Main Article Content
Nowadays, the legal status of homosexual people varies widely from one country to another (ILGA 2019). In many contexts, the homosexual social movement has played a central role in fighting heterosexism and homophobia (Weinberg 1983). Especially in the democratic world, the homosexual social movement has been capable of spreading solidarity and inclusion and also of leading changes in regulatory terms, with different results context by context (Adam, Duyvendak, Krouwel 1999).
The paper aims to point out the Italian situation and the main characteristics of the gay social movement in Italy as key factors of the social change. More specifically, the paper is aimed at recounting the political process and the symbolic and cultural factors that led the Italian homosexual social movement to impose itself on the social scene as a reality with its own specific identity. The paper’s last section analyses the so-called “Italian rainbow cities”, urban contexts where the LGBT community is highly concentrated and in which it is so active as to stimulate, in cooperation with the local urban administrations, capacity-building processes oriented to the construction and consolidation of LGBT people’s rights and social inclusion.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.
- Adam Barry, Jan W. Duyvendak and Andre Krouwel. 1999. The Global Emergence of Gay and Lesbian Politics. National Imprints of a Worldwide Movement. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
- Barbagli Marzio and Asher Colombo. 2001. Omosessuali moderni. Gay e lesbiche in Italia. Bologna: il Mulino.
- Bernstein Mary. 2015. “Identity Politics.” Annual Review of Sociology 31, 1: 47-74.
- Colley Helen. 2007. Social Inclusion for Young People: Breaking Down the Barriers, Strasbourg. Council of Europe Publishing.
- Corbisiero Fabio and Salvatore Monaco. 2017. Città arcobaleno. Una mappa della vita omosessuale nell'Italia di oggi. Rome: Donzelli Editore.
- D’Albergo Ernesto and Giulio Moini eds.). 2007. Partecipazione, movimenti e politiche pubbliche a Roma. Rome: Aracne.
- D’Amico Giacomo. 2014. “Lgbti e diritti” in e territorio: Il valore delle autonomie nell'ordinamento repubblicano. (eds.) A. Morelli and L. Trucco. Turin: Giappichelli.
- D’Emilio John. 1983. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
- Gargiulo Enrico. 2008. L’inclusione esclusiva. Sociologia della cittadinanza sociale. Milan: FrancoAngeli.
- Grueter C. Cyril and Stoinski S. Tara. 2016. “Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?.” PLoS ONE 11, 2016: 1-13.
- Gusmano Beatrice and Lorenzetti Anna (eds.). 2014. Lavoro, orientamento sessuale e identità di genere. Dalle esperienze internazionali alla progettazione di buone prassi in Italia. Rome: Armando Editore.
- Harrold Max. 1999. “Biological Exuberance: Animal Homosexuality and Natural Diversity.” The Advocate The national gay & lesbian newsmagazine 1, 1999: 787-799.
- Hekma Gert. 2006. “Il mondo gay: dal 1980 a oggi”, in Vita e cultura gay. Storia universale dell’omosessualità dall’antichità a oggi. (ed.) R. Aldrich. Venice: Cicero.
- Herek M. Gregory 2004. “Beyond «Homophobia»: Thinking about Sexual Stigma and Prejudice in the Twenty-first Century.” Sexuality Research and Social Policy 1, 2: 6-24.
- Hutte Horst. 1978. Politics as friendship: The Origins of Classical Notions of Politics in the Theory and Practice of Friendship. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press.
- ILGA. 2019. ILGA World 2018 Annual Report. Bruxelles: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association Press.
- Lauria Mickey and Lawrence Knopp. 1985. “Towards an Analysis of the Role of Gay Communities in the Urban Renaissance.”, Urban Geography 6, 2: 152-64.
- Levine Martin P. 1979. Gay Men: The Sociology of Male Homosexuality. New York: Hagerstown.
- Marshall Thomas Humphrey. 1976. Citizenship and Social Class. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Meyer H. Ilan. 2003. “Prejudice, Social Stress, and Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Populations: Conceptual Issues and Research Evidence.” Psychological Bulletin, 129, 5: 674-697.
- Musi Aurelio. 2004. La stagione dei sindaci. Naples: Guida.
- Parsons Robert. 1951. Zur Theorie sozialer Systeme. Berlin: Springer.
- Pezzana Angelo. 1996. Dentro e fuori. Un’autobiografia omosessuale. Milan: Sperling & Kupfer.
- Phelan Shane. 2001. Sexual Strangers: Gay, Lesbians, and the Dilemmas of Citizenship. New York: Temple Irvington.
- Pichierri Angelo. 2014. Sociologia dell’organizzazione. Rome: Laterza.
- Pini Andrea. 2011. Quando eravamo froci. Gli omosessuali nell’Italia di una volta. Milan: Edizioni Il Saggiatore.
- Plummer Ken. 2003. Intimate Citizenship: Private Decisions and Public Dialogues. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
- Richardson Diane. 2005. “Claiming Citizenship? Sexuality, Citizenship, and Lesbian Feminist Theory”, in Thinking Straight: The Power, the Promise, and the Paradox of Heterosexuality. (ed.) C. Ingraham. New York-London: Routledge.
- Rinaldi Cirus. 2012. Alterazioni: introduzione alle sociologie delle omosessualità. Milan: Mimesis.
- Romeo Graziella. 2011. La cittadinanza sociale nell’era del cosmopolitismo: uno studio comparato. Milan: Wolters Kluwer.
- Rossi Barilli Gianni. 1999. Il movimento gay in Italia. Milan: Feltrinelli.
- Sanna Gabriella and Valeria Bersacchi eds.). 2000. Roma multietnica. Guida alla città invisibile. Rome: Villaggio Editoriale.
- Soysal Yasemin. 1994. Limits of Citizenship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
- Weber Max. 1924. Gesammelte Aufsätze zur Soziologie und Sozialpolitik. Mohr: Tübingen.
- Weinberg Thomas S. 1983. Gay Men, Gay Selves: The Social Construction of Homosexual Identities. Philadelphia: Philadelphia University Press.