Main Article Content



The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a particular and rare situation. COVID-19 has affected and is likely to affect people from many countries, in many geographical locations. We are in the midst of a worldwide pandemic, with cities and even entire countries shutting down. The coronavirus has affected nearly every aspect of our lives, from school to work, to sports, to where we eat and what we do. All these changes affected people physically, but also psychologically. It is understandable that during times like this, people may be feeling afraid, worried, anxious, and depressed due to the constantly changing alerts and media coverage regarding the spread of the virus. Hence, the main aim of our paper is to explore the linkage between the coronavirus COVID-19 disease and mental health conditions, such as stress, anxiety and depression. Everyone may experience fear of the consequences of the infection with a potentially fatal new virus, and might experience mental stress, anxiety, loneliness, depression. Based on experience from past global serious viral experiences, the development and implementation of mental health assessment, support, treatment, and services are crucial and pressing goals for the health response to the COVID-19 outbreak. Human beings have an incredible ability to adapt and survive, through altruistic and co-operative means. So for each one of us is important to look after ourselves and each other.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Author Biographies

GORDANA STANKOVSKA, University of Tetova

Stankovska Gordana is a professor of clinical psychology at the Institute of Psychology and Psychiatry at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, Republic of North Macedonia.

IMRAN MEMEDI, University of Tetova

Memedi Imran is a PhD Candidate of psychiatry at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, Republic of North Macedonia.

DIMITAR DIMITROVSKI, Institute of Public Health

Dimitrovski Dimitar, MhD, is a biochemistry researcher at the Institute of Public Health, Republic of North Macedonia.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  2. Attkisson, Clifford C. and Jane M. Zich. 1990. “Depression screening in primary care: Clinical needs and research challenges.” Pp. 3-11 in Depression in primary care: Screening and detection, edited by C. C. Attkinson and J. M. Zich. New York: Routledge.
  3. Barlow, David H. 2001. Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic. New York: Guilford Press.
  4. Barlow, David H. and Michelle G. Craske. 2000. Mastery of your anxiety and panic. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
  5. Basco, Monica R., Stewen R. Krebaum, and John A. Rush. 1997. “Outcome measures of depression.” Pp. 191-198 in Measuring patient changes in mood, anxiety, and personality disorders: Toward a core battery, edited by H. H. Strupp, L. M. Horowitz, and M. J. Lumbert. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  6. Battegay, Manuel, Richard Kuehl, Sutter Tschudin-Sutter, Hans H. Hirsch, and Richard Neher. 2020. “2019-Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): Estimating the case fatality rate-a word of caution.” Swiss Medicine Weekly 14-18. DOI:10.4414/smw.2020.20203.
  7. Beck, Gavie J. and Denise M. Sloan. 2012. “A comprehensive overview of treatment, stress disorders, ranging from diagnosis and etiology to assessment and management.” Pp. 245-265 in The Oxford Handbook of Traumatic Stress Disorder, edited by D. M. Sloan. Oxford: OUP.
  8. BlaunchardErick R. and Timothy C. Buckley. 1999. “Psychophysiological assessmentof posttraumatic stress disorders.” Pp. 248-266 in Posttraumatic stress disorder: A comprehensive text, edited by P. A. Saigh and J. D. Bremmer. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  9. Blazer, G. Dan, Dana Hughes, and Linda K. George. 2016. “Stressful life events and the onset of generalized anxiety disorder syndrome.” American Journal of Psychiatry 144:1178-1183.
  10. Borkovec, D. Thomas. 1994. “The nature, functions, and origins of worry.” Pp. 5-34 in Worrying; Perspectives on theory, assessment, and treatment, edited by G. Davey and F. Tallis. New York: Wiley.
  11. Brown, Timothy A. and David H. Barlow. 2001. “Generalized anxiety disorder.” Pp. 137-182 in Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual, edited by D. H. Barlow. New York: Guilford Press.
  12. Bystritsky, Alexander, Sahib S. Khatsa, Michael E. Cameron, and Jason Schiffman. 2013. “Current diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 30(1):30-38.
  13. Chan-Yeung, Moira and Xu Rui-Heng. 2003. “SARS: Epidemiology.” Respirology 8(1): 9–14. DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00518.x.
  14. Coughlin, Steven A. 2012. Post-traumatic stress disorder and chronic health condition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  15. Coughlin, Steven A. 2011. “Post-traumatic stress disorder and the care of persons living with HIV/AIDS.” The Open Health Services and Policy Journal 4:39-41.
  16. De Wit, Emmie, Neelitje Van Doremalen, Darryl Falzarano, and Vincet J. Munster. 2016. “SARS and MERS: Recent insights into emerging coronaviruses.” Natural Review of Microbiology 14(8):523-534.
  17. Folkman, Susan and Steven Greer. 2000. “Promoting psychological well-being in the face of serious illness: when theory, research and practice inform each other.” Psycho-oncology 9:11-19.
  18. Hajjar, Sami A, Ziad A. Memish, and Kenneth Mcintosh. 2013. “Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV): A Perpetual Challenge.” Annals of Saudi Medicine 33(5): 427–436.
  19. Heymann, L. David. 2008.Control of Communicable Diseases. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  20. Huang, Chaolin, Yeming Wang Lili Ren, Jiaping Zhao, and Yl Hu. 2020. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China.” Lancet 295(10223): 497-516. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  21. Hung, Lee Shiu. 2003. “The SARS Epidemic in Hong Kong: What Lessons Have We Learned?” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 96(8): 374–78. DOI: 10.1258/jrsm.96.8.374.
  22. Jiang, Fang, Liehua Deng, Liangging Zhang, Chi Cheung, and Zhengyan Xia. 2020. “Review of clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Journal of General Internal Medicine. Retrieved March 4, 2020 (
  23. Lee, Man, Clive Wong, and Greinne McAlonan. 2007. “Stress and psychological distress among SARS survivors 1 year after the outbreak.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 52: 233-240.
  24. Keane, Terence, Bureau F. Weathers, and Everette B Fox. 2000. “Diagnosis and assessment.” Pp. 176-192 in Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Study, edited by E. B. Fox, T. Keane and M. J. Friedman. New York: Guildford Press.
  25. Kinderman, Peter. 2020. “Looking after your mental health during COVID-19.” Retrieved March 20, 2020 (
  26. Kluge, Hans Henri P. 2020. “Physical and mental health key to resilience during COVID-19 pandemic.” Retrieved 26 March, 2020 (
  27. Mason, Lisa H., Michael J. Mathews, and Dong Y. Han. 2013. “Neuropsychiatric symptom assessments in toxic exposure.” Psychiatric Clinics of North America 36:201–208. DOI: 10.1016/j.psc.2013.02.001
  28. Nanshon, Chen, Zhou Min, Dong Huan, Qu Jieming, Gong Fengjyum, and Han Yang. 2020. “Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study.” Lancet January 30, 2020. DOI:
  29. Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. 2020. “Vital surveillances: The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-2019)-China.” China CDC Weekly 2(8):113-118. Retrieved February 20, 2020 (
  30. e9-9a9b-fea8db1a8f5).
  31. Pierini David, and Alexa Stuifbergen. 2010. “Psychological resilience and depressive symptoms in older adults diagnosed with post-polio syndrome.” Rehabilitation Nursing Journal 35:167–75.
  32. Phan, Lan T., Thuong V. Nguyen, Quang C. Luong, Think V. Nguyen, and Hiew T. Nguyen. 2020. “Importation and human-to-human transmission of a novel coronavirus to Vietnam.” New England Journal of Medicine 382:872-876.
  33. Prince, Martin, Vikram Patel, Shekhar Saxena, Mario Maj, Joanna Maselko, Michael R. Phillips, and Atif Rahman. 2007. “No health without mental health.” Lancet 70(9590): 859-877.
  34. Rothe, Camilla, Mirjam Schunk, Peter Sothman, Gisela Bretzel, Guenter Proeschl, Claudia Wallrauch, Thorbjorn Zimmer, Verena Thiel, and Cristian Janke. 2020. “Transmission of 2019-nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany.” New England Journal of Medicine 382: 370:371. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc20001468
  35. Sandman, Peter M. and Jody Lanard. 2005. “Bird Flu: Communicating the risk: Perspectives in health, the magazine of the Pan American Health Organization.” Health Promotion Practice 9(4): 54-59.
  36. Schuster, Randi, Marina Bornovalova, and Evan Hunt. 2012. “The influence of depression on the progression of HIV: direct and indirect effects.” Behavioral Medicine 36:123-145.
  37. Schnurr, Paula P. and Robert L. Green. 2004. “Understanding relationship among trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder and health outcomes.” Adverse Mind Body Medicine 20:18-29.
  38. Wan, Yushun, Jian Shang, Rachel Graham, Ralph S. Barie, and Fang Li. 2020. “Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS.” Journal of Virology 94(7): forthcoming.
  39. Wang, Chen, Peter W. Horby, Frederich G. Hayden, and George F. Gao. 2020. “A novel
  40. coronavirus outbreak of global health concern.” Lancet 395(10223): 470-473.
  41. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736/20/30185-9
  42. Weshling, Nang, Xu Yauli, Gao Ruqin, Lu Roujlan, Horn kai, Wu Guizten, and Tan Wenjie. 2020. “Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in different types of clinical specimens.” JAMA March 11, 2020. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.3786
  43. Wittchen, Hans U. and Jurgen Hoyer. 2001. “Generalized anxiety disorder: Nature and course.” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 62(11):15–19. World Health Organization. 2020. “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak.” Western
  44. Pacifik. Retrieved March 29, 2020 (
  45. Worldometer. 2020. COVID-19 coronavirus pandemic. Retrieved March 31, 2020 (https://www.worlddometer-info-coronavirus pandemic).
  46. Zunyou, Wu and Jeniffer M. McGoogan. 2020. “Characteristics of and Important Lessons from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China.” JAMA. Retrieved February 24, 2020 ( DOI:10.1001/jama.2020.2648)