Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne. Seria Językoznawcza 2021-10-05T07:06:11+00:00 dr Paulina Michalska-Górecka Open Journal Systems <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong><br>„Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne” ukazują się od roku 1973, pierwotnie jako czasopismo wspólne dla problematyki literaturoznawczej i językoznawczej, w 1994 roku rozdzielone na dwie serie: Literacką i Językoznawczą. W Serii Językoznawczej publikowane są artykuły dotyczące zarówno współczesnej, jak i historycznej polszczyzny, historii dyscypliny oraz recenzje prac naukowych. W ostatnich latach problematyka została rozszerzona o zagadnienia slawistyczne.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/issue/view/3">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>CEJSH, ERIH PLUS, PKP Index; Google Scholar; WorldCat<strong><br></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong> <p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_3.png" alt=""><br><br><strong>MNiSW: 40</strong><br><br><strong><span style="white-space: nowrap;">ICV&nbsp;2019&nbsp;=&nbsp;85.98</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="white-space: nowrap;">LICZBA POBRAŃ: 47306 (2020)</span></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/pspsj</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN (Print)&nbsp;</strong>1233-8672&nbsp;<strong>ISSN (Online) </strong>2450-4939<!--<strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2084-4158--></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>PRACE PUBLIKOWANE W CZASOPIŚMIE <strong>OD 2016 r.</strong> DOSTĘPNE SĄ NA LICENCJI CREATIVE COMMONS:</strong><br><a href=""><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc_4_by_nd.png" alt="CC_by-nd/4.0" border="0"></a></div> Legal design jako narzędzie umożliwiające osiągnięcie komunikatywności tekstu prawnego 2021-10-04T09:41:04+00:00 Aleksandra Bieniek Rafał Lorent <p>The article discusses the idea of legal design as an approach to legal communication that takes into account the needs of the readers of a normalised legal text and combines linguistic and non-linguistics techniques. It includes examples of legal regulations that refer to the intelligibility and clarity, also discussing the communication challenges that authors of legal texts are faced with. The aim of the article is to explain the term ‘legal design’ whose role as a tool for ensuring communicativeness is becoming more widely recognised by the specialists in the practice and theory of law and linguistics.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Aleksandra Bieniek, Rafał Lorent Współczesne teksty urzędowe a zasady prostej polszczyzny (na wybranych przykładach) 2021-10-04T09:41:02+00:00 Bartłomiej Cieśla <p>The aim of the article is to analyse forty-one official documents issued by three units of public administration: a voivodeship office, district office and district employment agency. The employees of the first of these have been striving for some time for a simplification and unification of documents, using the suggestions from linguists and sometimes resorting to their own intuition. In order to reach this goal, they have set up a set of rules that they believe make the text more intelligible to their addresses. The employees of the district office and the district employment agency have never made any significant changes to the way official documents are written and have more reservations about simplifying them. The documents discussed in the article will be evaluated in the context of plain Polish language advocated for by the members of the Plain Polish Workshop at the University of Wrocław. The main thesis of the text is the indication that modernising official documents in order to simplify and standardise them is a positive and needed action that benefits not only the addressee, but also the sender of the message.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bartłomiej Cieśla Pojęcie przestępstwa lingwistycznego i jego typologie 2021-10-04T09:40:59+00:00 Anna Falana-Jafra <p>The aim of the article is to formulate a definition of linguistic crimes as a specific type of crimes penalised in Polish criminal laws and to categorise them according to the follow­ing criteria: the nature of the perpetrator’s enforcement activities; the use of language or failure to use it; the length of the linguistic enforcement activities; the authorship of statements; the nature of the legal good to be protected. Human behaviour, which is legally classified as a linguistic offence, is performative in nature and therefore has the legal effect of making the offender criminally responsible and of imposing criminal sanctions on him/her by the competent state authorities. In the article, the performative function of language will be extended to include the notion of passive performativity, resulting from an offence committed as a result of the failure to use language in situa­tions where its use is required by the legal system.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Anna Falana-Jafra Kodowanie wartości prawnych w przepisach Konstytucji Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z 1997 roku. Perspektywa aksjologicznej wykładni prawa 2021-10-04T09:40:57+00:00 Marzena Kordela <p>The derivative theory of interpretation of law assumes the rationality of the lawmaker according to which the lawmaker is guided in their work by a coherent, hierarchical and relatively stable system of values comprising three categories: legally binding, reference values and universal values. In order to adequately reconstruct the legally binding category, the directives of the axiological interpretation are used. Thus, each word and phrase of every text of a normative act, including the Polish Constitution, can be assigned a function of the carrier of legal values provided that they meet the conditions imposed on them by the appropriate interpretation directives.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marzena Kordela Gerundialne jednostki tekstu prawnego – problem identyfikacji 2021-10-04T09:40:55+00:00 Andrzej Moroz <p>This text is an attempt to apply the concept of a legal text unit to the description of strictly defined structures of legal texts, namely the gerund strings. The main attention is focused on the methods used to identify multi-segment terminological structures and on distinguishing them from strings that constitute a combination of linguistic expressions. The overall conclusion of such analysis is based on the indication of the mechanism used for connecting and limiting gerund structures in this scope. Therefore, this work includes, among others, the formal procedure of verification, which allows for distinguishing, with significant precision, the syntactic constructions with gerund forms and similar sequences of terms.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Andrzej Moroz Współczesne zmiany kulturowo-komunikacyjne a język prawa. Uwagi na marginesie propozycji nowego modelu uzasadnienia orzeczeń sądowych 2021-10-04T09:40:53+00:00 Paweł Nowak Mariusz Rutkowski <p>The subject of the article is the structure and linguistic shape of a specific type of legal genre – the reasons for the judgement. The authors, as members of the project and training team, actively participate in the transformation of the communication standards for the Polish judiciary community. They work with the assumption that the long-standing tradition of legal communication is hermetic and results in texts which are uncommunicative and unintelligible to an average reader. In the article, the authors present the social, media, linguistic and communication contexts of such texts. They emphasise their retropical character and indicate the possible direction of changes towards less hermetic and more everyday communication experiences, closer to the average reader. In the conclusion, they underline the importance of the intelligibility of a text as the basic parameter of effective communication and advocate for a systemic change of contemporary legal communication. Based on the texts of reasons for the judgement, they show that such a change is possible as long as it is accepted by the judiciary community in the first place.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Paweł Nowak, Mariusz Rutkowski Techniki ustanawiania ekwiwalencji w wybranych tekstach stylu urzędowego z XVII i XVIII wieku 2021-10-04T09:40:50+00:00 Błażej Osowski <p>Equivalence may be interpreted as the relationship between units of the same lan­guage or two different languages. The article analyses the equivalence between units of the same linguistic system, with the assumption that equivalence is the relation­ship between words/phrases with a common referent. This is a semantic relationship strongly dependent on context; one which is fully realised only on the level of <em>parole</em>, a specific use. The analysed material comprises inventories, surveys and testaments from the seventeenth and (mostly) eighteenth centuries. The aim of the article is to present the methods for determining equivalence between the units present in the text. Seven of such methods are highlighted.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Błażej Osowski W poszukiwaniu uniwersalnej metody upraszczania pism urzędowych i decyzji administracyjnych 2021-10-04T09:40:49+00:00 Tomasz Piekot <p>Since 2018, the key Polish offices have been signing the declaration for plain language, one of the key provisions of which is the call for the simplification of official documents sent to citizens. The aim of the article is to present the methods for simplifying texts, created at the University of Wrocław. The author focuses in particular on indicating the limitations of the proposed method in reference to administrative (fiscal) decisions and those decisions which are not documents from the legal perspective. The article presents examples of simplified documents and decisions.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tomasz Piekot Postulat usunięcia terminu obyczajność z Kodeksu karnego 2021-10-04T09:40:20+00:00 Łukasz Piosik <p>In my article, I formulate and describe the demand to remove the term <em>obyczajność </em>(propriety) from the Penal Code. In the course of the analysis, I will attempt to prove that its presence in the Act is an example of cultivating a terminological tradition that dates back to the partitions period and was started for a reason that is currently out­dated – the general language was insufficient to describe sexual crimes. I also show that due to the discrepancy between the general and legal language, the use of the term <em>obyczajność </em>may mislead a non-professional interpreter of a legal text. The text con­cludes with a more precise description of the titular demand, i.e. a proposal to change the title of Chapter 25 of the Penal Code.</p> 2021-09-30T08:52:16+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Łukasz Piosik Wpływ dwujęzyczności na kształtowanie się urzędowej odmiany języka – na przykładzie średniowiecznych wielkopolskich rot sądowych 2021-10-04T09:40:46+00:00 Agnieszka Słoboda <p>The article discusses Polish-Latin bilingualism of Polish medieval legal texts and its impact on the shaping of the official language variant. The article presents construc­tions that, in their own structure of court oath, include a form of set and often repeated formulas. These are: the formula of initial oath (<em>Tako mi pomoży Bog i święty krzyż </em>[so help me God and the holy cross]) and the comparative construction indicating the mem­bership of a social class of the participants of the events (<em>tako dobry jako sam </em>[as good as himself]) or the material value (<em>tako dobry jako </em>[as good as]). These constructions would appear in the Polish text in Latin, both in full or shortened form, or they would be part in Polish, part in Latin. The stable form of constructions that appeared in Latin as calques due to the influence of Polish indicates that they became, as a result of the domination of the Latin template, vivid markers of the official style in medieval Polish.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Agnieszka Słoboda Prawnie istotne aspekty interpretacji językoznawczej – przykład 2: zakres znaczeniowy leksemu zboczeniec (i czy jest nim homoseksualista?) 2021-10-04T09:40:44+00:00 Michał Szczyszek <p>In the article, I discuss the legal aspects of language: using linguistic analyses for the benefit of the courts. I discuss linguists’ court communication situation and the expectations towards them. The starting point is one exemplary court case in which an expert linguist was appointed to issue an opinion on the evidence. The conclusions fall into two categories: linguistics and forensic science. Linguistic conclusions, developed in accordance with traditional methods of lexicographic analysis and lexicological and semantic analysis, are not necessarily (because they would not have to be) innovative for linguists. It was more important to show the situation of a linguist in court, the structure of judicial opinion and the procedures for building the linguistic response to a process inquiry as seen from the forensic perspective.&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Michał Szczyszek Cytaty i plagiaty. Tekst piosenki i wypowiedzi slamerskie w świetle prawa autorskiego 2021-10-04T09:40:42+00:00 Dagmara Świerkowska <p>The most important function of copyright is the protection of products of creativity, property rights and personal creator. In this broad sense, the laws protecting the author are understood and accepted by practice all over the world. The main focus of this article is to analyse the lyrics of Polish songs whose authors entered the judicial path to investigate one’s rights, and to compare them with spoken word texts, which, due to frequent references to the works of other authors, could be considered illegal. The research material consists of open court judgments, song lyrics and recordings of slam poetry texts collected by the author.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dagmara Świerkowska Prosty język w komunikacji prawniczej – okiem redaktora językowego 2021-10-04T09:40:39+00:00 Justyna Zandberg-Malec <p>The article discusses the practical use of plain language rules in editing law-related texts. The author believes that it is possible and worth the effort to write legal texts in accordance with the rules of plain language, i.e. with the expected reader in mind, giving examples of rewritten sentences taken from the articles for an online law portal. The author divides the processes in terms of ‘structural order’ and ‘linguistic order’ and shows that even cosmetic editing in the spirit of plain language, without affecting the text’s structure, improves its intelligibility.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Justyna Zandberg-Malec Zwroty grzecznościowe w korespondencji prywatnej na Śląsku Cieszyńskim końca XIX i pierwszej połowy XX wieku 2021-10-04T09:40:37+00:00 Swietłana Gaś <p>The study presents the results of the analysis of verbal politeness in private letters. The persuasive aspect was taken into account. The paper concentrates on unpublished let­ters and greeting cards written by inhabitants of Teschen Silesia from the 1894–1952 period. The study shows a local model of politeness. Complying with the rules, the sender of private letters can affect the recipient more efficiently.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Swietłana Gaś Argumentacja ex auctoritate w uzasadnianiu twierdzeń w tekstach homilii 2021-10-04T09:40:35+00:00 Michał Klementowicz <p>Each public speech (including the homily) should be associated with showing the right which serves as the basis for accepting the presented statements. This is one of the fundamental features of the correct construction of a statement. The theological content of a homily can be presented on the basis of the classical form of <em>argumentum ex auctoritate</em>. As an inductive structure, this argument may promote specific ways of organising the whole speech. Firstly, in the rhetorical <em>inventio </em>structure, it allows the author to control the semantic coherence of the text. Secondly, in the structure of <em>dis­positio</em>, the authority can make for an interesting use of rhetorical narrative in homily text. Thirdly, <em>argumentum ex auctoritate </em>can be used to build the <em>ethos </em>of the preacher. Thanks to the above proposals, it is possible to influence the processuality of the text, which may determine the recognition and assimilation of the different key elements, both of which are crucial for preaching.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Michał Klementowicz „Pani gruba i nieletka, gruba także portmonetka” – o dawnych i współczesnych znaczeniach (użyciach) przymiotnika gruby 2021-10-05T07:06:11+00:00 Jarosław Pacuła <p>In the article, the author presents the semantics of the lexeme <em>gruby</em>. He draws attention to the stages and mechanisms of shaping secondary meanings of the word (presenting changes from the Old Polish period to the present day). The analyses are based on the methods commonly adopted in lexical semantics. A special place in the considera­tions is given to the meaning ‘an obese, overweight person.’ The observations also concern aesthetic evaluation in language (and, partly, ethical evaluation as well), and at the same time the topic is connected with the analysis of the exponents of lexical parameterisation.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jarosław Pacuła Funkcje form komicznych (memów internetowych i dowcipów) związanych z pandemią COVID-19 2021-10-04T09:40:32+00:00 Dorota Szagun <p>The subject of the study is the analysis of a series of Internet memes and linguistic jokes made available in pseudomemic form in connection with the COVID-19 pan­demic. Comedy itself feeds on any deviations from the norm observed in social, and especially political, life; it captures all the aberrations, nonsense and inconsistencies. The pandemic emergency is fraught with new situations and rules that constitute such a deviation. A vivid social reaction is especially visible in the multisemiotic comic genres, such as Internet memes, due to their channel of entry (the Internet becomes the main channel of communication outside of family communities during social isolation), plasticity and susceptibility to replication. Comic forms, apart from peculiarly ludic and humorous functions, also perform persuasive functions, activating the social need to differentiate between oneself and the stranger, and consequently isolate or integrate certain social groups. In addition, Internet memes also serve as a commentary on current events, thus prompting the audience to take a position. Persuasion dressed in a comic costume seems to be one of the strongest ways of social influence, because it spreads in its innocent and playful form like a viral and becomes firmly fixed in social consciousness.</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dorota Szagun Magdalena Grabowska, Komunikacja oknem na kulturę. Wspólnota dyskursu kulturowym wymiarem funkcjonowania społeczności ewangelikalnej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 2017, ss. 235 2021-10-04T09:40:30+00:00 Karolina Bogacz-Kańka <p>Recenzja. Magdalena Grabowska, Komunikacja oknem na kulturę. Wspólnota dyskursu kulturowym wymiarem funkcjonowania społeczności ewangelikalnej, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 2017, ss. 235</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Karolina Bogacz-Kańka Agnieszka Piela, Słownik frazeologizmów z archaizmami. Pamiątki przeszłości, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2018, ss. 352 2021-10-04T09:40:28+00:00 Gabriela Dziamska-Lenart <p>Recenzja. Agnieszka Piela, Słownik frazeologizmów z archaizmami. Pamiątki przeszłości, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2018, ss. 352</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriela Dziamska-Lenart Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek, Związki frazeologiczne i skrzydlate słowa powstałe pod wpływem języka polityki oraz ich modyfikacje, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Kielce 2020, ss. 274 2021-10-04T09:40:26+00:00 Piotr Fliciński <p>Recenzja. Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek, Związki frazeologiczne i skrzydlate słowa powstałe pod wpływem języka polityki oraz ich modyfikacje, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach, Kielce 2020, ss. 274</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Piotr Fliciński Jak się ukryć za słowami? Tomasz Łukasz Nowak, Język ukrycia. Zapisany socjolekt gejów, Universitas, Kraków 2020, ss. 273 2021-10-04T09:40:24+00:00 Monika Grzelka <p>Recenzja. Jak się ukryć za słowami? Tomasz Łukasz Nowak, Język ukrycia. Zapisany socjolekt gejów, Universitas, Kraków 2020, ss. 273</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Grzelka Yury Fedorushkov, Adaptacja warsztatu leksykograficznego do automatyzacji rozpoznawania frazemów w systemie uczącym się (na przykładzie konstrukcji werbo-nominalnych języka rosyjskiego), Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2019, ss. 292 2021-10-04T09:40:22+00:00 Michał Szczyszek <p>Recenzja. Yury Fedorushkov, Adaptacja warsztatu leksykograficznego do automatyzacji rozpoznawania frazemów w systemie uczącym się (na przykładzie konstrukcji werbo-nominalnych języka rosyjskiego), Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM, Poznań 2019, ss. 292</p> 2021-09-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Michał Szczyszek