Main Article Content
Alarming plastic production growth worldwide reinforces the public debate about the prevailing environmental crisis, whereby single-use-plastic (SUP) items are considered as by far the most harmful to the environment and public health. Accordingly, European environmental policy aims at eliminating SUP. Recently, we presented a model of plastic governance that derives from a circular economy approach identifying and taking into consideration perspectives of different actors in the plastic governance, such as producers, wholesalers, shop keepers, consumers, citizen scientists, and academia. Our results illustrate that the vast majority of stakeholders cared for the natural environment and understood the need to phase out SUP from the global economy. We proposed that a knowledge brokerage, undertaken by scientists via means of citizen science, as the most effective method to implement elimination policy, as it provides stakeholders with knowledge on why and how to handle SUP issues. However, at the time of the global COVID-19 pandemic, a plastic governance model required a re-assessment. The perceived role of SUP has changed, as it reflects the health emergency. Namely, due to the health safety reasons stakeholders and consumers are requesting even more SUP than previously. Following up on our data gathered prior to the pandemic, we suggest that under the new circumstances health concerns outweigh the environmental concerns being determined by a shift in the value hierarchization. The paper discusses preliminary results.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.
- Bardi, A., J. A. Lee, N. Hofmann-Towfigh, and G. Soutar. 2009. “The Structure of Intraindividual Value Change.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97(5): 913-929. DOI: 10.1037/a0016617.
- Belch, George Edward, and Michael A. Belch. 2012. Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
- Bénassy-Quéré, Agnès , Ramon Marimon, Jean Pisani-Ferry, Lucrezia Reichlin, Dirk Schoenmaker, and Beatrice Weder di Mauro. 2020. “COVID-19: Europe needs a catastrophe relief plan.” Pp. 128-135 in Mitigating the COVID Economic Crisis: Act Fast and Do Whatever It Takes, edited by R. Baldwin and B. Weder Di Mauro. London: Centre for Economic Policy Research.
- Cvitanovic, C., R. Cunningham, A. M. Dowd, S. M. Howden, and E. I. van Putten. 2017. “Using Social Network Analysis to Monitor and Assess the Effectiveness of Knowledge Brokers at Connecting Scientists and Decision-Makers: An Australian case study.” Environmental Policy and Governance 27(3): 256-269. DOI: 10.1002/eet.1752.
- Directive (EU) 2019/904 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 June 2019 on the reduction of the impact of certain plastic products on the environment.
- do Sul, J. A. I., and M. F. Costa. 2014. “The present and future of microplastic pollution in the marine environment.” Environmental Pollution 185: 352-364. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.10.036.
- Dobbins, M., P. Robeson, D. Ciliska, S. Hanna, R. Cameron, L. O’Mara, K. DeCorby, and S. Mercer. 2009. “A description of a knowledge broker role implemented as part of a randomized controlled trial evaluating three knowledge translation strategies.” Implementation Science 4. DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-4-23.
- Geyer, R., J. R. Jambeck, and K. L. Law. 2017. “Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made.” Science Advances 3(7). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700782.
- Homer, P. M., and L. R. Kahle. 1988. “A Structural Equation Test of the Value Attitude Behavior Hierarchy.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(4): 638-646. DOI: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1998.
- Kistler, Amanda , and Carroll Muffett. 2019. Plastic and Climate: The Hidden Costs of a Plastic Planet. URL: ciel.org/plasticandclimate/
- Lebreton, L., and A. Andrady. 2019. “Future scenarios of global plastic waste generation and disposal.” Palgrave Communications 5: XX-XX. doi: 10.1057/s41599-018-0212-7.
- Maiese, Michelle. 2003. “Moral or Value Conflicts.” Pp. XX-XX in Beyond Intractability, edited by G. Burgess and H. Burgess. Boulder: Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado.
- Makri, Anita 2017. “Ocean plastics from Haiti’s beaches turned into laptop packaging.” New Scientist (3130). URL: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2134334-ocean-plastics-from-haitis-beaches-turned-into-laptop-packaging/
- McKibbin, Warwick and Roshen Fernando. 2020. “The Global Macroeconomic Impacts of COVID-19: Seven Scenarios.” CAMA Working Paper 19/2020 (February 2020). URL: https://cama.crawford.anu.edu.au/sites/default/files/publication/cama_crawford_anu_edu_au/2020-03/19_2020_mckibbin_fernando_0.pdf
- Moser, G, and D Uzzell. 2002. “Environmental psychology.” Pp. XX-XX in Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology, Volume 5: Personality and Social Psychology, edited by T. Millon and M. J. Lerner. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
- Nisbet, E. K., and J. M. Zelenski. 2013. “The NR-6: a new brief measure of nature relatedness.” Frontiers in Psychology no. 4. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00813.
- Ramaswamy, W., and F. Gouillart. 2010. The Power of Co-Creation : Build It with Them to Boost Growth, Productivity, and Profits: Simon and Schuster, FreePress.
- Seymour, V. 2016. “The Human-Nature Relationship and its impact on Health: A Critical Review.” Frontiers in Public Health 4. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00260.
- von Malmborg, Fredrik. 2004. “Networking for knowledge transfer: towards an understanding of local authority roles in regional industrial ecosystem management.” Business Strategy and the Environment 13(5):334–345. DOI: 10.1002/bse.419.
- Weber, E. U., and C. Hsee. 1998. “Cross-cultural differences in risk perception but cross-cultural similarities in attitudes towards perceived risk.” Management Science 44(9): 1205-1217. DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.44.9.1205.
- Weijer, C., G. Goldsand, and E. J. Emanuel. 1999. “Protecting communities in research: current guidelines and limits of extrapolation.” Nature Genetics 23(3): 275-280. DOI: 10.1038/15455.
- WHO. 2020a. “Coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) situation reports.” URL: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/situation-reports
- WHO. 2020b. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Situation Report 5; 25 January 2020. URL: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200125-sitrep-5-2019-ncov.pdf?sfvrsn=429b143d_8
- World Economic Forum. 2016. The New Plastics Economy — Rethinking the future of plastics. World Economic Forum, Ellen MacArthur Foundation and McKinsey and Company.