Slavia Occidentalis <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong><br>"Slavia Occidentalis. Linguistica" publikuje artykuły dotyczące zarówno problematyki zachodniosłowiańskiego językoznawstwa diachronicznego, jak i językoznawstwa synchronicznego. Dominuje jednak problematyka diachroniczna. Autorzy piszą najczęściej o polszczyźnie, kaszubszczyźnie i językach łużyckich.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/so/about">POLITYKA FUNKCJONOWANIA CZASOPISMA</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/so/issue/current">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/so/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>ERIH; BazHum</p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong> <p><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/mnisw_10.png" alt=""></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/so</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0081-0002</div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan pl-PL Slavia Occidentalis 0081-0002 JUBILEUSZ 90-LECIA URODZIN PROFESORA JANUSZA SIATKOWSKIEGO <p>JUBILEUSZ 90-LECIA URODZIN PROFESORA JANUSZA SIATKOWSKIEGO</p> Bogdan Walczak Copyright (c) 2019 Bogdan Walczak 76/1 7 9 10.14746/so.2019.76.0 DUAL A TEOLOGIJA PŘINOŠK K PROBLEMATICE WUŽIWANJA DUALOWYCH FORMOW W HORNJOSERBSKICH PŘEŁOŽKACH BIBLIJE <p>This article describes the relations between dual grammatical number and theology. The original thesis was: Upper Sorbian translations of the Bible contain theologically problematic uses of dual forms. The hypothesis is accompanied by an analysis of the exegesis and theology of the periscopes Gen 1, 28; Mt 20, 23; £k 2, 7; J 1, 41 and 17, 21. Application or failure to apply dual forms in the texts in question poses significant problems on the level of theology. This article contains also a suggestion of certain rules to be followed in future revisions of the existing translation of the Upper Sorbian Bible. Firstly, the use of dual grammatical number should go hand in hand with the theological perspective of the biblical texts. Secondly, in cases when the category of dual grammatical number cannot accommodate theology, the latter should be a priority.</p> DANIEL DZIKIEWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 DANIEL DZIKIEWICZ 76/1 11 19 10.14746/so.2019.76.1 KRYTYKA PRÓB EMANCYPACJI ŚLĄSZCZYZNY. PŁASZCZYZNA NAUKOWA (LINGWISTYCZNA) <p>Despite the numerous attempts made in the 21st century at gaining linguistic independence, the Silesian ethnolect still enjoys the official status of a dialect. Lack of success in the attempted emancipation should be attributed to the linguistic policy adopted by the Polish authorities and political elites. The attempts at emancipation of the language spoken in Silesia have been subjected to criticism on many levels of the social discourse including the academic level. However, a detailed analysis of the presented arguments is evidence that there are no objective, linguistic premises that questioning promotion of the Silesian ethnolect to the status of a regional language is unsubstantiated.</p> HENRYK JAROSZEWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 HENRYK JAROSZEWICZ 76/1 21 47 10.14746/so.2019.76.2 GRAMATIKA KASZËBSCZÉGÒ JÃZËKA HANNY MAKURAT – GŁOS W DYSKUSJI <p>This article is yet another contribution to a discussion on a grammar handbook on Kashubian written by Hanna Makurat (2016) and, directly, a reply to her text published in edition 53 of the SFPS. First and foremost, it is a presentation of the history of the discussion of Gramatika… in a context of extra-content strategies employed by the author in the dispute that has arisen. Next, 13 linguistic phenomena have been presented (related to spelling, phonetics, morphology, vocabulary and syntax) in relation to which Hanna Makurat clearly referred to her opponents’ criticism in her text published in the SFPS. An analysis has shown that in 12 of them, the reviewers’ comments were fully justified. Last but not least, general and methodological issues are touched upon with reference to grammar itself and the discussion of it to date.</p> LECHOSŁAW JOCZ Copyright (c) 2019 LECHOSŁAW JOCZ 76/1 49 67 10.14746/so.2019.76.3 ROLA PRZYSŁÓWKÓW WSCHODNIOSŁOWIAŃSKICH W ŚWIADOMOŚCI UŻYTKOWNIKÓW GWAR POLSKICH W OBWODZIE LWOWSKIM W PRZEKROJU POKOLENIOWYM <p>This article presents and verifies material embedded in the awareness of users of Polish spoken in the southern part of Eastern Borderlands of the country across generations. The close relation between Polish and Ukrainian languages is conducive to the emergence of numerous interferences. Inclusion of Ukrainian features into the Polish system took place in the course of many centuries of contacts with speakers of the Ukrainian language. Ukrainian subdialects have left their mark on the Polish language in the southern part of Eastern Borderlands also in formations which deviate from the literary language. In the Polish language under scrutiny – the language spoken on the Polish-Ukrainian borderland, some formations follow Ukrainian<br>subdialects and the entire Eastern Slavic area. A majority of adverbs have a structure compliant with the general Polish language. However, there are also different formations, typical of borderland subdialects.</p> ANNA KOSTECKA-SADOWA Copyright (c) 2019 ANNA KOSTECKA-SADOWA 76/1 69 82 10.14746/so.2019.76.4 ANDRZEJ BAŃKOWSKI O SŁOWNIKU LINDEGO <p>Bańkowski’s review of the first edition of Linde’s Dictionary (1807–1814) and the emendations and supplements introduced by the editors of the second edition of the work (1854–1860) was less than glowing (e.g. “clearly unfinished, prematurely printed”). These opinions need to be firmly rejected. Bańkowski’s nearly 330 statements inserted in the entries of his etymological dictionary contain mostly or at least partially valid observations concerning Linde’s Dictionary. Linde’s lexicographic work did, in fact, represent an important reading source for Mickiewicz. However, Bańkowski’s opinion that it had a decisive influence on the poet’s linguistic development cannot be corroborated.</p> TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ 76/1 83 92 10.14746/so.2019.76.5 KSZTAŁTOWANIE SIĘ POJĘĆ „DIALEKTYZM” I „REGIONALIZM” W DEFINICJACH ENCYKLOPEDYCZNYCH I SŁOWNIKOWYCH <p>The goal of this article is to trace the evolution of understanding two basic concepts in linguistics, namely “dialectism” and “regionalism” with Polish dictionaries and encyclopaedias as the source materials. Excerpts from both general and highly specialised texts have been made. The presented material shows that the definitions of the analysed concepts may vary significantly from one Polish dictionary or encyclopaedia to another. It seems that neither of the definitions exhausts the issue therefore a researcher in charge of territorial differences, in a diachronic and synchronic perspective alike, will have to re-define each time the characterised concepts by means of adjusting their meaning-related scope to his or her own research needs.</p> PAULINA MICHALSKA-GÓRECKA Copyright (c) 2019 PAULINA MICHALSKA-GÓRECKA 76/1 93 104 10.14746/so.2019.76.6 OGNIEM I MIECZEM – LEKCJA SZLACHECKIEGO SAVOIR-VIVRE’U <p>Polish linguistic courtesy owes a lot to the gentry’s culture and courtly culture in general. As research suggests, centuries ago the major and specific norms of Polish etiquette (the special position of women) emerged while the noble and courtly origin of the majority of the contemporary forms of address is beyond doubt. Due to the dominant impact of the aristocratic and courtly model of courtesy on the linguistic habits of contemporary Poles and their ancestors, it seemed interesting and useful to present and describe selected elements of Sarmatism’s linguistic etiquette from today’s perspective (with special emphasis placed on words of greetings and farewells) included in Henryk Sienkiewicz’s famous historical novel, Ogniem i mieczem [With Fire and Sword]. This attempt was also stimulated by the book’s cognitive value and the author’s impressive knowledge of the Polish gentry in the mid-17th century, obtained as a result of studies of the literary diaries available to him. Therefore, the attempt made to recreate the world of gentry’s culture and its model of Old Polish etiquette is not just a product of the author’s imagination and it continues to inspire contemporary readers.</p> KAZIMIERZ SIKORA Copyright (c) 2019 KAZIMIERZ SIKORA 76/1 105 118 10.14746/so.2019.76.7 HISTORYJA BARZO CUDNA O STWORZENIU NIEBA I ZIEMIE KRZYSZTOFA PUSSMANA – STRATEGIE TŁUMACZENIA <p>The goal of this article is primarily to present the translation strategies adopted by Krzysztof Pussman in the course of working on Historyja barzo cudna o stworzeniu nieba i ziemie. The 16th-century apocrypha has slipped into oblivion – it was last discussed by Stanisław Dobrzycki in 1911. Research suggests that the translator-cum-compiler in fact followed the trends developed in his times. A compilation of the results of analyses and elaborations on the language and the way of translating other Old Polish apocrypha confirms this statement. The deliberations presented in this article, ordered by theme (the author divided the material into issues related to syntax, vocabulary, inflexion, rhetoric and style) provide an outline of broad research perspectives related to Historyja barzo cudna… as an independent historic work and in a comparative perspective (with other apocrypha texts of the time and old Polish canonical texts).</p> WOJCIECH STELMACH Copyright (c) 2019 WOJCIECH STELMACH 76/1 119 135 10.14746/so.2019.76.8 SPOSOBY ASEKURACJI WYPOWIEDZI WE WSPÓŁCZESNYCH PRZEKAZACH MEDIALNYCH (NA PRZYKŁADZIE „MAGAZYNU KRYMINALNEGO 997”) <p>This article presents various types of narration safety measures adopted by the message sender and their linguistic indexes in contemporary media messages. The material under scrutiny were episodes of “Magazyn Kryminalny 997” from 1995-2010, hosted by Michał Fajbusiewicz. Of special interest are accounts of murders presented in “MK 997” as dramatizations. An analysis was carried out primarily of the verbal aspect of the dramatization i.e. verbal and style-related means used by the programme’s authors and the applied sender-receiver strategies. The sender plays an important role as he adopts safety measures at the time of providing information about the crime. A linguistic analysis leads to a conclusion that in “MK 997”, the sender formulates hypotheses and makes use of modality indexes with the aim of expressing various degrees of conviction in the statements (ranging from lack of knowledge to certainty). What is more, he uses judgemental modulators, forms of the conditional mood and conditional structures. Notably, the function of the safety measures adopted by the sender in his statements is to lend credibility to the message.</p> MAREK STRÓŻYK Copyright (c) 2019 MAREK STRÓŻYK 76/1 137 144 10.14746/so.2019.76.9 WIELOJĘZYCZNOŚĆ ZRÓWNOWAŻONA? KRAJOBRAZ JĘZYKOWY POLSKO-CZESKIEGO POGRANICZA W UJĘCIU EKOLINGWISTYCZNYM (PRZYPADEK DUSZNIK ZDROJU I HRONOVA) <p>The aim of the article is to analyse the linguistic landscape of the Polish-Czech borderland with particular emphasis placed on the number and hierarchy of languages existing in the public space. A static study will be carried out i.e. a study of the language(s) of public road signs, names of streets and squares, public-access buildings, signs on businesses and shops, hoardings etc. The research material comes from two small towns: Duszniki Zdrój in Poland and Hronov in the Czech Republic, both aspiring to become local tourist centres. The global vs. local opposition is of importance to the assumptions made in the study because the language will be regarded as a local practice (Pennycock, 2010). In conclusion, the study will examine the thesis that the local linguistic landscape is a testimony to a transition from a monolingual paradigm towards a “post-monolingual condition” (Yildiz, 2012). It will also be very interesting to find out which configuration of the languages can be considered sustainable in terms of the area’s multilingual nature.</p> MAGDALENA STECIĄG ANNA KARMOWSKA Copyright (c) 2019 MAGDALENA STECIĄG, ANNA KARMOWSKA 76/1 145 156 10.14746/so.2019.76.10 SEPTEM VERBA A CHRISTO W STAROPOLSKICH APOKRYFACH NOWOTESTAMENTALNYCH W PERSPEKTYWIE ŹRÓDŁOZNAWCZEJ I LINGWISTYCZNEJ. CZĘŚĆ PIERWSZA: ŹRÓDŁA <p>This article is the first of two parts of a description of the motif of the seven words uttered by the crucified Christ in old Polish biblical and apocrypha narrations. The author presents the origin of the motif, characteristics of old Polish texts in which it occurred; the most important differences have been highlighted in the feature arrangement of the specific fragments of old Polish Passion of Jesus. The body of the article is represented by depiction of the sources of the seven words uttered by Christ on the cross, presentation of various ways of medieval scribes using the Holy Scriptures and an attempt to capture the motif severing itself from the original source. While the words uttered by Jesus on the cross come from the Gospels, neither of the four evangelists confirmed all of them. The chronology of the words is also arbitrary. In all old Polish apocrypha containing a description of Christ’s death on the cross, the motif of the seven words plays an important role and has been analysed with respect to the content and the vocabulary. The second part of the characteristics will be devoted to the linguistic development of the description of the motif in question.</p> OLGA ZIÓŁKOWSKA Copyright (c) 2019 OLGA ZIÓŁKOWSKA 76/1 157 173 10.14746/so.2019.76.11 Gabriela Olchowa, System adresatywny języka polskiego i słowackiego na początku XXI wieku. Gaudeamus, Hradec Králové 2018, ss. 240 <p>Gabriela Olchowa, System adresatywny języka polskiego i słowackiego na początku XXI wieku. Gaudeamus, Hradec Králové 2018, ss. 240</p> MIECZYSŁAW BALOWSKI Copyright (c) 2019 MIECZYSŁAW BALOWSKI 76/1 175 178 10.14746/so.2019.76.12 PTAKI Z PUNKTU WIDZENIA CZŁOWIEKA A SŁOWIAŃSZCZYZNA Z PTASIEJ PERSPEKTYWY (SŁOWIAŃSZCZYZNA Z PTASIEJ PERSPEKTYWY POD REDAKCJĄ MAGDALENY BAER. WYDAWNICTWO NAUKOWE UNIWERSYTETU IM. ADAMA MICKIEWICZA, POZNAŃ 2019, SS. 321) <p><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07852);">Ptaki z </span><span style="left: 166.248px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06034);">punktu widzenia człowieka a </span><span style="left: 408.055px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.988407);">Słowiańszczyzna z </span><span style="left: 556.673px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.994843);">ptasiej perspektywy</span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 379.72px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif;">(</span><span style="left: 110.32px; top: 379.72px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.989582);">Słowiańszczyzna z </span><span style="left: 259.283px; top: 379.72px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(0.99596);">ptasiej perspektywy</span><span style="left: 411.447px; top: 379.72px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07439);"> pod redakcją Magdaleny Baer. Wy-</span><span style="left: 103.956px; top: 400.555px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.04581);">dawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 2019, </span><span style="left: 103.956px; top: 421.389px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.01579);">ss. 321)</span></p> NADIA CZACHOWSKA Copyright (c) 2019 NADIA CZACHOWSKA 76/1 179 186 10.14746/so.2019.76.13 SŁOWNIK GWARY I KULTURY KUJAW, T. 1. A-H. OPRAC. ZOFIA SAWANIEWSKA-MOCHOWA (HASŁA A-Ć), WŁODZIMIERZ MOCH (HASŁA D-H). ZESPÓŁ REDAKCYJNY: ANNA PALUSZAK-BRONKA, ZOFIA SAWANIEWSKA-MOCHOWA, MIROSŁAWA WRONKOWSKA- DIMITROWA, KRZYSZTOF KOŁATKA, WŁODZIMIERZ MOCH. <p><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.0184);">Słownik gwary i </span><span style="left: 239.1px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03045);">kultury Kujaw</span><span style="left: 353.755px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.09211);">, t. </span><span style="left: 381.72px; top: 358.886px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.05742);">1. A-H. Oprac. Zofia Sawaniewska-Mo-</span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 379.72px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.07323);">chowa (hasła A-Ć), Włodzimierz Moch (hasła D-H). Zespół Redakcyjny: </span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 400.555px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06833);">Anna Paluszak-Bronka, Zofia Sawaniewska-Mochowa, Mirosława Wron-</span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 421.389px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06487);">kowska-Dimitrowa, Krzysztof Kołatka, Włodzimierz Moch. Redakcja na-</span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 442.223px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.06079);">ukowa: Zofia Sawaniewska-Mochowa. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kazi</span><span style="left: 702.282px; top: 442.223px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif;">-</span><span style="left: 103.937px; top: 463.057px; font-size: 19.1667px; font-family: serif; transform: scaleX(1.03675);">mierza Wielkiego, Bydgoszcz 2017, ss. 335</span></p> TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ 76/1 187 189 10.14746/so.2019.76.14 VIOLETTA JAROS, STUDIA NAD JĘZYKIEM I STYLEM PISM NAUKOWYCH JOACHIMA LELEWELA. WYDAWNICTWO IM. STANISŁAWA PODOBIŃSKIEGO AKADEMII IM. JANA DŁUGOSZA W CZĘSTOCHOWIE, CZĘSTOCHOWA 2015, SS. 784 TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 TADEUSZ LEWASZKIEWICZ 76/1 190 191 10.14746/so.2019.76.15 W LABIRYNCIE POLSZCZYZNY. PROFESOROWI STANISŁAWOWI DUBISZOWI – DOKTORZY I DOKTORANCI, POD REDAKCJĄ BEATY KAROLINY JĘDRYKI I EWELINY KWAPIEŃ. DOM WYDAWNICZY „ELIPSA”, WARSZAWA 2017, SS. 393 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 192 193 10.14746/so.2019.76.16 BARWY SŁÓW. STUDIA LINGWISTYCZNO-KULTUROWE, POD REDAKCJĄ DOROTY FILAR I PIOTRA KRZYŻANOWSKIEGO. WYDAWNICTWO UNIWERSYTETU MARII CURIE SKŁODOWSKIEJ, LUBLIN 2017, SS. 997 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 194 195 10.14746/so.2019.76.17 KRZYSZTOF WAŚKOWSKI, POLSKIE NAZWY ZWIERZĄT. STUDIUM HISTORYCZNOJĘZYKOWE. PODHALAŃSKA PAŃSTWOWA WYŻSZA SZKOŁA ZAWODOWA W NOWYM TARGU, NOWY TARG 2017, SS. 259 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 196 197 10.14746/so.2019.76.18 „ACTA UNIVERSITATIS LODZIENSIS, FOLIA LINGUISTICA” 2017, 51 (2), POD REDAKCJĄ EWY SZKUDLAREK-ŚMIECHOWICZ I EWY WOŹNIAK, SS. 176 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 198 199 10.14746/so.2019.76.19 EWA HORYŃ, SŁOWNICTWO Z ZAKRESU GÓRNICTWA SOLNEGO XVI-XVIII WIEKU NA TLE POLSZCZYZNY OGÓLNEJ. WYDAWNICTWO NAUKOWE UNIWERSYTETU PEDAGOGICZNEGO, KRAKÓW 2018, SS. 242 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 200 203 10.14746/so.2019.76.20 IWONA NOBIS, ROZWÓJ FLEKSJI NAZW MIEJSCOWYCH W JĘZYKU POLSKIM. POLSKA AKADEMIA NAUK, INSTYTUT JĘZYKA POLSKIEGO, KRAKÓW 2016, SS. 511 BOGDAN WALCZAK Copyright (c) 2019 BOGDAN WALCZAK 76/1 204 206 10.14746/so.2019.76.21 MATERIAŁY DO DZIEJÓW POLSKIEGO JĘZYKOZNAWSTWA, T. 3. KORESPONDENCJA KAZIMIERZA NITSCHA I ANTONINY OBRĘBSKIEJ-JABŁOŃSKIEJ 1925–1958, CZ. 1 I 2, OPR. MIROSŁAW SKARŻYŃSKI, ELŻBIETA SMUŁKOWA. KSIĘGARNIA AKADEMICKA, KRAKÓW 2018, SS. 1256: CZ. 1 – SS. 617, CZ. ALICJA PIHAN-KIJASOWA Copyright (c) 2019 ALICJA PIHAN-KIJASOWA 76/1 207 210 10.14746/so.2019.76.22 OGÓLNOPOLSKA KONFERENCJA NAUKOWA „DYSKURSY TRZECIEGO TYSIĄCLECIA IV”, POBIEROWO, 8–9 MAJA 2017 ROKU BEATA AFELTOWICZ Copyright (c) 2019 BEATA AFELTOWICZ 76/1 211 215 10.14746/so.2019.76.23 V INTERDYSCYPLINARNA KONFERENCJA NAUKOWA „DZIEDZICTWO ANTYCZNE I BIBLIJNE DZIŚ (JĘZYK – KULTURA – MEDIA)” Z CYKLU „DIALOG Z TRADYCJĄ”, KRAKÓW, 3–5 GRUDNIA 2018 ROKU MAGDALENA PUDA-BLOKESZ MAGDALENA RYSZKA-KURCZAB Copyright (c) 2019 MAGDALENA PUDA-BLOKESZ, MAGDALENA RYSZKA-KURCZAB 76/1 216 222 10.14746/so.2019.76.24 W DZIESIĄTĄ ROCZNICĘ ŚMIERCI PROFESOR TERESY ZOFII ORŁOŚ (20 II 1930 – 11 XI 2009) RENATA BURA Copyright (c) 2019 RENATA BURA 76/1 223 225 10.14746/so.2019.76.25 JUBILEUSZ 90-LECIA URODZIN PROFESORA JANUSZA SIATKOWSKIEGO NA UNIWERSYTECIE WARSZAWSKIM DOROTA KRYSTYNA REMBISZEWSKA Copyright (c) 2019 DOROTA KRYSTYNA REMBISZEWSKA 76/1 226 229 10.14746/so.2019.76.26 ŚP. EWA ROGOWSKA-CYBULSKA (21 V 1962 – 27 I 2019) IZABELA KĘPKA LUCYNA WARDA-RADYS Copyright (c) 2019 IZABELA KĘPKA, LUCYNA WARDA-RADYS 76/1 231 233 10.14746/so.2019.76.27