Ireland as a location gripped in the ravages of the Anthropocene startlingly brought to life by a young man faced with the challenges of autism. Part memoir, part praise poem to nature, it is a remarkable coming of age non-fiction work, which along with Dawe’s and Graham’s writing suggests that Northern Irish literature offers a broad and brilliant retort to the current local and global calamities that we face.</p> Frank Ferguson Copyright (c) 2021 Frank Ferguson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 41 54 10.14746/por.2021.3.3 From Unparalleled “Greatness” to Predictable Insularity. A Composite Sketch of “Warped Britishness” as Drawn in Selected Works of Contemporary English Fiction https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28245 <p>Brexit, as seen from the present perspective, is seemingly a success story. Taking into account a myriad of voices expressed in the public domain over the past few years, it is legitimate to make a cautious claim that some of the expectations people shared before/during the referendum have been inflated and deflated in the post-plebiscite reality. In 2016, across the majority that voted for the divorce, a growing consensus on the soundness and solidity of pro-Leave arguments about Britain being in crisis was seen. The proponents of change had endorsed the policy of restoring a sense of national dignity. That mode of reasoning, though still present within current “British” mindsets, has been confronted with the “unplanned” turbulence of national (re) adjustment. The whole process of bidding farewell to the European Union has led to sentiments of uncertainty/anxiety/regret, rather than to the anticipated sense of satisfaction/relief. Therefore, it seems both vital and interesting to juxtapose the passion about restoring people’s trust in Britishness/Englishness, and its “exceptionality” with more sobering projections of a new post-Brexit world. In order to discuss the consequences of this self-inflicted condition, I will here elaborate on selected English literary texts. They feature authors who draw conclusions running parallel to Anderson’s assumptions that in times of crisis a general predilection for self-deluding (re)constructions of collective identity can be observed, which are variously expressed in a merely referential, subversive or satirical manner.</p> Ryszard Bartnik Copyright (c) 2021 Ryszard Bartnik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 55 76 10.14746/por.2021.3.4 Brexit on Stage: Two Verbatim Projects in Progress https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28072 <p>The article deals with two post-Referendum projects launched by British national organizations, the National Theatre and the Guardian with Headlong, whose task was to reflect more accurately on a broader range of current British experience. The projects were written in response to questions on whether national artistic institutions, the subsidized “complex culture,” have not been out of touch with the rest of the country, notably the post-Referendum crisis. Both projects set out to research the crisis with documentary and quasi-documentary methods, to involve in an exercise in “listening” and to focus on polarisation, voter fatigue and lack of trust. The article concentrates on the two projects as variants of political theatre and on the ways they use the verbatim method in their attempts to diagnose and understand the crisis arguing, further on, that the effects differ, leading either to populism or to empathetic understanding and reconciliation.</p> Ewa Kębłowska-Ławniczak Copyright (c) 2021 Ewa Kębłowska-Ławniczak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 77 92 10.14746/por.2021.3.5 Under Irish and Foreign Skies: Home, Migration and Regrexit https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27928 <p>This article analyses literary reflections on the process of migration both from and to Ireland in selected contemporary short stories and poems. Changing Skies (2014), an anthology of stories by Manchester Irish writers, represents a wide spectrum of the Irish migrant experience. Although traditionally perceived as a country which has sent waves of emigrants to other parts of the world, recently Ireland has itself become the destination and adopted home for thousands of immigrants. The second part of the article discusses how foreign writers residing in Ireland view the questions of home, identity and migration in two companion volumes of poetry. The concluding section surveys a sample of Irish writers’ reactions to the process of Brexit, which is redefining migration, home and identity both in Britain and on the island of Ireland, and is causing widespread regret in the Irish community that the tendency towards greater diversity, mobility and heterogeneity has been halted.</p> Bożena Kucała Copyright (c) 2021 Bożena Kucała https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 93 106 10.14746/por.2021.3.6 Private Experience and Public-Spirited Critique: Brexit-Era Britain in the Recent Poetry of Vidyan Ravinthiran and Nicholas Hagger https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28128 <p>Two starkly different aspects of the Brexit phenomenon may be seen in the recent work of two British poets, Vidyan Ravinthiran and Nicholas Hagger. Ravinthiran’s most recent book consists of love sonnets composed for his wife. These are addressed to an intimate “you” which, upon publication, is expanded to vicariously include his readership. In the course of their everyday life as a mixed-race couple in northern England, the context of Brexit occasionally intrudes. When it leads him to communicate something to his wife, the poet organically transcribes these experiences. While ultimately a secondary (if often inescapable) theme in Ravinthiran’s sonnet sequence, the Brexit negotiations are the leitmotif of Hagger’s Fools’ Paradise. Taking his cue from the sixteenth and seventeenth century mock epic, the poet offers an erudite satire excoriating a short-sighted political class. Hagger appears to move easily in such circles, presumably due to the diplomatic and intelligence contacts in his past. Assuming the guise of an insider or pundit, “your poet” provides a meticulous, tactical critique of the inefficacy of foolish parliamentarians.</p> Jeremy Pomeroy Copyright (c) 2021 Jeremy Pomeroy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 107 118 10.14746/por.2021.3.7 Travelling Europe, Travelling through Crisis: Disintegrated Journeys in Dorota Masłowska’s A Couple of Poor, Polish-Speaking Romanians and Zinnie Harris’s How To Hold Your Breath https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28222 <p>The article reflects on the issues of European social, political and ethical disintegration by looking at two plays which represent both geographic and mental migration of European citizens. Zinnie Harris’s play dramatizes a journey by an energetic businesswoman from the state of seeming success to the condition of collapse of the entire continent. Masłowska’s drama tells the story of a couple who have lost their geographic but also existential bearings after a prolonged bout of drug abuse and partying. The article aims at presenting the European continent as a space of alienated social and personal experience, as a community of people in permanent exile from both the private space and the public ideologies. The two plays offer a reflection on the condition of pre-Brexit Europe with the power of capturing representative lives of those individuals who have lost the sense of the common cause.</p> Michal Lachman Copyright (c) 2021 Michal Lachman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 119 135 10.14746/por.2021.3.8 Are We In This Together?: The Polarisation of the British Society and the Marginalisation of Otherness in Ali Smith’s Seasonal Quartet https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28213 <p>Ali Smith’s seasonal quartet—Autumn, Winter, Spring, Summer—was written and published at lightning speed, between the 2016 Brexit referendum and Britain’s effective departure from the EU in 2020. The article examines how the novels engage with the issue of Brexit, as they become the chronicle of a grinding cultural process and critically confront the transformation of the British nation. I survey various psychological factors related to the polarisation of the British nation and investigate Smith’s presentation of the way in which the populist propaganda of menace produced by the right-wing media leads to marginalising Otherness. Employing the nomadic theory of the subject developed by Rosi Braidotti, I analyse Smith’s literary strategies used to represent not only post-truth manipulation and institutionalised British xenophobia, but also the actions of people who resist them.</p> Tomasz Dobrogoszcz Copyright (c) 2021 Tomasz Dobrogoszcz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 137 154 10.14746/por.2021.3.9 "Some Corner of a Foreign Field That Is [Not] For Ever England”: Brexit and Poetry https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28129 <p>Although it would be absurd to compare the 2016 Brexit referendum and whatever happened in its aftermath to the tragedy of the Great War, surprising as it may seem, the two have something in common. This is so because the 1914–1918 period triggered a flood of poetry, written not only by established literary figures, but also by thousands of civilians who found it a means of expressing their emotions. By the same token, the post-referendum years produced a poetic response on the part of ordinary citizens. This article tries to take a closer look at how once again British citizens turn to poetry to voice their fears and frustration.</p> Wojciech Klepuszewski Copyright (c) 2021 Wojciech Klepuszewski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 155 166 10.14746/por.2021.3.10 The Last Day and Brexit: Delusions of Future Past https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28086 <p>The paper aims to show how the traditions of science fiction and, above all, invasion literature provide the ideological background for reading Andrew Hunter Murray’s The Last Day as a novel about Brexit. As it draws on anxious visions of the future, in which the enemy lurks around every corner, and the only salvation is complete isolation from the world, Murray’s work is read here as a Brexit dream come true, in which Britain is once again great, independent and uncontaminated by foreign elements. By evoking the myths that focus only on glory and conveniently “forget” the dark sides of the empire, the novel demonstrates that the fantasies of the past are as distant as the fantasies of the future; the loss of the world that never was is reworked in The Last Day into the loss of ecologically viable planet.</p> Justyna Jajszczok Copyright (c) 2021 Justyna Jajszczok https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 167 177 10.14746/por.2021.3.11 The Crisis of Brexit and Other Socio-Cultural Aspects of Silencing the Past through the Example of Anna Burns’ Milkman https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27824 <p>The present article scrutinizes the phenomenon of a systemic silencing of the past visible in recent socio-political challenges caused by Brexit, especially in the case of the Irish border. Due to the comparative character of the paper, the attention is targeted at a symptomatic amnesia manifested on the British and Northern Irish sides. Postcolonial melancholia, to use Paul Gilroy’s term, facilitated by a systemic whitewashing of British imperial past, is contrasted here with Northern Irish postcolonial amnesia understood as a personal and institutionalised suppression of the difficult memory of colonisation and violence. In what follows, the paper aims to show how these two phenomena meet in the conflict of Brexit and how literature comments on the current political, social and cultural issues such as Brexit based on the example of Anna Burns’ novel Milkman (2018). The article discusses the silence which has surrounded the issue of the Irish Border in Brexit debates, as well as looks at the Northern Irish reluctance to talk about their past as an unsuccessful attempt to escape the demons of the past.</p> Marta Frątczak-Dąbrowska Joanna Jarząb-Napierała Copyright (c) 2021 Marta Frątczak-Dąbrowska, Joanna Jarząb-Napierała https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 179 189 10.14746/por.2021.3.12 In the Labyrinth of Forgetfulness: Charley Grainger’s Joycean Journey in Christine Dwyer Hickey’s Cold Eye of Heaven https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27991 <p>Cold Eye of Heaven (2011) shows pre-Brexit Dublin steeped in the post-Celtic Tiger anxieties. The novel narrates the life of a contemporary Everyman, Charley Grainger, known as Farley, from his final moments back to his childhood. Thus, Farley’s journey envisages both a Joycean interior monologue depicting his old-age bafflement in the meanders of memory and a realistic description of the character’s bewilderment at the changes in the cityscapes of the Dublin of 2010. The present paper is a comparative study of the first two chapters of the novel in reference to the history of the city present in the entire text, through the use of the tropes of the mental and urbane labyrinths. Imbued with the allusions to current reality, i.e., the presence of immigrants, Hickey’s observations are in line with Joycean anti-nationalism, as the story offers a nostalgia-stricken picture of the inevitable economic transformation of the metropolis.</p> Liliana Sikorska Copyright (c) 2021 Liliana Sikorska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 191 207 10.14746/por.2021.3.13 Borderland Anxieties: Brexit, Upper Silesia and Irish Partitions in Recent Novels by Glenn Patterson and Szczepan Twardoch https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27974 <p>Northern Ireland owes its existence to a partition of Ireland that took place a century ago. The knottiest problems involved in the UK’s recent divorce with the European Union can be traced back not only to the Belfast Agreement of 1998 but also to the establishment of a new border, and a new borderland, in the island of Ireland in 1922. The same year (1922) saw the coming into effect of a partition of Upper Silesia, which was triggered by the events and political decisions taken in 1921. The primary focus of this essay is on literary representations of crises and anxieties connected with the transformations of the geopolitical statuses of the two provinces (i.e. Northern Ireland and Upper Silesia) and selected historical, political and cultural parallels between them. Those anxieties are exemplified and illustrated by the leading characters of Glenn Patterson’s Where Are We Now? (2020) and Szczepan Twardoch’s Pokora (2020). Both novels yield to provincial readings that explore basic aporias of uprootedness, displacement, deterritorialization and identity crises, collectively identified here as borderland anxieties. In consequence, transnational and postnational perspectives that emerge from Patterson’s and Twardoch’s works count as proactive responses, encoded in literary texts, to current geopolitical crises in Europe.</p> Leszek Drong Copyright (c) 2021 Leszek Drong https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 209 227 10.14746/por.2021.3.14 Swan-Eaters: Relative Otherness in the Experience of the Polish Economic Migration to Great Britain After 2004 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27417 <p>The text joins a discussion about migration movements, calling to attention the issue of socio-cultural divisions occurring also between European societies whose collective identities are both strong and, additionally, internally diverse. The article claims that, by analysing the experience of Polish economic migrants to Great Britain, we can notice key problems of the Polish system and economic transformation in its socio-cultural aspects. These problems, much sooner than in Poland, lost their transparency and became discursive due to the clash of the immigrant (subaltern) subjects with the new environment. The argument focuses on how the Polish familiar subject (an average individual, embodying the Polish peripheral version of the civilizational-cultural norm which distinctively separates Us [the familiar] from the Other [strangers]) experiences a situation in which the Familiar Pole takes on the role of the Other. Ewa Winnicka’s Angole (2014) will serve as focal point of our discussion. As the condition of the Polish migrants often happens to be unintentionally problematized, the subject in question engages in self-observation and tries, with varying results, to find himself in a relation to the local British Familiars. In this structure, the latter become the source of the norm, in relation to which the Polish migrant situates himself on the outside. At the same time, the only available instruments are those that the Polish norm ascribes for use in relation with the Other. The paradox of these circumstances, apart from anything else, gives way to the populist instrumentalization of the phenomena they generate, which was very effectively used by Brexit supporters.</p> Hanna Gosk Copyright (c) 2021 Hanna Gosk https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 229 247 10.14746/por.2021.3.15 On Value Systems, Commitment and Explaining Poland in Crisis to Germans by Polish-German Writers from Berlin: Brygida Helbig-Mischewski and Emilia Smechowski https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28581 <p>This essay discusses motivations and various strategies of artistic involvement in Polish-German relations on the part of female writers who come from Poland, write from Berlin and represent different generations of writers associated, by way of their biographies, with Germany and Poland (e.g., Brygida Helbig-Mischewski and Emilia Smechowski). Their writings, and modes of public activity that accompany them in both countries (e.g., voicing their positions in mainstream media) are closely related to a pan-European crisis of values triggered by Brexit and its aftermath.</p> Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Małgorzata Zduniak-Wiktorowicz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 251 271 10.14746/por.2021.3.16 Radicalisation Tinted by Nationalism or How to Turn a Counterrevolutionary Into a Reactionary: Ingo Schulze's Die rechtschaffenen Mörder (The Righteous Murderers) (2020) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28218 <p>The article attempts to integrate the British Brexit experience into the pan-European context of expanding populist and nationalist movements and the radicalization of modern societies caused by crises such as socio-political breakthroughs. Although this article deals primarily with the German history of the division of the state and the complex process of its reunification, it also analyses the subject matter within the framework of culturally-oriented literary studies, which allows us to identify some universal features and categories describing such phenomena as, for instance, the sense of individual deprivation, loss of orientation in reality affected by crises, creating a negative image of strangers due to the fear of losing one’s own identity, and susceptibility to populism.</p> Dominika Anna Gortych Copyright (c) 2021 Dominika Gortych https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 273 289 10.14746/por.2021.3.17 ‘BrexLit’ in Italian for Children and Adults Rosie e gli scoiattoli di St. James and La mia Londra by Simonetta Agnello Hornby https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28124 <p>The article is devoted to a comparison of two books by Simonetta Angello Hornby, placing it in the context of migration to which the author—born in 1945 in Italy and residing in Great Britain since 1972—has also touched upon in her other works. La mia Londra (My London) is an autobiographical guide to London, in which Hornby described, on the example of her own experiences, the process of adapting to life in a foreign culture. In retrospect, she spent almost half a century in this city, noting the changes in the social structure, relations with immigrants, and the lifestyle of Londoners. The main protagonist of the story Rosie e gli scoiattoli di St. James (Rosie and the Squirrels in St. James’s Park) is Rosalia Giuffrida-Watson, a nine-year-old daughter of London immigrants (Bruno from Italy and Brenda from Jamaica) who, on the day of the referendum concerning Great Britain’s future in the European Union, witness a session of animal parliament in the royal park and a clash between its residents: newcomers and autochthons. Their views, behaviour and decisions give Rosie an insight into the problems, but also the potential, connected to the processes of acculturation, cultural adaptation, and even assimilation. The cognitive context for the deliberations is provided by other “BrexLit” works.</p> Małgorzata Rygielska Copyright (c) 2021 Małgorzata Rygielska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 291 309 10.14746/por.2021.3.18 Brexit in Italian Contemporary Literature: Città irreale (Unreal city) by Cristina Marconi, Brexit Blues (Brexit Blues) by Marco Varvello and La mia Brexit (My Brexit) by Francesco De Carlo https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27885 <p>The subject of the article is the phenomenon of Brexit in contemporary Italian literature investigated on the basis of the texts published so far, in which it plays an important role. Three novels are analyzed: Città irreale by Cristina Marconi, Brexit Blues by Marco Varvello and La mia Brexit by Francesco De Carlo, from which emerges negative image of Brexit, set in the context of immigration, which is a special area of interest for the above-mentioned authors.</p> Karol Karp Copyright (c) 2021 Karol Karp https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 311 324 10.14746/por.2021.3.19 Schiller Wearing a Mask: The Literature of German-Speaking Countries vs. the sars-cov-2 Pandemic https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28090 <p>Interventions of writers during a political transformation or crisis have a long history in the German-speaking countries. However, the sars-cov-2 pandemic has changed previous practices of civic engagement and literary reflection on contemporary problems. The authors are facing not only threats to their own material existence but they also facing the need to find new ways of communicating with their readers and are confronted with the growing radicalism and hostility against the elites. Based on selected press and radio materials, this article discusses such issues as the reorganization of literary life in Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein, writers’ responses to lockdown restrictions, literary images of the pandemic, polarization of the society, and the instrumentalization of literary and historical motifs by anti-Covid movements.</p> Krzysztof Okoński Copyright (c) 2021 Krzysztof Okoński https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 325 344 10.14746/por.2021.3.20 The Languages of the Crisis: Pathographies in the Latest Serbian Literature https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27984 <p>The article presents selected works by Serbian prose writers (David Albahari, Svetislav Basara, Ɖorđe Pisarev, Igor Marojević, Vladimir Arsenijević) created in the last three decades, dealing with the problem of Serbia’s relations with Europe, including the issue of this country’s accession to the European Union. The interpretative key to the analysis of this problem is the category of disease, which is a metaphor for the crisis affecting not only Serbia, but—in the opinion of authors belonging to different generations—the whole world. The skepticism manifested in the works of the presented writers is not an expression of the authors’ personal attitude to the issue of Serbia’s integration with the European Union, but rather a sad reflection on their country’s unpreparedness for this process, resulting from the complex socio-political situation and difficult historical experiences that led to it.</p> Sylwia Nowak-Bajcar Copyright (c) 2021 Sylwia Nowak-Bajcar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 345 366 10.14746/por.2021.3.21 Viral Hell: Central-European Dystopian Visions of Social Media https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/27975 <p>Over the past decade, many democratic countries have been caught off guard by their own unpreparedness in dealing with the threats associated with the spread of social media. Surveillance, disinformation, propaganda or hate speech have all become real threats caused by the largest social media platforms. Literature has also reacted to this phenomenon, most notably by providing dystopian visions of the further uncontrolled impact of social media. The analysis focuses on two novels recently published in the field of Czech and Slovak literatures—the first one by Czech writer David Zábranský Logoz or Robert Holm a Danish Marketer (2019) and the second one by Slovak writer Michal Hvorecký Troll (2017). The core aim of the analysis is to search for an answer to the question whether the literature limits itself only to descriptions of apocalyptic visions, or whether it shows possible recovery plans.</p> Marcin Filipowicz Copyright (c) 2021 Marcin Filipowicz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 367 379 10.14746/por.2021.3.22 On the Spirit (of Brexit): With Additional Remarks on the Thymotic Stimulation of the Nation in the Latest Polish Literature https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/p/article/view/28065 <p>The article is an attempt to answer the question about the presence of the “Brexit spirit” in literary texts created outside the UK. The first part is devoted to explaining the term “Brexit spirit” in the light of the Zeitgeist category. In the second part, I point out the similarities and differences between the Eurosceptic moods in British literature and the Euroscepticism of Polish twenty-first-century right-wing writers. According to the main thesis of the article, the “Brexit spirit” is present in British and Polish literature in works that value the category of the nation, its traditions and history. These works stimulate dignity claims and activate national resentments. The findings of philologists, sociologists, philosophers and researchers of rhetoric used in the sketch serve to prove the presented thesis, to show the ways in which the discussed phenomenon manifests itself, and to formulate an answer to the question about its causes.</p> Marcin Czardybon Copyright (c) 2021 Marcin Czardybon https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2021-12-27 2021-12-27 30 3 381 394 10.14746/por.2021.3.23