Peitho. Examina Antiqua https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p><p class="oczasopismie">Peitho / Examina Antiqua is an international, peer-reviewed journal devoted to investigation of ancient Greek, Roman and Byzantine thought. The journal publishes original research articles, discussions and reviews in the fields of ancient philosophy, science, literature, history and language. The languages of publication are English, French, German, Italian and Polish. Established in 2010, the journal is published by the Institute of Philosophy at Adam Mickiewcz University in Poland.</p><ul class="oczasopismie"><li><a href="/index.php/peitho/about">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li><li><a href="/index.php/peitho/issue/view/current">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li><li><a href="/index.php/peitho/issue/archive">ARCHIVES</a></li></ul><!--<div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong><p>INDEX COPERNICUS INTERNATIONAL - IC JOURNALS MASTER LIST; EBSCO PUBLISHING; SCOPUS; ERIH - (2007-2014); ERIH PLUS 2015; CSA LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE BEHAVIOR ABSTRACTS; CEJSH; PKP Index, Primo, WorldCat, Cabell's, Google Scholar; DOAJ</p></div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>JOURNAL METRICS: </strong><p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_2.png" alt="" /><br /><br /><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_14.png" alt="" /><br /><br /> <img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/ic_120_51.png" alt="" /><br /><br /> <img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_1.png" alt="" /></p></div>--><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/pea</div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>2082–7539</div><div class="oczasopismie"><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/legalcode"><img src="/public/site/images/byczynski/by.png" alt="" /></a></div><div class="oczasopismie"><!--<strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2084-4158--></div><!--<div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS:</strong> </strong><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/"><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc_4.png" alt="CC_by-nd/3.0" border="0" /></a></div>--> en-US <p>Peitho provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> peitho@amu.edu.pl (Mikolaj Domaradzki) pressto@amu.edu.pl (Pressto) Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:34 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Plato and Antisthenes in the Phaedo: A Reflexive Reading. Part One https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20311 <p>The purpose of this study is not so much to show the presence of Antisthenes in the dialogue, but rather to examine what Plato alludes to. The controversy over ideas between the two Socratics is historically very well-attested, as can already be seen in the <em>Cratylus</em>. Thus, it is reasonable to assume that this controversy must have affected Plato when he was writing a dialogue in which the importance of ideas and his new logic is undeniable. Hence, this paper will investigate the following question: what impact could Antisthenes’ denominative and definitory logic have on the equally denominative and definitory logic presented in the <em>Phaedo </em>given that the latter work in all probability preceded the <em>Sathōn</em>? In light of what is said in the dialogue, the answer focuses primarily on what would not be said. Thus, this study has been divided into two parts: <em>Part one </em>shows how the so-called “second navigation” emerges as an objection to the insufficiency of the responses given by the physiologists. Tellingly, certain “common opinions” are regarded as perplexing and individuals holding them are referred to with the indeterminate <em>tis</em>, which – as is argued – must have included Antisthenes. Indeed, <em>Tht. </em>108c7–8 reports the latter to have made common opinions a cornerstone of his denomi­native logic. <em>Part two</em>, on the other hand, is devoted to examining the so-called “final argument.” Here, Antisthenes’ presence seems some­what more nuanced given his incomplete knowledge of the new logic of irreversible opposites which was worked out by Plato for the purpose of demonstrating the immortality and indestructibility of the soul. On the other hand, Antisthenes is likely to have prompted Plato to specify the relationship between ideas and things in the definitory logic, since the proponent of the theory of <em>oikeios logos </em>refused to distinguish between the substance and its attributes, the differences and its opposites as well as the opposites of opposites.</p> Giuseppe Mazzara Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20311 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:27 +0000 Virtue and Proper Use in Plato’s Euthydemus and Stoicism https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20312 The essay examines the description of virtue as a craft that governs the proper use of possessions in Plato’s Euthydemus and Stoicism. In the first part, I discuss Socrates’ parallel between wisdom and the crafts in the Euthydemus, and the resulting argument concerning the value of external and bodily possessions. I then offer some objections, showing how Socrates’ craft analogy allows one to think of possessions as (qualifiedly) good and ultimately fails to offer a defense of virtue’s sufficiency for happiness. In the second part, I examine the Stoics’ craft analogy and note a number of differences from Socrates’ account in the Euthydemus. These include the Stoic claim that external advantages never make any contribution to happiness, even when properly used, and the claim that, unlike other crafts, wisdom does not require any external possessions in order to be exercised and yield benefit and happiness. I then place these differences against the backdrop of the debate regarding virtue’s sufficiency for happiness and argue that the Stoic craft model of virtue fares better than its Socratic antecedent. Dimitrios Dentsoras Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20312 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:28 +0000 The Structure of Plato’s Republic and the Cave Allegory https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20313 <p>As Plato’s <em>Phaedrus </em>246c stipulates, every <em>logos </em>must be structured like a living being, i.e., the relation of all its parts to one another and to the whole must be appropriate. Thus, the present paper argues that Plato’s masterwork has been organized in accord with the ascent/descent movement as presented in the Allegory of the Cave: Book I represents <em>eikasia</em>, Books II–IV.434c exemplify <em>pistis</em>, Book IV.434d–444e illustrates <em>dianoia </em>and Books V–VII express <em>noesis</em>. Having reached the <em>anabasis </em>(with the Sun, the Line and the Cave images) the philosopher turns to the consideration of the deficient or unjust forms of the souls and the corresponding political regimes. Finally, the discussion comes back to <em>eikasia </em>through the renewed criticism of <em>mimesis </em>and the exposition of the Myth of Er. As is typical of Plato, this is not merely a formal matter, since the structure conveys that as the Good makes the Ideas intelligible, so the Sun, the Line and the Cave images also throw light on the whole dialogue.</p> Raul Gutiérrez Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20313 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:29 +0000 Manifesto of the Epicurean Philosophy of Life https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20314 <p>Epicurus’ philosophy grew out of his life experiences, contacts, polem­ics, journeys and other activities. Apart from such great works as the monumental <em>On nature </em>(<em>Peri phuseôs</em>) in 37 books, Epicurus authored also various extracts (<em>epitomai</em>), principle doctrines, sayings and letters. The letters, while addressed to many students and friends, were for him a very important tool of propagating his own philosophy. Epicurus’ fascinating <em>Letter to Menoeceus </em>can be regarded as a manifesto of his philosophy of life. In historiography, it is often characterized as an expo­sition of his ethics, even though Epicurus probably did not use the term himself. To better capture the composition and spirit of this work, the Greek text of the letter has been somewhat rearranged here: for the sake of clarity, ample spaces and special paragraphs have been provided, and appropriate headings have been introduced in the Polish translation.</p> Marian Andrzej Wesoły Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20314 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:29 +0000 The Self as Image and Suddenness: Some Remarks on Plotinus’ Noetic Life https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20315 <p>This article focuses on certain dimensions of Plotinus’ notion of the noetic self, which so far have not received sufficient scholarly atten­tion. The evidence of <em>Enn. </em>V 8 makes clear the assumption about the inexhaustible generativity of the noetic self. This generativity implies an intimate relation with the notions of <em>image </em>and <em>suddenness</em>: the former is intended as a medium of unconditional self-transparency, whereas the latter is understood as pointing to the unlimited newness that is char­acteristic of the noetic life, which, according to Plotinus, consists in an indissoluble unity of identity and alterity (<em>Enn. </em>VI 7.13). The aforesaid notions make it reasonable to view Plotinus’ concept of noetic self as pointing to a predominantly relational and dynamic ontology, in which essentialism presupposes no staticity whatsoever, but can rather be seen as a perspective that leads to the development of a harmonious and non-narcissistic creativity.</p> Salvatore Lavecchia Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20315 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:30 +0000 Putting Cosmogony into Words: The Neoplatonists on Metaphysics and Discourse (logos) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20316 <p>The present paper focuses on some aspects of the Neoplatonist literary-metaphysical theory, which has clearly been expressed in the anony­mous <em>Prolegomena </em>to Plato’s philosophy and further confirmed in Proclus’ exegesis of the <em>Timaeus</em>. Thus, this contribution, examines and compares several passages from the <em>Prolegomena </em>and from Proclus’ <em>Commentary on the Timaeus </em>with a view to showing that it is legiti­mate to speak of a certain cosmogony of the Platonic dialogue that is analogous to that of the macrocosm. Moreover, the analogy between macrocosm and microcosm makes it possible to further investigate the similarity between the λόγος-ζῷον of the Demiurge and that of <em>Timaeus</em>, on the one hand, and the reality which the λόγος expresses, on the other. This similarity turns out to be both structural/morphological and content-related/semantic. Thus, by combining the natural and theo­logical science, the analysis of the “generation” of the macrocosm and microcosm brings out the strongly analogical nature of Plato’s dialogues, which is particularly visible in the <em>Timaeus</em>.</p> Anna Motta Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20316 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:31 +0000 On the Origins of the Very First Principle as Infinite: The Hierarchy of the Infinite in Damascius and Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20317 <p>This paper discusses the theoretical relationship between the views of Damascius and those of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. While Damascius’ <em>De principiis </em>is a bold treatise devoted to investigating the hypermetaphysics of apophatism, it anticipates various theoretical positions put forward by Dionysius the Areopagite. The present paper focuses on the following. First, Damascius is the only ancient philoso­pher who systematically demonstrates the first principle to be infinite (traditional Greek thought tended to regard the <em>arkh</em>ē as finite). Second, Damascius modifies the concept and in several important passages shows the infinite to be superior and prior to the finite (previously this assumption was held only by Melissus and, sporadically, by Gregory of Nyssa and Plotinus). Third, Damascius’ theory of being (infinite, endless and ultrarational) is the strongest ancient articulation of the nature of the One which is a clear prefiguration of the negative theology developed by Dionysius the Areopagite.</p> Tiziano F. Ottobrini Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20317 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:32 +0000 From Democritus to Bertrand Russell and Back https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20318 <p>Although Bertrand Russell is probably most famous for his “logi­cal atomism,” it is his ethical thought that this article will attempt to contrast with the ethics of the founder of the ancient atomism: Democritus of Abdera. Russell has himself suggested certain affinity here. More concerned with practice than theory, both philosophers advocate a certain teleological and eudemonistic morality; furthermore, they both adopt the same approaches to various related topics. Yet, what had only been outlined by Democritus was extensively developed by Russell. Hence, it is worth examining whether there is any deeper common ground between the two: can Russell’s clarity throw some light on Democritus’ fragments?</p> André Motte Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20318 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:32 +0000 Adventures of the Mind: Livio Rossetti’s Other Parmenides https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20319 Dario Zucchello Copyright (c) 2019 Authors retain copyright and publishing rights to their articles in this journal, granting the journal the right to distribute them under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/peitho/article/view/20319 Fri, 29 Nov 2019 15:58:33 +0000