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This article examines sociological, psychological, and suicidological research on the determinants of male suicide to explore the fact that Polish men complete suicide 7.4 times more than women, a frequency twice as high as in the US. This paper is based upon an examination of relevant literature and statistical databases. A keyword search was completed in both Polish and English language databases. Ideals of masculinity and negative social attitudes towards a non-binary view of gender may increase stressors and discourage men in Poland from revealing their problems while seeking support, explaining the high rates of suicide completion among Polish men. Suicide prevention programs must tackle gender conceptualizations and alcohol use patterns as well as increase avenues for male help-seeking behaviors. These changes will require political and religious organizations to confront the weakening of male hegemony as the organizing principle for family and society. This paper explores the increased rate of male suicide in Poland from the perspective of gender.


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JAROSŁAW R. ROMANIUK, Case Western Reserve University

Jarosław R. Romaniuk, PhD, LISW-S, LICDC, is a researcher and educator. Currently he works as a full-time lecturer at the Mandel School of Applied Social Sciences. From 2004 to 2015 he worked as a social worker at the Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. He also worked in the School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University as a neuroscientist. His experience at the VA has led him to participate in national VA committees and the National Association of Social Workers in Ohio. He was also involved locally, as a Board member of The Alcohol, Drug Addiction and Mental Health Services (ADAMHS) Board of Cuyahoga County (2010-2017).

ANNA KOTLARSKA-MICHALSKA, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan

Anna Kotlarska-Michalska, Professor at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Head of the Department of Research on Social Problems and Social Work at the Faculty of Sociology. Head of the specialization course: Organization of Social Welfare. Co-organizer of undergraduate and graduate studies in the field of social work at AMU. President of the Board of the Polish Association of Social Work Schools in 2011-2019. Scientific achievements: over 220 works (mainly scientific articles) in the field of social work, family sociology, social policy, gerontology, sociology of social problems, deviation and social pathology. Author of several dozen publishing reviews in sociology and social work, several reviews in doctoral and postdoctoral dissertations. Reviewer in several scientific journals with a sociological profile. She is currently researching the causes of social insecurity and invisible social problems.

KATHLEEN J. FARKAS, Case Western Reserve University

Kathleen J. Farkas, Ph.D. LISW-Supv. is an Associate Professor of Social Work at the Jack, Joseph and Morton  Mandel  School  of  Applied  Social  Sciences,  Case  Western  Reserve  University,  Cleveland,  Ohio  USA.  She has extensive clinical and research experience in the areas of mental health and addictions assessment and treatment. Dr. Farkas a long time interest in substance use issues among older adults and women and her work has focused on addictions and mental health issues among those incarcerated in jails and prisons.  Recently she has been involved in research, teaching and publications using animal assisted interventions in mental health and addictions. She is the chairperson of the Mandel School’s direct practice faculty as well as the specialization faculty for substance use disorders and recovery.


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