urban movements
urban polices

How to Cite

KUBICKI, P. (2020). INVENTING URBANITY: URBAN MOVEMENTS IN POLAND. Society Register, 4(4), 87–104.


The article discusses the process of formation and transformation of urban movements in Poland. Conclusions are based on the data collected during the research project “Urban Social Movements in Poland” supported by the National Science Centre. For the requirements of the project was adopted a method of qualitative research using the techniques of in-depth narrative interviews, participant observations and secondary data analysis. The author conducted 30 in-depth interviews with leaders of urban movements from sixteen cities. The article describes the process of structuralization and the creation of the identity of the Polish urban movement and their role on the local political stage, stressing, in particular, their significant role as creators of a new discourse in Polish cities.


Benjamin, Barber. 2013. If Mayors Ruled the World. Dysfunctional Nations, Rising Cities. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Castells, Manuel. 2012. Networks of Outrage and Hope. Social Movements in the Internet Age, Polity. Cambridge: Polity.

Castells, Manuel. 1983. The City and theGrassroots: A Cross-cultural Theory of Urban Social Movements. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Castells, Manuel. 1977. The Urban Question. A Marxist Approach. London: Edward Arnold.

Domaradzka, Anna. 2018. “Urban Social Movements and the Right to the City: An In-troduction to the Special Issue on Urban Mobilization.” Voluntas 29: 607-620.

Domaradzka, Anna. 2017. “Leveling the Playfield: Urban Movement in the Strategic Action Field of Urban Policy in Poland.” Pp. 106-118 in City Unsilenced: Urban Resistance and Public Space in the Age of Shrinking Democracy, edited by H. Jeffrey and S. Knierbein. London: Routledge.

Domaradzka, Anna and Filip Wijkström. 2016. “Game of the city re-negotiated: the Polish urban re-generation movement as an emerging actor of a strategic action field.” Polish Sociological Review 3/2016: 291-308.

Foucault, Michele. 1986. “Of other spaces.” Diacritics16(1): 22–27.

Florida, Richard. 2017. The New Urban Crisis: How Our Cities are Increasing Inequality, Deepening Segregation, and Failing the Middle Class – and What we Can Do About It. New York: Basic Books.

Galent, Marcin and Paweł Kubicki. 2010. “An Invisible Revolution. How the Urban Way of Life Is Transforming the Identities of Poles.” Pp. 205–248 in: Collective Identity and Democracy. The Impact of EU Enlargement, edited by M. Góra and Z. Mach. Oslo: Arena.

Glaeser, Edward. 2012. Triumph of the City. How Urban Spaces Make Us Human. London: Pan Books.

Gliński, Piotr. 1996. Polscy Zieloni. Ruch społeczny w okresie przemian. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo IFiS PAN.

Harvey, David. 2012. Rebel Cities. From The Right To The City To The Urban Revolution. London-New York: VERSO.Kongres Ruchów Miejskich. 2020. Retrieved June 27, 2020 (

Kowalewski, Maciej. 2016. Protest miejski. Przestrzenie, tożsamości i praktyki niezadowolonych obywateli miasta. Kraków: Zakład Wydawniczy NOMOS.

Kowalewski, Maciej. 2013. „Organizowanie miejskiego aktywizmu w Polsce: Kongres Ruchów Miejskich.” Przestrzeń społeczna 2: 1-26.

Kubicki, Paweł, Bożena Gierat-Bieroń and Joanna Orzechowska Wacławska. 2020. The European Capital of Culture 2016 effect: How the ECOC competition changed Polish cities. Berlin: Peter Lang.

Kubicki, Paweł. 2019. „Ruchy miejskie w Polsce. Dekada doświadczeń.” Studia Socjologiczne 3(234): 5-30. DOI:

Kubicki, Paweł. 2017. „Od miejskiego aktywizmu do miejskich ruchów społecznych.”Annales Universitatis Maria Curie-Skłodowska Lublin XXXIV Sectio K: 173-186, DOI:

Kubicki, Paweł. 2016a. Wynajdywanie miejskości. Polska kwestia miejska z perspektywy długiego trwania. Kraków: Zakład Wydawniczy NOMOS.

Kubicki, Paweł. 2016b. „Polskie ruchy miejskie: polityczne czy kulturowe?” Przegląd Socjologiczny 2/2016: 65-79.

Kubicki, Paweł. 2013. „Polskie ruchy miejskie in statu nascendi.”Pp. 25-35 in Partycypacja obywatelska – decyzje bliższe ludziom, edited by A. Maszkowska and K. Sztop-Rutkowska. Białystok: Fundacja Laboratorium Badań i Działań Społecznych „SocLab”.

Kubicki, Paweł. 2011. „Nowi mieszczanie – nowi aktorzy na miejskiej scenie.” Przegląd Socjologiczny LX (2-3): 203–227.

Mayer, Margit. 2011. “The right to the city in urban social movements.”Pp. 63-85 in Cities for people, not for profits. Critical urban theory and the “right to the city”, edited by N. Brenner, P. Marcuse, and M. Mayer. London: Routledge.

Melucci, Alberto. 1980. “The new social movements: A theoretical approach.” Social Science Information 2: 199-226.

Nowak, Marek. 2006. „Społeczeństwo obywatelski w Polsce. Poprzez „Solidarność” do społecznego bezruchu.” Pp. 82-111in Czy społeczny bezruch? O społeczeństwie obywatelskim i aktywności we współczesnej Polsce, edited by M. Nowak and M. Nowosielski.Poznań: Instytut Zachodni.

Nowak, Marek. 2015. Teoria nieracjonalnego działania. Socjologiczne studium na temat wolontariatu i społecznego aktywizmu. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Nowak, Stefan. 1979. „System wartości społeczeństwa polskiego.” Studia Socjologiczne4(75): 155–173.

Offe, Claus. 1985. “New Social Movements: Challenging the Boundaries of Institutional Politics.” Social Reaserch 52: 817-868.

Piotrowski, Grzegorz and Dominika V Polańska. 2016. “Radical Urban Movements in Poland – the case of squatting.” Miscellanea Anthropologica et Sociologica 17(1): 53–69.

Pluciński, Przemysław. 2018. “Forces of Altermodernization: Urban Social Movements and the New Urban Question in Contemporary Poland.” VOLUNTAS: Internation-al Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations 29: 653-669. DOI:

Pluciński, Przemysław. 2016. „Jaka demokracja miejska? Przypadek Ruchu Społeczeństwa Al-ternatywnego.” Nowa Krytyka. Czasopismo filozoficzne 36: 133-150.

Pluciński, Przemysław. 2015. „Im lepiej, tym gorzej albo widmo kryzysu miejskich ruchów społecznych?” Ruch Prawniczy, Ekonomiczny i Socjologiczny 1: 409–423.

Pluciński, Przemysław and Marek Nowak. 2017. „E pluribus unum? Źródła i specyfika ruchów miejskich we współczesnej Polsce.” Przegląd Socjologiczny 66/3: 115-135. DOI:

Polańska, Dominika V. 2016. “Neoliberal Post-Socialist Urban Transformation and the Emergence of Urban Social Movements in Poland.” Pp. 311-334 in Urban Uprisings: Challenging Neoliberal Urbanism in Europe, edited by M. Margrit. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Polańska, Dominika V. 2018. “Going against institutionalization: New forms of urban activism in Poland.” Journal of Urban Affairs, Published online: 13 Feb 2018: 1-12. DOI:

Pomieciński, Adam. 2016. „Radykalne miasta. Ruch anarchistyczny jako ruch miejskiego protest.” Journal of Urban Ethnology 14: 29-41.

Pickvance, Chris. 2003. “From urban social movements to urban movements: a review and introduction to a symposium on urban movements.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 27: 102-109.

Pruijt, Hans. 2007. “Urban movements.” Pp. 5115-5119 in Blackwell encyclopedia of so-ciology, edited by G. Ritzer. Malden: Blackwell.

Rewers, Ewa. 2010. “Wprowadzenie.” Pp. 5-14in Miasto w sztuce – sztuka miasta, edit-ed by E. Rewers. Kraków: Universitas.

Soja, Edward. 1996. Thirdspace: Journeys to Los Angeles and other real-and-imagined places. Oxford: Blackwell.

Sztompka, Piotr. 2005. Socjologia. Analiza społeczeństwa. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Znak.

Touraine, Alain. 2009, Thinking Differently. Cambridge–Malden MA: Polity Press.

Turowski, Jan. 1988. „Model urbanizacji a problemy rozwoju małych miast.” Studia Socjologiczne 3: 200-201.

Wróbel, Sylwester. 2011. „Teoretyczne problemy miejskich ruchów politycznych.” Pp. 29-57 in Teoretyczne problemy ruchów społecznych i politycznych, edited by S. Wróbel. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Naukowe GRADO.

Żuk, Piotr. 2001. Społeczeństwo w działaniu. Ekolodzy, feministki, skłotersi. Socjologiczna analiza nowych ruchów społecznych w Polsce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe SCHOLAR.

Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.

In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.

1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the  legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.

1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.

2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:

2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including  printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;

2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;

2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,  made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;

2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);

2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;

2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of  the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;

2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;

2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.

3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.

4. The  Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.

5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:

5.1.  allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;

5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;

5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).

6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).

7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis

7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.

7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. 


Download data is not yet available.