Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne. Seria Językoznawcza 2022-01-07T09:48:02+00:00 dr Paulina Michalska-Górecka Open Journal Systems <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong><br>„Poznańskie Studia Polonistyczne” ukazują się od roku 1973, pierwotnie jako czasopismo wspólne dla problematyki literaturoznawczej i językoznawczej, w 1994 roku rozdzielone na dwie serie: Literacką i Językoznawczą. W Serii Językoznawczej publikowane są artykuły dotyczące zarówno współczesnej, jak i historycznej polszczyzny, historii dyscypliny oraz recenzje prac naukowych. W ostatnich latach problematyka została rozszerzona o zagadnienia slawistyczne.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/issue/view/3">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/pspsj/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>CEJSH, ERIH PLUS, PKP Index; Google Scholar; WorldCat<strong><br></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong> <p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_3.png" alt=""><br><br><strong>MNiSW: 40</strong><br><br><strong><span style="white-space: nowrap;">ICV&nbsp;2019&nbsp;=&nbsp;85.98</span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="white-space: nowrap;">LICZBA POBRAŃ: 47306 (2020)</span></strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/pspsj</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN (Print)&nbsp;</strong>1233-8672&nbsp;<strong>ISSN (Online) </strong>2450-4939<!--<strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2084-4158--></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>PRACE PUBLIKOWANE W CZASOPIŚMIE <strong>OD 2016 r.</strong> DOSTĘPNE SĄ NA LICENCJI CREATIVE COMMONS:</strong><br><a href=""><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc_4_by_nd.png" alt="CC_by-nd/4.0" border="0"></a></div> O świadomości genologicznej Józefa Piłsudskiego (rekonesans) 2022-01-04T10:22:50+00:00 Władysława Bryła <p>The article describes Józef Piłsudski’s texts on various types of speech. The bibliography of Piłudski’s works includes over thirty types of speech, which speaks to his linguistic agility. Our outline includes the analysis of four selected types of texts: aphorism, diatribe, denunciation and feuilleton written in various times in the course of his life. All of them were persuasive in nature and were written using a highly emotional language.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Władysława Bryła Kajetan Kraszewski a kwestia unicka na Podlasiu w świetle Silva rerum. Wybrane problemy 2022-01-04T10:22:47+00:00 Feliks Czyżewski <p>The article presents Kajetan Kraszewski’s opinions on the Uniate Church in Podlasie, included in his Silva rerum. The views of the author of Kronika rodzinna (Family chronicle) are confronted with the statements of the researchers (mostly historians, literary scholars and linguists) within the broad context of the political, social and cultural life of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the partition periods. By comparing research literature and excerpts from Silva rerum, the article analyses the effects of the Union of Lublin and the Union of Brest for the peasant community of Podlasie in the 1860s and 1870s. As presented in Kajetan Kraszewski’s Kronika, the tragedy of the followers of the Uniate Church in Podlasie resulted from the social and religious conditions that fuelled the divides during the time of the Russian partition (divide et impera). Kraszewski’s Silva rerum constitutes an image of the distance with which peasants treated Podlasie’s Uniate Church members, similar to the latter’s during the “masters’” uprising of 1863 (“in the masters’ uprising – we stayed aside watching”).</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Feliks Czyżewski Leksykografia Andrzeja Calagiusa. Uwagi wstępne 2022-01-04T10:22:46+00:00 Lucyna Agnieszka Jankowiak <p>The aim of this article is to review the lexicography of Andrzej Calagius, to present a list of his dictionaries of synonyms and to correct the misinformation about his dictionaries. The article describes three German-Polish-Latin editions (1579, 1595, 1602), one German-Latin edition (1597), and two Latin editions (1592 and 1594). It also proves that these multilingual editions are not revised versions of the 1579 edition but independent dictionaries.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lucyna Agnieszka Jankowiak Arka Przymierza w Kronice, to jest historyi świata Marcina Bielskiego 2022-01-04T10:22:44+00:00 Dorota Kozaryn <p>This article discusses the ways in which the biblical Ark of the Covenant is presented in Marcin Bielski’s Kronika, to jest historyja świata (Chronicle, that is the history of the world). The analyses point to Bielski’s use of a loanword in the form of arka or archa, the word’s translations into skrzynia (chest), and a sequence of both these terms. Bielski’s ignoring of the biblical translations of this term is also emphasised by his choice of determiners for the Ark. A search for the sources that Bielski drew from for the names he used for the Ark of the Covenant in the Vulgate, P. Comestor’s Historia scholastica, the Hebrew Bible, and the known medieval and 16th-century translations of the Bible, allows for concluding that the author felt free and unrestricted in his choices and followed guidelines known to him alone.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dorota Kozaryn Uwagi etymologiczne w dawnych tekstach użytkowych (na przykładzie Kroniki, to jest historyi świata Marcina Bielskiego, Informacyi matematycznej Wojciecha Bystrzonowskiego i Nowych Aten Benedykta Chmielowskiego) 2022-01-04T10:22:41+00:00 Dorota Kozaryn Agnieszka Szczaus <p>The subject of the analysis in the article are the etymological explanations presented in the old non-literary texts (i.e. the texts that function primarily outside literature, serving various practical purposes), i.e. in the sixteenth-century Kronika, to jest historyja świata (Chronicle, that is the history of the entire world) by Marcin Bielski and in two eighteenth-century encyclopaedic texts: Informacyja matematyczna (Mathematical information) by Wojciech Bystrzonowski and Nowe Ateny (New Athens) by Benedykt Chmielowski. The review of the etymological comments allows us to take notice of their considerable substantive and formal diversity. These comments apply to both native and foreign vocabulary. On the one hand, they provide information on the origin of proper names (toponyms and anthroponyms), and on the other hand, a whole range of these etymological comments concern common names. A depth of etymological comments presented in non-literary texts is significantly diversified and independent of the nature of the vocabulary to which these comments apply – they can be merely tips on sources of borrowings of foreign words, but they can also constitute a deeper analysis of the meaning and structure of individual words, both native and foreign. These comments are usually implementations of folk etymology. The role of etymological considerations in former non-literary texts is significant. First of all, these texts have a ludic function, typical of popularised texts – they are supposed to surprise, intrigue and entertain readers. Secondly, they serve a cognitive function typical of non-literary texts – they are supposed to expand the readers’ knowledge about the world and language. Thirdly, they have a persuasive function, which is a distinctive feature of both popularised and non-literary texts – they are supposed to provoke the readers’ thoughts on the relationship between non-linguistic reality and the linguistic way of its interpretation, they also stimulate linguistic interests, which was particularly important in the past when the reflection on the native language was poor.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dorota Kozaryn, Agnieszka Szczaus Leksyka z zakresu wróżbiarstwa i czarów w Nowym wielkim dykcjonarzu Pierre’a Daneta i Dymitra Franciszka Koli 2022-01-04T10:22:38+00:00 Marek Marczak <p>The paper aims to investigate Polish lexis belonging to the semantic fields of DIVINATION and WITCHCRAFT. The material was excerpted from the 18th-century trilingual Nowy wielki dykcjonarz (New grand dictionary). The semantic fields under analysis were divided into subfields. In the case of DIVINATION, the subfields of DIVINATION PRACTISES and PEOPLE FORETELLING THE FUTURE were identified. In turn, WITCHCRAFT was subdivided into MAGICAL PRACTICES, PEOPLE PRACTISING MAGIC and EFFECTS OF MAGIC. The analysis of the retrieved material suggests that the number of individual lexemes is relatively small and usually polysemic, which appears to contradict the popularity and prevalence of divination and witchcraft in the 18th-century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as established by cultural historians. The supposed misrepresentation of the semantic fields under scrutiny may reflect the didactic nature of the Polish part of the dictionary.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marek Marczak Językoznawcze zainteresowania Józefa Ignacego Kraszewskiego 2022-01-05T10:02:08+00:00 Urszula Sokólska <p>The article is devoted to the linguistics interests of Józef Ignacy Kraszewki who views language as a complex lexical, syntactic and semantic structure rather than merely the matter used for creating a literary vision of the world. The subjects of the detailed analysis are the journalistic and quasi-linguistic texts published in Studia literackie (Literary studies) and Nowe studia literackie (New literary studies) which discuss the relics of the Polish language’s past and the development of its vocabulary, with particular focus on the status of loanwords, neologisms and archaisms from various stages of the development of the Polish language. The image that emerges from the analysed texts is one of a writer-linguist who perfectly understands the mechanisms that rule language and who shows that language is dynamic and changes due to the needs of its users and all possible external factors.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Urszula Sokólska Choroby i ich objawy w XIX-wiecznym Słowniku polsko-łacińsko-łotewskim Jana Kurmina 2022-01-04T10:22:34+00:00 Konrad Kazimierz Szamryk <p>This article presents an analysis of the names of diseases and their symptoms in Słownik polsko-łacińsko-łotewski (The Polish-Latin-Latvian dictionary) by Jan Kurmin (ed. Vilnius, 1858). The number of excerpted lexical items (377) is presented in 11 semantic fields (from the most expanded to the smallest one): diseases of the motor system, skin diseases, respiratory system diseases, symptoms of multiple diseases, internal diseases, infectious diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, wounds and cuts, digestive system diseases, mental diseases, cardiovascular diseases. The analysis shows that despite the high ability to observe symptoms, the knowledge of treatments remained limited, which is why the dictionary presents mostly diseases that can be easily observed with the unaided eye. The non-professional character of the dictionary is also evidenced by the use of synonymous sequences, vocabulary with indistinct meaning, and descriptive names of diseases.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Konrad Kazimierz Szamryk Kilka uwag o języku i kontekście kulturowym Diariusza podróżnego hetmana Filipa Orlika 2022-01-04T10:22:32+00:00 Mariola Walczak-Mikołajczakowa Aleksander Wojciech Mikołajczak <p>The article’s subject of interest is the language of the Travel Diary written by the Cossack hetman Pylyp Orlyk from 1720 to 1732 during a trip from Stockholm to Istanbul. The article refers to the so-called “macaronisation”, i.e. the saturation of the text with Latin and/or Italian words and borrowings from other languages, typical of Polish texts of the Baroque period. A large part is devoted to Turkish words because a significant part of Pylyp Orlyk’s journey went through the lands belonging to the Ottoman Empire in the eighteenth century.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mariola Walczak-Mikołajczakowa, Aleksander Mikołajczak Między ziemią obiecaną a krainą rozczarowań – profile EUROPY we Wszystkich wojnach Lary Wojciecha Jagielskiego 2022-01-05T13:29:59+00:00 Sara Akram <p>The aim of the article is to point out and describe the profiles of the concept of EUROPE in Wojciech Jagielski’s non-fiction book All Lara’s Wars. Profiling in ethnolinguistics is a process of creating an individual image (profile) of a particular object. The profiles can be diverse, depending on what kind of aspects are important in shaping a particular subjective vision. Based on the linguistic analysis of the chosen quotes from the book, six profiles of EUROPE have been pointed out: promised land, open home, fortress, package, waiting room and land of disappointment. The common aspect which can be found in all the profiles is the geographical one. However, each profile is shaped differently and is dominated by one of the aspects: living, social or civilisational (cultural). Two of the profiles are positively valued (promised land and open home) and the other four are negatively valued, which leads to the conclusion that the image of EUROPE presented in the book is mostly characterised as pejorative.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sara Akram Tryb rozkazujący – uwagi o definiowaniu pojęcia i zakresie jego użycia w opisach systemu fleksyjnego współczesnego języka polskiego 2022-01-05T13:30:54+00:00 Krystyna Bojałkowska <p>The aim of this paper is to present how the imperative mood is defined in the descriptions of the inflection system of the contemporary Polish language. First of all, imperative mood is considered to be the value of one of the inflection categories of mood, and the forms representing it, e.g. zrób! (‘do!’), myj! (‘wash!’) are considered to be in opposition to the forms of the declarative and the conditional moods. On the other hand, the imperative is a grammatical means that expresses the so-called deontic modality and utterances with imperative forms are treated, before anything else, as acts of directive speech. This way of defining the imperative mood is the reason why the status of such forms as wygraj! (‘win!’), otrzymaj! (‘receive!’), (nie) umieraj! (‘[not] die!’) or bądź (szczęśliwy) (‘be [happy]’) is problematic, because they constitute a non-directive use of the imperative mood. The conclusion is that the way of defining the imperative mood in Polish requires clarification.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) Funkcjonowanie zwrotów leżeć bykiem i leżeć martwym bykiem w polszczyźnie 2022-01-05T13:31:19+00:00 Jolanta Ignatowicz-Skowrońska <p>The article discusses the motivation and the functioning of two phraseological units in the Polish language, namely leżeć bykiem (to idle lazily) and leżeć martwym bykiem (to be resting idly). Resulting from independent derivations, they appeared in the Polish language in the second half of the twentieth century. Due to formal similarity, though, they quickly developed relations which led to the transformations of their meaning and form.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jolanta Ignatowicz-Skowrońska Wizerunek kobiety w polskich afektonimach w świetle teorii stereotypów płciowych 2022-01-05T13:31:49+00:00 Agnieszka Jedziniak <p>This article aims to present the image of a woman in Polish affectionate names in the light of the theory of gender stereotypes. Special attention has been paid to the linguistic and cultural status of female affectionate names. Based on the analysis of selected female affectionate names, the author demonstrates that they contain some women’s representations that depend on features assigned to women in social and cultural stereotypes (physical, mental and behavioural) such as beauty, grace, timidity, kindness, peace, protectiveness, modesty, etc. It has been noticed that this image can be both positive and negative.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Agnieszka Jedziniak Językowe zabawy w wierszach Małgorzaty Strzałkowskiej 2022-01-05T13:32:16+00:00 Ewa Kaptur <p>The article presents the linguistic games in selected poems by Małgorzata Strzałkowska. The subject of the research were 300 works from ten volumes that have been published over the last twenty-five years. The text examines these verbal games, which are mainly based on the sound layer of the utterance, i.e. sounds / sounds, onomatopoeia, rhymes, and rhythm. It was found that Strzałkowska’s poems can be ready-made lesson plans that can be used in Polish lessons, in phonetics, in voice emission as well as during speech diagnosis or therapy.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ewa Kaptur Obsceniczne, obraźliwe czy „śmieszne”? O odbiorze społecznym kilku typów nazw miejscowych pogranicza polsko-wschodniosłowiańskiego 2022-01-05T13:32:40+00:00 Mariusz Koper <p>This article examines local place names which may, due to their form or their use in a wider context of a speech act, be considered to be obscene, offensive or funny. The first group includes names that evoke troublesome associations, even though they are not, etymologically speaking, connected with the taboo sphere (e.g. Gacie, Hujsko, Podupce). The second group consists of place names whose obscene or humorous character is recognisable only by those with relevant linguistic knowledge and awareness (e.g. Przedrzymiechy, Pukarzów, Tarzymiechy). The third and final group contains names whose potentially ridiculous and humorous character is present only when accompanied by a broader text and context of an utterance (e.g. Nielisz, Niemce, Cyców).</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mariusz Koper Z problematyki opisu frazeologii publicystycznej 2022-01-05T13:33:07+00:00 Iwona Kosek <p>The article analyses the sources of phraseological units occurring in the media and in journalistic texts of contemporary Polish language. The first part of the article contains a few remarks on two types of new noun phrases, e.g. Europa dwu prędkości (two-/multi-speed Europe), mowa nienawiści (hate speech), dane wrażliwe (sensitive data). The second part indicates the main problems related to the linguistic description of phraseology in journalism: the phraseologism – term relation and the difficulties in identifying the sources of phraseological units (the type of loanword).</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Iwona Kosek Z badań nad Biłgorajem. Weryfikacja i dopełnienie 2022-01-05T13:33:30+00:00 Władysław Makarski <p>The article presents the state of research into the toponym Biłgoraj: initially incorrectly interpreted as a topographic name consisting of the segment Biel- “swamp” (&gt;Ukrainian Bił-) and the morpheme -goraj “mountainous terrain”. Another interpretation of this toponym says that this name is memorial and physiographic in nature, with its first physiographic part coming from the local adjective *bieły (in general Polish biały “white”), shortened to Bieł- (&gt;Ukrainian Bił-), referring to the first part of the name of the river *Bieła Łada &lt; Biała Łada, which Biłgoraj is located on, and the second morpheme – the memorial one taken from the name of a nearby settlement Goraj, which was the seat of the ancestors of Adam Gorajski, the founder of Biłgoraj, a settlement also located on the river Biała Łada.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Władysław Makarski „Społeczeństwo jako ciało jest pęknięte”. Zabiegi stylizacyjne w dialogach Małgorzaty Szumowskiej i Michała Englerta na przykładzie filmów Body/Ciało i Twarz 2022-01-05T13:33:54+00:00 Małgorzata Miławska-Ratajczak <p>The aim of this article is to present an overview of the stylistic measures identifiable in the dialogues of two films whose screenplays were written by Małgorzata Szumowska and Michał Englert – Body (2015) and Mug (2017). The analysis of linguistic and stylistic means has been organised into three categories that can be used to describe the work of this script-writing duo (in line with Adam Kruk’s critical proposition): deliberate schematicity, social hearing (as a metaphor for social sensitivity) and mockery. In the linguistic layer of these films, schematicity comes to the fore through the accumulation of homogeneous linguistic means (especially from the emotional register of colloquial Polish) and contrasting juxtapositions of various social variants of the language. The social hearing of Szumowska and Englert is revealed especially through the presence of linguistic templates, and mockery – in the linguistic joke and in the openly mocking statements of some of the characters. The analysis shows that the dialogues are another testimony to the stylish separateness of Szumowska and Englert and one of the ways to portray Poland as full of internal divisions.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Małgorzata Miławska-Ratajczak Współczesny stosunek do normy językowej w świetle memów internetowych 2022-01-07T09:40:15+00:00 Agnieszka Anna Niekrewicz <p>The aim of the article is to present how the approach towards linguistic correctness of current users of the Polish language is reflected in Internet memes. The starting point is the assumption that language norms in online communication are treated in a different manner than usual. However, the high frequency of deviations from norms in online texts (especially in memes) does not mean a simple neglecting of the rules of linguistic correctness, as it includes both unintentional and accidental breaches of norms (coming from ignorance, lack of knowledge of rules or carelessness) and intentional actions of functional character, dictated mostly by treating the language in a ludic manner. In this article, the analysis of deviations from norms in memes is subordinated to presenting their purpose, which could be one of the following: linguistic fun, satire, anarchist defiance or provocation, attracting attention of recipients in order to distinguish the meme among massive amounts of information, and the diagnosis of linguistic correctness of specific people or representatives of various social groups (e.g. junior high school students, sports fans, blokers, sports commentators, teachers, elderly women). Moreover, creating negative protagonists of memes by attempting to imitate their language, which consists mostly of repeating their linguistic errors, allowed for the recreation of linguistic awareness of Internet users, e.g. for indicating the most ridiculed types of errors (spelling, phonetic and lexical). The key conclusion from the analysis is the indication of memes exemplifying the alignment with norms as a value, even if its appreciation is preceded by the (apparent) rejection of all rules.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Agnieszka Anna Niekrewicz Związki frazeologiczne i skrzydlate słowa wywodzące się z filmów w reżyserii Stanisława Barei (na wybranych przykładach) 2022-01-07T09:48:02+00:00 Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek <p>In contemporary Polish, there are phrases and winged words that come from films, TV series, songs, the language of politics, advertising, popular TV and radio programmes. Among the well-established expressions from the film and TV series, there are permanent verbal connections derived from the films by S. Bareja. Fixed verbal connections stand out among them: Słuszną linię ma nasza władza, Jak jest zima, to musi być zimno, Narodziła się nowa świecka tradycja, Ile jest cukru w cukrze, Nie wiem, nie znam się, nie orientuję się, zarobiony jestem. These idioms, winged words appear in both canonical and modified form. The usual modifications change or replace parts of the original phrases. Innovation strengthens the invariant. Fixed verbal connections of this type are usually ironic and comic. They often fulfill a ludic or phatic function – their appearance is the sender’s communicative signal addressed to the recipient participating in the same culture which is being created today not only by literature, music, painting and other works of art, but also by films, TV series, television and radio programs and so on.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dorota Połowniak-Wawrzonek „Zagęszczenia wieloznaczeń” – gry językowe w poezji Urszuli Kozioł 2022-01-07T09:40:40+00:00 Jolanta Sławek <p>The article presents the linguistic mechanisms used by the poet Urszula Kozioł to play poetic linguistic games with her readers. Based on selected poems, the article discusses the ways of employing means from various levels of the language system, including the phonetic, morphological, inflection, syntactic and semantic systems. It is pointed out that U. Kozioł’s linguistic games are often based on complex etymological and word-building mechanisms. As a result of these, the poetry is full of unexpected, often ambiguous word forms that surprise the readers with their unconstricted morphological and phonetic form with frequently unspecified and unclear meaning, making room for new, often non-standard interpretations.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jolanta Sławek Tezauronimiczny „skarbczyk” sztucznej biżuterii. Kilka uwag o nazwach własnych „drugorzędnych klejnotów” 2022-01-07T09:41:21+00:00 Katarzyna Węgorowska <p>Imitation jewellery, also known as “secondary gems”, has been people’s companion from antiquity. Its representative objects, however, have rarely been assigned their individualised proper names – thesauronyms. As an answer to the appeal of Polish art historians and museologists: Ewa Letkiewicz, Katarzyna Kluczwajd, Monika Paś and Dorota Zahel, this study is an attempt at a linguistic and culturological presentation of thesauronyms that signify: a pair of earrings, collar, ring, fur fastener clip, necklaces, brooches, duette brooches, jewellery series, collections, lines, sets, limited edition. The attention is also drawn to the specificity of thesauronyms distinguishing similar jewellery items and thesauronyms denoting many various and completely different referents. Moreover, motivation analysis, semantic and motivation analysis, and structural analysis of the names of imitation jewellery names has been conducted. The findings allowed for redefining, verifying, supplementing and extending the term thesauronym.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Katarzyna Węgorowska Metafora w służbie polityki. Aleksander Kwaśniewski o wstąpieniu Polski do NATO i akcesji do Unii Europejskiej 2022-01-07T09:41:48+00:00 Magdalena Wołoszyn <p>The aim of the article is to analyse selected metaphors used by the President of the Republic of Poland, Aleksander Kwaśniewski, in public appearances during his presidency in from 1995 to 2005. The subject of interest are public appearances in which A. Kwaśniewski talked about the preparation and accession of Poland to one of the most prestigious organisations in the world – the North Atlantic Alliance (NATO) in 1999 and the European Union (EU) in 2004. The author analyses selected metaphors (including: HOME, ROAD, FAMILY), regarding Poland’s accession to these structures, which were used by the president in his speeches. The author discusses how A. Kwaśniewski, who was then the head of state, used metaphors to present his attitude towards the issue of Poland’s integration with North Atlantic Alliance and accession to the European Union and what vision of Poland’s presence in these structures he had.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Magdalena Wołoszyn Speleonymia Slovenského rudohoria z pohľadu teórie modelovania 2022-01-04T10:21:57+00:00 Gabriel Rožai <p>The article presents model analysis of non-standardized names of caves and chasms of the Slovenské rudohorie mountains which follows the model analysis of anoikonyms by Jana Pleskalová, as well as the work devoted to modelling of Slovak hydronymy. The model analysis pointed out the dominance of the relational model C which expresses “properties, symptoms (and circumstances)” and the relational model A which is associated with the expression of “position, the location of underground object in the field”. The most common structural model in the given relational models is the two-member ADd+S, consisting of a derivative adjective and a noun such as Jelšavská jaskyňa, Gajdova štôlňa. Relational models (VM) referring to possessivity (VM D), especially to the immediate expression of the type of object (VM B), only have a marginal position in the proposed model analysis.</p> 2021-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gabriel Rožai