Main Article Content



Two hundred years have passed since the question of subjectivity (re-interpreted through Kierkegaard’s existentialism) became central in modern philosophy. Over these two centuries, multiple theories addressed and questioned the borders between authentic subjectivity and an internalized panopticon of the hegemonic views that dominate the subject. Nevertheless, they still have to be definitively defined. As we may try to point Fake News (FN) is an opponent to subjectivity, and yet it comes from the subject. FN is the intentional spreading through new technologies of false information on a global level by subjects that use social media, a process influencing not only the sense of socio-political reality but also the concept of identity. Identities (personal or collective) are in general the combination of the socially determined understanding of ‘who I am’ and the socially and psychologically influenced ‘mental model’ of ‘what the world - and the self within it - should be’, all expressed and produced under the fundamental influence of our idiosyncratic characteristics.

One of the fields that all these factors meet and interact is the new mediated environment where almost everyone can participate and contribute. According to the Sociology of Communication as founded by Giddens, Habermas and Luckmann (Leydesdorff 2000) this makes the public part of our identity the dominant one, creating a ritual in which our narcissistic elements dominate our private ones. The Self, addressing itself into the public like an echo and back to the Self, becomes ritualized. In our paper, we explore the interrelation of this phenomenon with the creation and distribution of Fake News, from the vantage point of Kierkegaard’s existential philosophy.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
KARAS, E. (2019). FAKE NEWS AND THE RITUALISATION OF THE SELF. Society Register, 3(2), 109-121. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2019.3.2.07
Author Biography

ELENI KARAS, University of Ioannina

Eleni Karas works at the Department of Primary Education, University of Ioannina, Greece.


    Adorno, Theodor. 2017. Minima Moralia: Reflections on a Damaged Life. Athens: Paratiritis.

    Beaney, Michael. 2003. “Analysis.” in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2018 Edition), edited by Edward N. Zalta. Retrieved September 05, 2019 (https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2018/entries/analysis/).

    Bauman, Zygmunt. 1992. “Cultural Theory and Cultural Change: Survival as a social construct.” Pp. 112-126 in Cultural Theory and Cultural Change, edited by M. Featherstone. London: Sage.

    Bauman, Zygmunt. 2011. “From Pilgrim to Tourist, a Short History of Identity.” Pp. 18-36 in Questions of Cultural Identity, edited by P. Hall and Paul Du Gay. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications, Inc.

    Bauman, Zygmunt. 2011. “Migration and Identity in the Globalised World.” Philosophy & Social Criticism 37(4): 425-435. https://doi.org/10.1177/0191453710396809

    Baur, Jürgen and Sebastian Braun. 2000. Freiwilliges Engagement und Partizipation in ostdeutschen Sportvereinen: eine empirische Analyse zum Institutionentransfer. Köln: Strauß.

    Beck, Urlich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.

    Bette, Karl-Heinrich. 1999. Systemtheorie und Sport. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.

    Binder, Susanne and Jelena Tošić. 2005. “Refugees as a Particular Form of Transnational Migrations and Social Transformations: Socioanthropological and Gender Aspects.” Current Sociology 53(4): 607-24. DOI: 10.1177/0011392105052717.

    Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies that Matter. On the Discursive Limits of Sex. London and New York: Routledge.

    Denham, Robert. 1996. Collected Works of Northrop Frye: The educated imagination and other writings on critical theory 1933-1963. Toronto CA: University of Toronto Press.

    Douglas, Kellner. 1992. “Popular culture and constructing postmodern identities.” Pp. 141-177 in Modernity and Identity, edited by Scott Lash and Jonathan Friedman. Oxford UK: Basil Blackwell.

    Durham, Gigi. 2008. The Lolita Effect: The Media Sexualization of Young Girls and What We Can Do About It. London: Harry N. Abrams.

    Fornas, Johan and Xinaris Charis. 2013. “Mediated Identity Formation.” Current Trends in Research and Society, Journal of the European Institute for Communication and Culture 20(2): 11-26.

    Giddens, Anthony. 1996, Sociological Imagination: Introduction to Sociology. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

    Hall, Stuart and Paul Du Gay, eds. 2011. Questions of Cultural Identity. London UK: Sage Publications.

    Kierkegaard, Søren. 1992. Concluding Unscientific Postscript to Philosophical Fragments, edited and translated by Howard and Edna Hong. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

    Leydesdorff, Loet. 2000. A Sociological Theory of Communication: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-Based Society. Irvin Ca US: Universal Publishers.

    Lyotard, Jean Francois. 1979. The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Minnesota US: University of Minnesota Press.

    Maffesoli, Michel. 1996. The Time of the Tribes: The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society. London: Sage.

    McMillin, Divya. 2009. Mediated Identities: Youth, Agency, and Globalization in Mediated Youth. New York US: International Academic Publishers.

    Quinn, Robert. 2003. “The Performative Self: Improvisation for Self and Other.” New Theatre Quarterly 19(1): 18-22.

    Ritivoi, Andreea Deciou. 2002. Yesterday’s Self: Nostalgia and the Immigrant Identity. Maryland BA: Rowman and Littlefield.

    Riva, Giusepe and Galiberti Carlo. 1998. “Computer-mediated communication: Identity and social interaction in an electronic environment in Genetic Social and General Psychology.” Monographs 124(4): 434-464.

    Stack, George. 1973. “Kierkegaard: The Self and Ethical Existence.” Ethics 83(2): 108-125.

    Star, Christopher. 2012. The Empire of the Self. Self-Command and Political Speech in Seneca and Petronius. Maryland BA: John Hopkins University Press.

    Swhartzman, Helen. 1979. Transformations: The Anthropology of Children’s Play. London, UK: Plenum Press.

    Silverstone, Roger. 2005. “The Sociology of Mediation and Communication.” Pp. 188-207 in The Sage Handbook of Sociology, edited by C. Calhoun, Ch. Rojek and B. Turner. London UK: Sage Publications.

    Schönbaumsfeld, Genia. 2010. “Objectively there is no truth – Wittgenstein and Kierkegaard on Religious Belief.” Pp. 131-147 in Ludwig Wittgenstein on Ethics, Mysticism and Religion, edited by U. Arnswald. KIT: Scientific Publishing.

    Shakespeare, William. 2013. The Tempest. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.