https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/issue/feed Przegląd Prawniczy Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza 2020-02-11T07:33:39+00:00 Paweł Kwiatkowski pawel.kwiatkowski@amu.edu.pl Open Journal Systems <p class="oczasopismie">The Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal centred at the Faculty of Law and Administration of Adam Mickiewicz University. The journal is published annually in an open access format under the supervision of a Scientific Board drawn from scholars representing all areas of legal science. Since 2012, the journal has had the privilege of publishing professional articles devoted to law-related issues, written by authors from European, American, Asian and South African Universities, which reflect a diverse and interdisciplinary approach. The Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review seeks to provide a forum for legal discourse in the wide area of domestic and international legal systems by bringing together scientific treatises submitted by a diverse group of scholars and practitioners.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ppuam/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ppuam/issue/current">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ppuam/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W: </strong>Google Scholar; WorldCat<strong><strong><br></strong></strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_6.png" alt=""></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/ppuam</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>2083-9782</div> https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21631 Legal Protection of Property Rights in the Self-Regulating United States Local Recording System 2020-02-10T14:20:44+00:00 Charles Szypszak szypszak@sog.unc.edu <p><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 217.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.947813);">In all legal systems with private property, the government provides a mechanism for </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01294);">owners and lenders to make a public record of their rights. In most countries, the gov</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 264.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.983988);">ernment restricts access to this public record and allows entries into it only after a public </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 287.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.941933);">official approves it. By contrast, no government entity in the United States regulates, </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 311.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99403);">confirms, or guarantees the typical real estate ownership transfer. How this works is not </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 334.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953225);">readily understood even within the United States, where owners and lenders rely on </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 357.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02907);">attorneys and other professionals to examine and understand the public record and to </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02273);">record instruments that protect their clients’ property rights. This article describes the </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 404.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.986962);">laws and legal customs that underlie this self-regulating system, including how they dif</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 404.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 427.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987964);">fer fundamentally from land registration in other countries, and the emerging challenges </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 451.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.976157);">to its reliability. </span></p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21641 The Civil Liability of Asset Managers – a Polish Perspective 2020-02-10T14:20:42+00:00 Tomasz Sójka tomasz.sojka@amu.edu.pl <p>This paper focuses on the civil liability of asset managers in Polish law. Following the transformation of the economic system and the development of the capital market in Poland, the importance of asset management has been gradually increasing, though it remains disproportionally lower when compared to the role of collective asset management in the form of investment funds. The chief purpose of both MiFID directives is to harmonize the rules applicable to investment firms providing brokerage services in Europe, and to protect the interests of investors using brokerage services. Although the civil liability of investment firms offering brokerage services is part of what is broadly construed as investor protection, the regulations on this matter have been left to the member states’ discretion. There is no doubt that discrepancies between member states in this respect diminish the harmonizing effect of both directives. This paper sets out to<br>determine the basic rules of civil liability of asset managers in Polish law, and present suggestions for the most common problems in this field.</p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21647 The Use of the “Dry Submarine” Technique and Other Allegations in Proceedings Before the United Nations Committee on Enforced Disappearaances. Remarks on the Yrusta v. Argentina case no. 1/2013 2020-02-10T14:20:40+00:00 Katarzyna Łasak katarzyna.lasak@ug.edu.pl <p><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.944392);">The prohibition on enforced disappearances is one of the fundamental norms of con</span><span style="left: 668.857px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 264.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02727);">temporary international law which is intended to protect the individual from state re</span><span style="left: 668.857px; top: 264.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 287.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.949554);">pression. Under certain circumstances, a violation of the prohibition is recognized as </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 311.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988317);">a crime of international law. There are no exceptions to the implementation of the norm. </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 334.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.945846);">Since the prohibition is a treaty, States must expressly agree to be bound by it. Not </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 357.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.954553);">all States have done this, but some have, including Argentina. Despite this, Roberto </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.982712);">Agustín Yrusta disappeared. His enforced disappearance was preceded by numerous and </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 404.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999451);">elaborate forms of evil, cruel and humiliating treatment. This paper seeks to answer the </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 427.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02236);">question of how international law can ensure effective enforcement of the prohibition </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 451.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992742);">on enforced disappearance.</span></p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21648 Autonomous Vehicles – a New Challenge to Human Rights? 2020-02-10T14:20:38+00:00 Dominika Iwan dominikaiwan1@gmail.com <p><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 194.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01294);">New technologies, as autonomous vehicles are, disrupt the way people exist, and con</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 194.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 217.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.96069);">sequently with human rights. Research devoted to artificial intelligence and robotics </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988566);">moves freely and the destination, for the time being, is unknown. This is the reason why </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 264.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02005);">special attention should be paid to the ethics of these branches of computer science in </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 287.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00547);">order to prevent the creation of a crisis point, when human beings are no longer neces</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 287.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 311.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994575);">sary.. The aim of this paper is to examine whether such development is a new challenge </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 334.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00961);">to human rights law and what happens when an autonomous vehicle drives an autono</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 334.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 357.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00874);">mous human being. The paper also mentions the desirable level of human control over </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00464);">the machine so that human dignity, from which human rights originate, is preserved.</span></p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21650 Criminal Liability for Crimes Against Humanity as a Problem of International Law 2020-02-10T14:20:56+00:00 Boubacar Sidi Diallo Diallo diallo@amu.edu.pl <p>The article sets out the nature, the history and the general structure of the crime against humanity and provides a comprehensive analytical commentary of the elements of such crimes as a problem of international law. The contextual element determines that crimes against humanity involve either large-scale violence in relation to the number of victims or its extension over a broad geographic area (widespread), or a methodical type of violence (systematic). This excludes random, accidental or isolated acts of violence. In addition, Article 7(2) (a) of the Rome Statute determines that crimes against humanity must be committed in furtherance of a State or organizational policy to commit an attack. The plan or policy does not need to be explicitly stipulated or formally adopted and can, therefore, be inferred from the totality of the circumstances. In contrast with genocide, crimes against humanity do not need to target a specific group. Instead, the victim of the attack can be any civilian population, regardless of its affiliation or identity.</p> Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21651 Crimea and Liability of Russia and Ukraine under the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights 2020-02-10T14:20:54+00:00 Natalia Cwicinskaja nc@amu.edu.pl <p>The aim of this article is to present the liability of Russia and Ukraine regarding Crimea under the European Convention on the Protection of Human Rights. The author analyzes pending and possible prospective cases originating from the conflict around Crimea between Ukraine and Russia. Due to the inconsistency in case law of the EC-tHR it is difficult to clearly determine what state will be considered responsible for the violation of the rights of residents of Crimea resulting from the Convention. In author’s opinion the ECtHR could determine that the Russian Federation may be held respon-sible, as well as Ukraine. However, as it seems, the liability of Ukraine will be limited to the positive obligations under the ECHR.</p> Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21652 Global Space Security and Counter-space Capabilities: the Legal and Political Challenges 2020-02-10T14:20:52+00:00 Małgorzata Polkowska m.polkowska@akademia.mil.pl <p>This article undertakes a very sensitive issue: space security and counterspace capabilities and arms control. Those issues come under the sovereignty of each state and are strictly connected to national defense and policy. Counterspace, also known as space control, is the set of capabilities or techniques that are used to gain space superiority. Space superi-ority is the ability to use space for one`s own purposes while denying it to an adversary. These issues are so important now in the era of fast-growing state activities in space and under such a big dependence on space. Anti-satellite weapons (ASAT) are a subset of offensive counterspace capabilities, although the satellite itself is only one part of the system that can be attacked. That is the reason why protecting space infrastructure, in the absence of stabilized international space control cooperation and difficulties in reaching an agreement on PPWT treaty and lack of progress of international space law in this matter, is crucial by building the Space Situational Awareness system. Collaboration of states in this matter seems to be a priority.</p> Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21653 The Norms of National Law Forming the Basis for the Shaping and Implementing of State Policy in the Field of Energy Security. Discussion Based on the Polish Legal Order1 2020-02-10T14:20:49+00:00 Marcin Kamiński marcin.kaminski@uj.edu.pl <p>The essential aim of the article is the theoretical analysis of the normative basis of the Polish state policy in the field of energy security. The analysis begins with the presen-tation of the state policy and energy policy concepts. The author argues that in the Polish legal order the concept of energy policy is concentrated around the premise of energy security. The next part of the analysis deals with the issues of categories of the norms shaping and implementing of the energy security policy in the Polish legal order.</p> <p>This part of the considerations shows that the normative basis for the determination, implementation and verification of political actions taken by the public authorities in the field of energy security requires the use of specific normative structures. The analysis refers to the conception of ‘goal-oriented norms’. The norms of this kind set binding goals, directions and conditions for the actions of state authorities as well in the field of energy policy. The types of the acts which concretize the goal-oriented norms (e.g. task-oriented norms; directional and determinative norms; planning norms) in the discussed field of state policy are also discussed.</p> Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21664 The Good Neighbourliness Principle in Relations Between the European Union and its Eastern European Neighbours 2020-02-11T07:33:39+00:00 Adriana Kalicka-Mikołajczyk kalicka-mikolajczyk@uwr.edu.pl <p><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01531);">The good neighbourliness principle is one of the most important principles in interna</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 404.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.971507);">tional law which designates a model of peaceful cooperation and mutual tolerance among </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 427.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.979776);">neighbouring states. Its violation in the past, however, very often led to military conflicts </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 451.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01055);">and many international disputes and may lead to serious disputes among neighbouring </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 474.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.934728);">states in the future. Thus, the good neighbourliness principle has a clear legal value</span><span style="left: 687.469px; top: 475.869px; font-size: 9.71667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.894534);">54</span><span style="left: 696.146px; top: 474.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.876);">. </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 497.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991802);">This article analyses the good neighbourliness principle as a key principle that obligates </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 521.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.985646);">neighbouring states to develop and to maintain peaceful interstate relations. The focus is </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 544.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01053);">twofold: firstly, on the scope, content and nature of the good neighbourliness principle </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 567.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.953961);">in international law and secondly, on the impact of the good neighbourliness princi</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 567.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 591.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999268);">ple on the relations between the European Union and its Eastern Neighbours within the </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 614.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999262);">framework of the neighbourhood policy and the enlargement policy. </span></p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21665 The Protection of Whistle-blowers within the Latest Initiatives of the Council of Europe 2020-02-10T14:20:45+00:00 Katarzyna Badźmirowska-Masłowska k.badzmirowskam@akademia.mil.pl <p><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 217.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987181);">The protection of whistle-blowers under the Article 10 of ECHR has faced a lot of com</span><span style="left: 668.857px; top: 217.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 241.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.987718);">plex problems, which had been a result from the implications of ICT`s development and </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 264.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02926);">change of the media environment. The COE is involved in a worldwide debate about </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 287.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.992847);">changes taking places in a contemporary legal system in the context of the protection of </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 311.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01198);">human rights. </span><span style="left: 111.155px; top: 334.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.973179);">Therefore, the review of the latest legal initiatives (resolutions, recommendations, etc.) </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 357.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.02799);">as well as other activities in the field concerned might be helpful to put the question</span><span style="left: 668.857px; top: 357.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 381.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.94264);">able issues.As the article is of the introductory character, further analysis is required. </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 404.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0381);">Within the human rights approach, it should concern, in particular the legal status of </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 427.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.950423);">the whistle-blower and the issues, pertaining to legal and alternative ways of her/his </span><span style="left: 94.4882px; top: 451.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.999355);">protection.</span></p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21690 The Significance of Effective Labour Inspectoratesfor Cross-border Labour Mobility 2020-02-10T14:20:36+00:00 Joanna Ryszka jryszka@uni.opole.pl <p><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 451.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.982801);">Efficiently functioning labour inspectorates play a key role for both fair mobility and the </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 474.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99577);">protection of workers’ rights. They contribute, for example, to combating and eliminat</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 474.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 497.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.998606);">ing hazardous working conditions, and ensuring that remuneration and social insurance </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 521.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.980359);">premiums are actually paid. This is significant in the context of the posting of workers in </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 544.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00227);">the framework of the provision of services. Establishing the liability regarding compli</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 544.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 567.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.991159);">ance with the occupational health and safety regulations is causing serious practical dif</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 567.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 591.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.997462);">ficulties. Therefore, it is important above all to identify initiatives undertaken at the EU </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 614.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.97753);">level designed to enhance cooperation of national labour inspectors in this field. It is also </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 637.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0015);">important to carry out an assessment whether they work efficiently, require systematis</span><span style="left: 692.479px; top: 637.789px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 661.122px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.00505);">ing, or perhaps it is necessary to undertake more formalised initiatives, e.g. in the form </span><span style="left: 118.11px; top: 684.455px; font-size: 16.6667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0197);">of a new EU institution.</span></p> 2019-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21676 Interpretation of Art. 54 of the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement 2020-02-10T14:20:35+00:00 Oskar Losy oskar.losy@amu.edu.pl <p>The paper discusses the problem of the ne bis in idem principle stipulated in the Convention Implementing the Schengen Agreement (CISA) and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Article 54 of the CISA makes the application of the principle ne bis in idem subject to the condition of execution of the penalty. An analogous condition is not provided for in the Charter. These differences caused doubts regarding<br>the application of the ne bis in idem principle and were subject of the question for preliminary ruling in the Spasic case (C-129/14 PPU). The paper contains a critical review of the reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union in this judgment. In addition, the article also contains an analysis of the CJEU’s decision in Case C-398/12 M. in which the CJEU has analysed the meaning of “final disposal” of the judgment in the context of the ne bis in idem principle. Based on the above judgments, the article presents arguments indicating that the reasoning of the CJEU on the conditions for the application of the ne bis in idem principle in judicial cooperation in criminal matters in the EU is not consistent.</p> 2020-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21679 Spectators` “Blacklists” and Recovery of Damages by Football Clubs from Spectators for the Violation of Rules of Conduct: A Russian Experience 2020-02-10T14:20:30+00:00 Ilya Vasilyev i.vasilev@spbu.ru Yue Hong Qiang yuehongqiang163@163.com Anastasia Kashaeva n.kashaeva2012@mail.ru Margarita Izmalkova izm-margarita@yandex.ru Raisa Khalatova halri2halri@gmail.com <p>The right of football clubs to establish local bans (the so-called “blacklists”) depends on a number of reasons. A local ban on visiting football matches can act as a measure to combat the unlawful behaviour of viewers, thus complementing the administrative responsibility of the spectators. In Russian law it is not possible to impose a ban on the sale of tickets to football matches by football clubs. The current wording of the rules of spectators’ behaviour during official sporting events does not, by default, allow supporter identity checks when entering the stadium. That also complicates the identification of spectators for being on the “blacklist”. The practice of civil suits brought by football clubs against supporters, as one of the few legal tools to influence supporters, is currently not widespread. As a result, there are no uniform approaches to resolve these disputes: the courts motivate refusals by various arguments, the validity of which can be reasonably criticised.</p> 2020-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ppuam/article/view/21677 Is Separation of Powers a Useless Concept? Part II: Tripartite System Criticism and Application Problems 2020-02-10T14:20:33+00:00 Martin Hapla martinhapla@gmail.com <p>In this paper, the author raised the question of whether the separation of powers is a useless concept. It summarizes some critical arguments against the tripartite separation of powers. The paper deals with application issues related to the separation of powers and distinguishes several attitudes toward them, which it then analyses in more detail. Great attention is dedicated to formalism and functionalism. Eventually, the author wonders whether it would be better to innovate the idea of separation of powers, or to dismiss and replace it with some other principle. He concludes that the separation of powers has problems, but we need to evaluate this idea in relation to its possible alternatives. In such a light it still sounds promising.</p> 2020-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c)