Peitho. Examina Antiqua <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p> <p class="oczasopismie">Peitho / Examina Antiqua is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to investigation of ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine thought. The journal publishes original research articles, discussions and reviews in the fields of ancient philosophy, science, literature, history and language. The languages of publication are English, French, German, Italian and Polish. Established in 2010, the journal is published by the Institute of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewcz University in Poland.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/peitho/about">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/peitho/issue/archive">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <!--<div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong><p>INDEX COPERNICUS INTERNATIONAL - IC JOURNALS MASTER LIST; EBSCO PUBLISHING; SCOPUS; ERIH - (2007-2014); ERIH PLUS 2015; CSA LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE BEHAVIOR ABSTRACTS; CEJSH; PKP Index, Primo, WorldCat, Cabell's, Google Scholar; DOAJ</p></div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>JOURNAL METRICS: </strong><p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_2.png" alt="" /><br /><br /><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_14.png" alt="" /><br /><br /> <img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/ic_120_51.png" alt="" /><br /><br /> <img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_1.png" alt="" /></p></div>--> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a title="Peitho. 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Examina Antiqua in WorldCat" href=";referer=brief_results" target="_blank" rel="noopener">WorldCat</a>.</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/pea</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>2082–7539</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/byczynski/by.png" alt=""></a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><!--<strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2084-4158--></div> <!--<div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS:</strong> </strong><a href=""><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc_4.png" alt="CC_by-nd/3.0" border="0" /></a></div>--> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Peitho. Examina Antiqua 2082-7539 <p>Peitho provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> Melissos of Samos – Doxography and Fragments <p>There are several recent and noteworthy studies on the testimonies and fragments of Melissos of Samos: Laks-Most (2016), Brémond (2017). Furthermore, one can learn a great deal about Melissos from the lectures and discussions undertaken in the framework of “Eleatica 2012” (Mansfeld A. et al. 2016). When taken together, these studies enable us to fully appreciate Melissos’ original work in terms of its sources, its audacious arguments and its later criticisms. Melissos is here presented as a spokesman of the Eleatic school in an order that aims to do justice to the ancient testimonies that relate and refute his arguments as well as to the verbatim fragments (these are given here in the original). For the sake of clarity, however, various secondary testimonies have been omitted.</p> Marian A. Wesoły Copyright (c) 2020 Marian A. Wesoły 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 13 32 10.14746/pea.2020.1.1 Plato and Antisthenes in the Phaedo: A Reflexive Reading. Part Two <p>The purpose of this study is not so much to show the presence of Antisthenes in the dialogue, but rather to examine that to which Plato alludes. The controversy over ideas between the two Socratics is histori­cally very well-attested, as can already be seen in the <em>Cratylus</em>. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that this controversy must have affected Plato when he was writing the <em>Phaedo</em>: a dialogue in which the importance of ideas and his new logic is undeniable. Hence, this paper will investigate the following question: what impact could Antisthenes’ denominative and definitory logic have on the equally denominative and definitory logic presented in the <em>Phaedo</em>, given that the latter work in all prob­ability preceded the <em>Sathōn</em>? In light of what is said in the dialogue, the answer focuses primarily on what would not be said. Thus, this study is divided into two parts: Part one shows how the so-called “second navigation” emerges as an objection to the insufficiency of the responses given by the physiologists. Tellingly, certain “common opinions” are regarded as perplexing and individuals holding them are referred to with the indeterminate <em>tis</em>, which – as is argued – must have included Antisthenes. Indeed, <em>Tht</em>. 108c7–8 reports the latter to have made common opinions a cornerstone of his denominative logic. Part two, on the other hand, is devoted to examining the so-called “final argument.” Here, Antisthenes’ presence seems somewhat more nuanced, given his incomplete knowledge of the new logic of irreversible opposites which was worked out by Plato for the purpose of demonstrating the immor­tality and indestructibility of the soul. On the other hand, Antisthenes is likely to have prompted Plato to specify the relationship between ideas and things in the definitory logic, since the proponent of the theory of <em>oikeios logos </em>refused to distinguish between the substance and its attrib­utes, the differences and their opposites, and the opposites of opposites.</p> Giuseppe Mazzara Copyright (c) 2020 Giuseppe Mazzara 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 33 66 10.14746/pea.2020.1.2 Aristotle and Diogenes the Cynic <p>In this paper I examine the testimonium of Aristotle’s <em>Rhetoric </em>concern­ing Diogenes the Cynic (<em>SSR </em>V B 184). This piece of evidence is the most ancient source of Diogenes and proves that Aristotle was familiar with his writings. I also study the testimonium on Diogenes that is hand­ed down by Theophrastus (<em>SSR </em>V B 172), which confirms the interest of the ancient Peripatos in this philosopher. Finally, I examine a passage of Book 1 of the <em>Politics </em>where Aristotle refers to the thesis on the aboli­tion of money. I argue that such a thesis could be ascribed to Diogenes. In particular, I attempt to demonstrate that several theses of political philosophy put forward by Diogenes should be considered as constitut­ing a polemical overthrow of the corresponding theses of Aristotle in Book 1 of his <em>Politics</em>.</p> Aldo Brancacci Copyright (c) 2020 Aldo Brancacci 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 67 82 10.14746/pea.2020.1.3 Aristotelian Biology. A Synopsis <p>In no field of knowledge did Aristotle leave more writings than in biol­ogy. He conducted research for longer and more intensively in zoology than in any other field. In these writings he mentions a good 550 animal and 60 plant species. While this includes the internal anatomy of around 110 animals, he dissected 60 species himself. The present contribution deals with the epistemic motifs and the meaning of Aristotelian biology in the context of his scientific curriculum. It is thus demonstrated that in <em>De anima </em>Aristotle’s actual explanations are preceded by an investi­gation of the principles, which aims to differentiate living objects from inanimate ones, and to develop a method of explanation based on the species-specific vital functions of living beings. This article provides an overview of the four main disciplines of Aristotelian biology: compara­tive anatomy, physiology, genetics and behavioral research. The text offers tabular overviews of the animals and plants dealt with by Aristotle.</p> Martin F. Meyer Copyright (c) 2020 Martin F. Mayer 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 83 120 10.14746/pea.2020.1.4 The Affections of the Soul according to Aristotle, the Stoics and Galen: On Melancholy <p>The present article is divided into two parts: the first focuses on the affections of the soul in general, while the second part investigates the case of melancholy, as it is studied from Aristotle and the Stoics to Galen. The main point of the first part is an analysis of the Chrysippean treatise On the <em>Affections of the Soul </em>as it appears in the Galenic treatise <em>On the Doctrines of Hippocrates and Plato</em>. The analysis identifies several Chry­sippean influences from Plato and Aristotle regarding the psyche. In the second part, the case of melancholy is analyzed through the pseudo-Ar­istotelian treatise <em>Problem </em>XXX 1. The discussion shows the common points between the Aristotelian text and the Chrysippean fragments regarding the issue of melancholy. This article aims to bring to light the evolution of the phenomenon of melancholy in Galen’s thought, which is connected with the study of both medical and philosophical texts already existing before him.</p> Maria Protopapas-Marneli Copyright (c) 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 121 142 10.14746/pea.2020.1.5 Evil Itself and Nothingness in Proclus <p>In his reflection on the nature of evil, the Neoplatonic philosopher Proclus affirms that evil itself (<em>to autokakon</em>) is “also beyond the abso­lute non-being” (<em>epekeina kai tou mēdamōs ontos</em>). With this assumption, he intends to reinforce the thesis of the non-existence of absolute evil, conceived as totally separate from good, and contrasted with the collat­eral and parasitic existence of evil mixed with good. He thus maintains a distinction between absolute evil and relative evil, conceived with reference to the distinction between absolute non-being (i.e., nothing­ness) and relative non-being. In Proclus, the thesis of the non-existence of absolute evil is presented as a necessary consequence of the non-dualist theory of evil in the sphere of a protology that identifies the first Principle of all things in the primary Good (identical to the supra-essen­tial One), and which aims to reconcile the absolute primacy of the latter with the presence of evil in some orders of reality.</p> Valerio Napoli Copyright (c) 2020 Valerio Napoli 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 143 170 10.14746/pea.2020.1.6 The Category of the Ethico-Aesthetics in the Study of Byzantine Philosophy <p>The category of the Ethico-Aesthetics, introduced by Søren Kierkegaard, was applied to the study of Byzantine Philosophy by the Greek philoso­pher and theologian Nikolaos Matsoukas (1934–2006). Matsoukas vehe­mently rejected the identification of Byzantine philosophy with a strict Christian moralism. Rather, he viewed it as an ethos which did not lead the ascetics to display Manichean contempt for the body. It was thus a kind of ‘mild asceticism’. This ethical acceptance of the body turns against Neoplatonic speculation and cultivates the habitus that leads to artistic creativity. Byzantine philosophy is thus situated at the midpoint between nominalism and realism, but standing against the realism of the archetypal ideas. The paper concludes with some considerations on the pragmatics of Byzantine philosophy in a Christian world.</p> George Arabatzis Copyright (c) 2020 George Arabatzis 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 171 184 10.14746/pea.2020.1.7 The Question of God and the Quest for God: Hans Jonas, Plato, and Beyond… <p>In reconstructing the conceptual universe of Jonas’s philosophy, a privi­leged place can, or indeed must, be reserved for his relationship with the classical heritage. More specifically, a crucial role is played by Plato, especially because, as Jonas strongly underlines, “with Plato (...) you have to go back a much greater distance to make him applicable to the present. But of course Plato is the greater one, the one we have to study again and again from scratch, the one we must discover (...). With Plato, you’re never finished, that’s the great foundation for all of Western philosophy”. In the light of this premise, this article will focus on the highly original use made in Jonas’s <em>Der Gottesbegriff nach Auschwitz </em>of the Platonic heritage, associated with the mythical figure of the Demi­urge in the <em>Timaeus</em>.</p> Emidio Spinelli Copyright (c) 2020 Emidio Spinelli 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 185 194 10.14746/pea.2020.1.8 An Open Universe. The Cosmology of Parmenides and the Structure of the Earth Livio Rossetti Copyright (c) 2020 Livio Rossetti 2020-12-23 2020-12-23 11 1 197 202 10.14746/pea.2020.1.9