PARENTING IN CONFLICT – PARENTAL ALIENATION: NETNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH
PDF

Keywords

parental alienation syndrome
parental alienation
divorce

How to Cite

ROSZAK, M. (2021). PARENTING IN CONFLICT – PARENTAL ALIENATION: NETNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH . Society Register, 5(2), 83–98. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.06

Abstract

Parental alienation is a phenomenon that appears after the divorce or break-up in a situation, where there is high conflict between the separating parents accompanying the termination of the relationship. It includes actions intentionally taken by one of the sides, who is seeking to distort the relationship between the child and the other parent. As a result of the alienation, the child starts to excessively prefer the custodial parent and intensively reject the non-custodial parent. The discussion concerning parental alienation was initiated by Richard Gardner, a psychiatrist, who introduced the idea of PAS ‘parental alienation syndrome’. His concept was widely commented by its supporters as well as by sceptics and opponents, as a result of which its modified version, PA ‘parental alienation’, was developed. Published research concerning the subject can be found in English-language scientific articles as early as in 1998. However, in Polish academic literature parental alienation is almost non-existent. The objective of this article is to open a discussion on this subject. Apart from theoretical analysis of the phenomenon, the narratives of parents who believe to experience PA were analysed. The analysis regarded aspects such as: definition, characteristics and sources of parental alienation. The article analyses also actions, which are the alienated parents’ reactions to PA. The performed analysis was of netnographic nature.

    

https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.06
PDF

References

Baker, Amy. 2005. “The long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children: A qualitative research study." The American Journal of Family Therapy 33:289–302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01926180590962129

Baker, Amy & Douglas Darnall. 2006. “Behaviours and strategies of parental alienation: A survey of parental experiences.” Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 45:97–124. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1300/J087v45n01_06

Balcerzak-Paradowska, Bożena. 1999. Polityka rodzinna. Między dwoma modelami. Warszawa: IPiSS.

Balmer, Sian, Mandy Matthewson, & Janet Haines. 2017. “Parental alienation: Targeted parent perspective.” Australian Journal of Psychology 70(1): 91–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12159

Balmer, Sian, Mandy Matthewson, & Janet Haines. 2018. “Parental alienation: Targeted parent perspective.” Australian Journal of Psychology 70: 91–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ajpy.12159

Bernet, William, Nilgun Gregory, Kathleen Reay, & Ronald Rohner. 2018. “An objective measure of splitting in parental alienation: The Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire.” Journal of Forensic Sciences 63:776–783. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-40 29.13625

Bernet, William, Nilgun Gregory, Ronald Rohner, & Kathleen Reay. 2020. “Measuring the Difference Between Parental Alienation and Parental Estrangement: The PARQ-Gap.” Journal of Forensic Sciences. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14300.

Budrowska, Bogusława. 2008. „Tacierzyństwo czyli nowy wzór ojcostwa.” Kultura i Społeczeństwo 3:123–151.

Czerederecka, Alicja. 2018. „Izolowanie dziecka od drugiego z rodziców po ich rozstaniu.” Pp. 29–84 in Rodzina w sytuacji okołorozwodowej. Współczesne dylematy psychologiczne i prawne, edited by A. Czerederecka. Kraków: Wydawnictwo IES.

Ellis, Elizabeth. 2007. “A stepwise approach to evaluating children for parental alienation syndrome.” Child Custody 4(1–2):55–78.

Gardner, Richard. 1992. The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Guide for Mental Health Professionals. Cresskill, New Jersey: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, Richard. 1998. The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Guide for Mental Health Professionals. Cresskill, New Jersey: Creative Therapeutics.

Gardner, Richard. 2001. “The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Sixteen Years Later.” Forum American Academy of Psychoanalysis 45(1): 10–12.

Gardner, Richard. 2002. “The Empowerment of Children in the Development of the Parental Alienation Syndrome.” The American Journal of Forensic Psychology 20(2):5-26. http://www.rgardner.com/refs/ar14.html

Gardner, Richard. 2004. “Commentary on Kelly and Johnston’s ‘The Alienated Child: A Reformulation of Parental Alienation Syndrome.” Family Court Review 42(4).

GUS. 2015. Dzieci w Polsce w 2014 roku. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny.

GUS. 2019. Rocznik Demograficzny 2019. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny.

Graniewska, Danuta. 2004. Sytuacja rodzin i polityka rodzinna w Polsce. Uwarunkowania demograficzne i społeczne. Warszawa: IPiSS.

Gruber, Helmut. 2011. „Analiza komunikacji w nowych mediach.” Pp. 89–119 in Jakościowa analiza dyskursu w naukach społecznych, edited by R. Wodak & M. Krzyżanowski. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Łośgraf.

Harman, Jennifer, Sadie Leder-Elder, & Zeynep Biringen. 2016. “Prevalence of parental alienation drawn from a representative poll.” Children and Youth Services Review 66:62–66. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2016.04.021

Harman Jennifer, William Bernet, & Joseph Harman. 2019. “Parental Alienation: The Blossoming of a Field of Study.” Current Directions in Psychological Science. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721419827271.

Harman, Jennifer, Edward Kruk, & Denise Hines. 2018. “Parental alienating behaviours: An unacknowledged form of family violence.” Psychological Bulletin 144:1275–1299. DOI:10.1037/bul0000175

Huff, Scott, Shayne Anderson, Adamsons, & Rachel Tambling. 2017. “Development and validation of a scale to measure children’s contact refusal of parents following divorce.” The American Journal of Family Therapy 45:66–77. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01926187.2016.1275066

Hryciuk, Renata & Elżbieta Korolczuk. 2012. Pożegnanie z Matką Polką? Dyskursy, praktyki i reprezentacje macierzyństwa we współczesnej Polsce. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.

Kelly, Joan & Janet Johnston. 2001. “The alienated child: a reformulation of parental alienation syndrome.” Family Court Review 39(3):249–66. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.174-1617.2001.tb00609.x

Kubicki, Paweł. 2009. „Przemiany ojcostwa we współczesnej Polsce.” in Być rodzicem we współczesnej Polsce. Nowe wzory w konfrontacji z rzeczywistością, edited by M. Sikorska. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.

Lee ,Margaret & Nancy Olesen. 2001. “Assessing for alienation in child custody and access evaluations.” Family Court Review 39(3):282–98. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.174-1617.2001.tb00611.x

Sikorska, Małgorzata. 2009. Nowa matka, nowy ojciec, nowe dziecko. O nowym układzie sił w polskich rodzinach. Warszawa: Wydawnictwa Akademickie i Profesjonalne.

Tyszka, Zbigniew. 2002. Rodzina we współczesnym świecie. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Walęcka-Matyja, Katarzyna. 2009. Struktura rodziny z zróżnicowanie zachowań społecznych i osobowości młodzieży. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.