Slavia Antiqua. Rocznik poświęcony starożytnościom słowiańskim https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong><br /> Interdyscyplinarny rocznik o miedzynarodowym zasiegu poświęcony szeroko pojetym dziejom Słowiańszczyny. Ukazuje się od roku 1948, publikujac prace naukowe z zakresu archeologii, historii, językoznawstwa i dyscyplin im pokrewnych. Czasopismo wydawane przez Instytut Archeologii Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu we współpracy z Wydziałem Historii i Nauk Społecznych Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk. Prace ogłaszane są zarówno po polsku jak i w językach kongresowych.</p><ul class="oczasopismie"><li><a href="/index.php/sla/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li><li><a href="/index.php/sla/issue/current">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li><li><a href="/index.php/sla/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li></ul><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong><p>The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities; ICI Journals Master List</p></div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong><p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_11.png" alt="" /><br /><br /> <!--<img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/ic_6_21.png" alt="" />--></p></div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/sla</div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0080-9993</div><div class="oczasopismie"><strong>PRACE PUBLIKOWANE W CZASOPIŚMIE DOSTĘPNE SĄ NA LICENCJI CREATIVE COMMONS:</strong><br /><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/pl/"><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc1.png" alt="CC_by-nd/3.0" border="0" /></a></div> pl-PL Prawa autorskie posiada autor/autorzy utworu, który/którzy udzielają licencji do jego opublikowania Czasopismu. misiek@amu.edu.pl (Andrzej Michałowski) pressto@amu.edu.pl (Pressto) pon, 23 mar 2020 13:28:04 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Экспонаты Музея «Пруссия» в Каталоге копий Центрального Римско-Германского музея (Майнц) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21700 <p>The catalogue of copies from the Roman-German Central Museum (Mainz) poses an opportunity to present to the modern researcher the volume of Prussian archaeological material available on the second floor dedicated to the 19th century. By collecting what is considered the most representative exhibits, the museum authorities put on display items copied in Mainz and stored in Prussia-Museum (Königsberg). They were created by masters from Aesti and Prussia. The only imports among the small array of findings published in the catalogue include a helmet from the Dollkeim-Kovrovo burial ground (its local origin has not been excluded) and a lock and key from the Löbertshof cemetery / Tyulenino.</p> Владимир И. Кулаков Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21700 wto, 31 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Diaspory skandynawskie i transetniczne przestrzenie społeczne Wikingów https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21702 <p>Migrations of the Norsemen, which took place in the early Middle Ages, led to an emergence of new social formations, operating also outside Scandinavia, including “Polish” territories. These formations can be defined as diasporas or transethnic social spaces as part of the transmigration and transnational paradigms, developed with respect to sociology.</p> Błażej Stanisławski Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21702 wto, 31 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Größe, Anlageformen, Befestigungsarchitektur und Innenflächenbebauung der frühen slawischen Burgen im südlichen Hinterland der Ostsee https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21720 <p>Owing to dendrochronological data and archaeological finds, more than 150 strongholds from the southern coastal area of the Baltic Sea between the Lower Elbe and the Lower Vistula, can be identified as the oldest large-scale “fortification horizon” in the North-Western Slavic territories. They developed as early as in the 8th and 9th centuries. Generally, the strongholds are regarded seats of tribal elites. Owing to the rapid development of the local economy and contacts with the neighbouring cultural zones, particularly the Frankish Empire and Scandinavia (ports of trade), the strongholds evolved relatively early in the North-Western Slavic territories. This article focuses on the different aspects of the strongholds’ operations: spreading, location, layout, size, construction types, and building structures, in order to present in detail the architectural specifics of the imposing, strongly fortified ramparts. On the basis of archaeological research, the author highlights the erection of the sector fortifications and the joining<br>palisade-like constructions, along with a variety of construction types and materials used. The regional differences in size and the historical-cultural background of these strongholds are also discussed.</p> Andreas Kieseler Copyright (c) 2020 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/21720 wto, 31 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Nowy element układanki. Wczesnośredniowieczne grodzisko w Bornitach koło Pieniężna. https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22019 <p>In 2016, new remains of a stronghold in Northeastern Poland (Bornity, district Braniewo) was discovered. In a small area near Kierpajny Wielkie village, a quarter of an early Abbāsid dirham, a bronze spur, and a piece of ring of the Perm/Glazow/Duesminde type were found. Subsequent survey and excavations brought about interesting results. An analysis of the artefacts and the results of radiocarbon dating of charred wood used in the rampart construction indicate that the site was used in the late 9th and the first quarter of the 10th century. At this stage of explorations, it should be stated that the site is a significant venue on the settlement map of the 9th and early 10th centuries. Both the artefacts and the context allow to link them with the influence of the Janów Pomorski/Truso emporium.</p> Sławomir Wadyl, Kacper Martyka Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22019 wto, 31 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Kult Trzygława w Szczecinie lat 20. XII stulecia. Między monolatrią a „dwuwiarą” https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22021 <p>The cult of Triglav in the Polabian-Pomeranian territory in the 12th century confirms an evolution of the religious system of the local Slavic communities towards monolatry, largely affected by confrontation as well as a cultural dialogue with the Christian culture. At first, at the time of the Pomeranian missions of Saint Otto of Bamberg in the 1120s, attempts at suppressing the cult did not bring about long-term effects. However, a wave of the so-called pagan reaction led to some sort of a compromise made in Szczecin, leading to official coexistence of the cult of Triglav and the newly introduced cult of Jesus Christ. From the point of view of mythology, the competences of the two divine figures turn out to be convergent and universal, yet still, as part of the Szczecin “religious dualism”, no attempt was made to identify them (following the rule of interpretatio Slavica of the elements of Christianity). The belief in the autonomy of Triglav and Christ (“A German God”) was confirmed in Szczecin in the course of Otto’s evangelization which resulted in a Christian community in the city. The phenomenon of syncretism, present there until Otto’s second mission (1128), was therefore an attempt at maintaining unity in a religiously divided society following the first mission of the Apostle of Pomeranians (1124-1125).</p> Stanisław Rosik Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22021 wto, 31 gru 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Ze studiów nad elitarną kulturą ludności grodów tzw. centralnych państwa pierwszych Piastów, czyli ponownie o wczesnośredniowiecznym grzebieniu ze Stroszek pod Gieczem. Ujęcie porównawcze https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22223 <p>The article presents results of a repeated analysis of an ornamental comb made from an antler, discovered in an early-medieval open settlement in Stroszki (site 1, Nekla county, Wielkopolska province) from the late 9th century or the beginning of the second half of the 10th century. The settlement was a part of the backup facilities of the stronghold in Giecz, one of several the so-called central settlements in the Piasts’ oldest state. The comb stands out for its ornaments in the form of a large fish in a net immersed in water, made by engraving the side lining which serves as the comb’s grip. It has been established that it is an exclusive piece of work of Scandinavian craftsmanship, a single specimen or one from a short series that comes from the 9th/10th centuries or the first half of the 10th century. It represents type IB-VIII-1a according to E. Cnotliwy (1973), identical with type B1:2 according to K. Ambrosiani (1981). The ornaments bear a close resemblance to the ornaments on what is considered Frisian combs from the 9th century or, possibly, the early 10th c. An iconographic analysis of the comb has led to a hypothesis that the hygienic activities that it was used for (combing dirt and insects from hair) had a concealed symbolic sense. In this case, the comb together with similar specimens ornamented by slanting checks or filled diamonds reminiscent of a fishnet, performed the function of an anti-demon instrument. The analysed comb has been attributed to the culture of the oldest state of the Piasts where it ended up most probably as a part of ceremonial exchange between the local elites and the elites of the Baltic communities, including Scandinavian ones. It is regarded that the object’s diffusion was facilitated by mental concurrence, combining the then peoples of “barbarian” Europe.</p> Michał Kara Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22223 pią, 20 mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Początki polskiego mennictwa w świetle nowszych badań https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22225 <p>The author updates the knowledge of the origins of coinage in Poland in the late 10th and the early 11th centuries. This is possible owing to new coin finds and new research methods, predominantly discoveries of new die-links. In the conclusions, the author states that coin minting in Poland was not initiated by duke Mieszko I (approx. 962-992) but his son Bolesław the Brave (992-1025). The early coinage was more intense than historians used to think, and more diverse. One mint used, simultaneously, dies with correct legends and dies ineptly copying foreign patterns. The coins were used for manifestation and economic purposes alike. They accounted for a small proportion of the prevailing foreign coins in circulation.</p> Stanisław Suchodolski Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22225 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 O fragmentaryzacji srebra wczesnośredniowiecznego: na ile wiarygodne są dane metrologiczne? Przypadek skarbu z Mózgowa na Warmii (t.p.q. 1009) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22226 <p>For years, a discussion has been held about the circulation of silver in the early Middle Ages and the role played by fragments of coins and ornaments. This multi-faceted discussion has also revolved around the function of the smallest fragments. Metrological research has indicated certain regularities in the incidence of fragments of a specified weight depending on region and chronology. New data for this discussion was provided by a treasure trove originally discovered in 1868 in Mózgowo in Warmia. Only slightly more than 400 coins have survived from the items discovered in the 19th century; they are a part of a collection of the Herzog Anton Ulrich Museum in Braunschweig. The place where the treasure was discovered was identified in 2010; more than 800 coins and fragments thereof were unearthed. In 2012, the area was examined as a site of excavation where subsequently over 370 specimens were discovered. The treasure trove must have been hidden sometime after 1009, most probably around 1015. The coins from the museum in Braunschweig are not suitable for metrological analysis because they were intentionally separated for a systematic collection. Following an analysis of the specimens discovered in 2010 and 2012, considerable discrepancies in weight frequencies were observed. It turns out that in the collection of objects excavated by professional metal detector operators, very small fragments of silver prevail. Before, they were rarely registered in early medieval treasures (fragments weighing more than 1 gram represent only 6.66%, pieces weighing less than 1 g represent 93.33%, fragments of up to 0.5 g represent 87.61%, while pieces weighing less than 0.1 g represent a whopping 55% of the entire collection).The differences in the weight of silver fragments in the specific parts of the treasure trove from Mózgowo shed new light on both the methodology of examining treasure troves and how representative the data used so far in statistical and metrological analyses are.</p> Mateusz Bogucki Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22226 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ze studiów nad dziejami klasztoru Kanoników Regularnych na górze Ślęży https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22227 <p>Fifteen years after my attempt at summing up the results of the historical, and above all archaeological research on Ślęża mountain (Domański 2002 ‒ research as of 2000) the time has come to make some minor corrections and important additions, mainly related to the early years of St. Augustine’s monastery in Ślęża, which from the 12th century to 1494 owned the majority of the massif, and after 1494 the entire mountain. The location of the monastery on Ślęża has been a matter of discussion since at least the 19th century. Written sources unambiguously speak of its location on the mountain. In 2000, I presented several purported stages of the monastery’s construction on top of the mountain. When, following new discoveries, the supposed location of the monastery changed, I put forward the hypothesis that there was a preliminary<br>stage in the monastery’s construction (perhaps in cooperation with messengers from the parent monastery) when the materials were collected and the ground was prepared. Next, the monks arrived and almost immediately construction started. Completion (or discontinuation) of construction could have coincided with the monks’ flight in 1146 to Wrocław. On the basis of the scant archaeological material discovered in the monastery building, the conclusion should be drawn that no part of it was used. The suggested location of the monastery on the edge of the order’s property is an indication that looking after the terrain was not the main goal of the venture. The construction material, traces of the structure’s foundations, elements of stonemasonry and the Ślęża plaque all hint at construction having at least commenced, while it remains a mystery at which stage it was abandoned. Generally, the construction of the Ślęża monastery is associated with the “production” of granite sculptures of lions. More importantly, they were discovered beyond the Ślęża massif, but the majority of researchers attribute them to the monastery. I agree with most art historians that the objects date back to the 12th century. Bearing in mind that in Western and South-European architecture, similar sculptures were placed in pairs at the doors of magnificent buildings, as the bases of columns, the Ślęża lions (8) must have been planned as decoration of four imposing entrances. However, as a majority of them cannot be paired (they were dedicated to two sides of a gate), the number of the original statues must have been greater. The Ślęża lions share many features with similar statues from the St. Gallen abbey; bearing in mind the contacts of the founder (Palatine Peter Wlast), they could have been the prototypes for the Ślęża lions.</p> Grzegorz Domański Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22227 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Srebrna zawieszka z Truso – dama w długiej sukni czy kapłanka? https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22228 <p>The article revolves around a silver pendant depicting a female figure, discovered in Janów Pomorski and identified with the town of Truso. Such miniature figures, popular in inventories of Scandinavian grave fields, have been largely discussed with respect to their significance and meaning. The author indicates two rather neglected (or disregarded) elements of these representations: a long ribbon and a long object held by hand while the elbow is bent. They may be evidence of the female figure’s exceptional status, most probably that of a priestess.</p> Marek Franciszek Jagodziński Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22228 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 W kwestii kontaktów słowiańsko-skandynawskich we wczesnym średniowieczu. Wolińskie osełki z metalowymi zawieszkami https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22229 <p>The article presents the origin and function of phyllite whetstones with ferrules. Some researchers trace them back to the inhabitants of Scandinavia. However, in the light of the available data and new findings, the whetstones should be attributed to Slavic craftsmen who may have operated in Wolin island. These whetstones were status symbols rather than daily use objects.</p> Andrzej Janowski Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22229 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Znaleziska wczesnośredniowiecznych akcesoriów kupieckich z Santoka na tle porównawczym https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22230 <p>This article presents a collection of early medieval trade accessories, folded scales and weights excavated by archaeologists on site no. 1 in Santok (Lubusz province). The collection of weights is formally and chronologically diverse. The oldest specimens come from structures dated back to the 4th quarter of the 9th century, the youngest to the 14th century. Metallographic analyses indicate that to produce the scales and weights, alloys of copper, different types of bronze and brass were used. The fact that exchange of goods in Santok took place earlier than in the other regions of Wielkopolska is evidence of close contacts with the then economic Baltic zone.</p> Kinga Zamelska-Monczak Copyright (c) 2020 Slavia Antiqua. Rocznik poświęcony starożytnościom słowiańskim http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22230 sob, 21 mar 2020 16:49:41 +0000 Noże z wczesnośredniowiecznego cmentarzyska w Sowinkach pod Poznaniem – ze studiów nad typologią i technikami kowalskimi https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22242 <p>The article presents a typological analysis of a collection of iron knives comprising 70 specimens from the early medieval grave field in Sowinki near Poznań, dated back to the time between the second half of the 10th century and the early 12th century. Sixteen of the specimens were subjected to further metallographic analyses, carried out in the Casting Institute in Krakow. As a result, 4 major technological groups were identified with as many as 10 separate types. In half of the studied knives, the technology of welding iron and steel was used, i.e. steel in the form of an overlay or a “sandwich” in the classical variant. The analysis proved that the knives from the grave field represented the type of metal and technologies typical of the Vistula basin as well as the early medieval Kievan Rus’.</p> Andrzej Krzyszowski Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22242 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Über eine Gruppe hochmittelalterlicher Prunksporen im Südwesten der Ostsee https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22243 <p>A small group of richly decorated spurs has been known for a long time for their characteristic non-ferrous metal covering as well as massive bronze or brass thorn points. Most of them have been found in in the states of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein. They are so similar that they could have been manufactured, if not in the same workshop, at least in the same region. The embossed metal sheath, reminiscent of the Late Slavic technology of sheath fittings, could indicate a the Slavic craft tradition. The latest find from a deserted village of Kastaven near Sähle, Oberhavel district in northern Brandenburg, sheds new light on this group of objects. The Kastaven spur has been found in the central area of the settlement which existed between the early 13th and the 15th centuries, in the vicinity of ruins of a church or a churchyard. The spur was probably lost at the village foundation phase, in the early 13th century. This context is of importance to the disputed chronology of the entire spur group, dated back to the late 12th and the early 13th centuries. The finds in Hamburg, Holstein, Eastern Mecklenburg and Northern Brandenburg indicate contacts between the élites in the southwest of the Baltic, related to migrations of petty nobility within the German Eastern Settlement or a communication network of the Slavic Leaders in the Abodrite/Mecklenburg cultural area.</p> Felix Biermann Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22243 pon, 02 mar 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Późnośredniowieczne naczynia z Międzyrzecza. Przyczynek do studiów nad pochodzeniem i użytkowaniem wyrobów szklanych https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22245 <p>In the late medieval settlement layers of the gord in Międzyrzecz, a small collection of glass vessels was excavated. Several forms of tableware were reconstructed and research was conducted into the chemical composition of the glass. The examined piece of a vessel and the glass is potassium glass which comes in two varieties: calcium-potassium-magnesium-silica (CaO-K2O-MgO-SiO2) and calcium-potassium-magnesium-aluminium-silica (CaO-K2O-MgO-Al.2O3-SiO2). The forms of the vessels and the chemical composition of the examined glass indicate the basic goods manufactured in Central Europe.</p> Joanna Sawicka Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22245 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Ryte i wydrapywane motywy na wczesnośredniowiecznych i wczesnonowożytnych naczyniach z Ostrowa Tumskiego w Poznaniu https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22249 <p>During excavations carried out in Ostrów Tumski by the Institute of Prehistory of the Poznań University, a small collection of utensils was found with incised or scratched motifs which are reminiscent of decorations (Figure1). The collection includes an early medieval mug (9th – mid-10th c.; Figure 2:1) as well as jars and a plate (?; 16th c.; Figure 2:2-4) with mysterious signs placed on the receptacles before they were fired (incisions: receptacle 1 and 4) and in the course of use thereof (scratched with a sharp object: receptacle 2 and 3). They were excavated in the ducal garden next to the palace and sacral complex (receptacle 1) and the Gothic St. Mary’s church and the adjacent cemetery (receptacle 2) as well as in the northern part of the island (receptacles 3 and 4). They were excavated from cultural layers (receptacle 1), from a well’s thill (receptacle 2), a wooden waste pond where fish were kept (?; receptacle 4) and a backfill of another well (receptacle 3). On the early medieval mug, where the neck becomes a body, it the middle of its circumference, parallel to the receptacle’s edge, there are signs in the form of a vertical line, a square, another vertical line topped with tiny parallel incisions and two crossing lines incised with a sharp object in a dried utensil before it was fired (Figure 3:1). On the upper part of the body of an almost completely preserved jar, four crossing lines were scratched to form a star, a loop, three intersecting lines – a star, the letter “Y” with three perpendicular lines in the lower part and, slightly lower, a boat /a crescent (?; Figure 3:2). On another jar, in the upper part of its body, next to the handle, a sharp object was used to scratch an inscription made of 6-7 “letters” (Figure 3: 3). At the bottom of a bowl (?), a potter incised with a sharp object a lily and an anchor cross. While only four specimens have been excavated in Ostrów Tumski in Poznań, and the signs are hard to interpret, an attempt can be made to explain the reasons why they were placed on the receptacles. The incisions on two of them were made before the receptacles were fired, hence they can be attributed to the potters’ work. In the case of the mug (Figure 2:1; 3:1), the fact that it was made by the same person was emphasized. The act of incising the bottom of the other utensil (Figure 2:4; 3:4) may have somethingto do with it being made for a specific group of users. On the other hand, the two remaining receptacles were scratched when they were ready so they were marked by the owners at the expense of the utensils’ looks. The jug was preserved almost intact (Figures 2:2; 3:2; 4) and could hold 2 litres of liquid. It is covered with symbols meaningful to its owner, perhaps identifying him/her. A piece of the jug (Figures 2:3, 3:3) bears an inscription which, with some caution, may be interpreted as dialectal words of German or Dutch origin, meaning “my (drinking) utensil”. Irrespective of the correctness of “deciphering” the scratched signs, these are undoubtedly unique hand-written inscriptions from the second half of the 16th century. If anything, it is a good reason to devote attention to them.</p> Olga Antowska-Gorączniak, Hanna Kóčka-Krenz, Andrzej Sikorski Copyright (c) 2019 http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22249 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tadeusz Makiewicz (1945-2019) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22250 Andrzej Michałowski Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22250 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Tadeusz Malinowski (1932-2018). Wspomnienie https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22251 Maciej Kaczmarek Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22251 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Obchody 100-lecia istnienia archeologii poznańskiej na Uniwersytecie im. Adama Mickiewicza https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22252 Milena Teska Copyright (c) 2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/sla/article/view/22252 śro, 01 sty 2020 00:00:00 +0000