Main Article Content
Child rights can be considered through the different characteristics of human rights, according to the classification “3P” as Protection, Provision, and Participation. The (potential) distinction between child rights and human rights recalls the former perspective about children’s not seen as human beings. The development of the fields on childhood studies such as “children’s participation” and “agency” are also related to the concept “empowerment,” which indicates the power relations between children and grown-ups. The main purpose of this paper is to debate all those notions through the children’s own experiences by referring to various examples in the frame of Power of children as the Fourth-P right. After discussing how children have the power to “challenge the authority,” I will indicate some examples from Little Review, as a remarkable experience of children’s participation. Lastly, I will try to reveal what today’s children consider the topic of child rights by sharing the findings of a pilot research with children, which I realized in 2019 December. In this study, twelve children who were 11-year-old then, wrote their commentaries about children’s rights and the requirements to have the rights. Thus, in the final part of this paper, the rights will be addressed through children’s perspectives.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.
- Arnstein, Sherry R. 1969. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation.” Journal of the American Institute of Planners 35(4): 216–224. https://doi.org/10.1080/01944366908977225
- Bollig, Sabine & Helga Kelle. 2016. “Children as Participants in Practices: The Challenges Which Practice Theories Pose to an Actor-centred Sociology of Childhood.” Pp. 34–47 in Routledge Research in Education: Vol. 161.
- Reconceptualising Agency and Childhood: New Perspectives in Childhood Studies, edited by F. Esser, M. S. Baader, T. Betz, & B. Hungerland. London and New York: Routledge.
- Cassell, Justine. 2004. “We Have These Rule Inside”: The Effects of Exercising Voice in a Children’s Online Forum.” Pp. 121–140 in Rethinking Childhood, edited by P. B. Pufall, & R. P. Unsworth. New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University.
- Franklin, Bob. 2002. “Children’s Rights and Media Wrongs.” Pp. 15–42 in The New Handbook of Children’s Rights: Comparative Policy and Practice, edited by B. Franklin. London and New York: Routledge.
- Freeman, Claire, Paul Henderson, & Jane Kettle. 1999. Planning with Children for Better Communities. The Challenge to Professionals. Bristol: The Policy Press.
- Harding, Sarah. 1993. “Rethinking Standpoint Epistemology: What is ‘Strong Objectivity’?” Pp. 49–82 in Feminist Epistemologies, edited by L. Alcoff & E. Potter. New York and London: Routledge.
- Hart, Roger A. 1992. Children’s Participation: from Tokenism to Citizenship. Florence: UNICEF International Children Development Centre.
- Hartung, Catherine. 2017. Conditional Citizens: Rethinking Children and Young People’s Participation. Singapore: Springer.
- John, Mary. 2003. Children’s Rights and Power: Charging Up for a New Century. London and Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley.
- Korczak, Janusz. 2005. King Matt the First, translated by R. Lourie. Vintage iBooks.
- Korczak, Janusz. 2009. “The Child’s Right to Respect.” Pp. 23–42 in Janusz Korczak’s Legacy. Lectures on Today’s Challenges for Children, translated by E.P Kulawiec. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
- Landau-Czajka, Anna. 2019. “Not Just Mały Przegląd: The Ideals and Educational Values Expressed in Jewish Polish-language Journals for Children and Young Adults.” Pp. 338–355 in New Directions in the History of the Jews in the Polish Lands Transl. by A. Lloyd-Jones, edited by A. Polonsky, H. Węgrzynek, & A. Żbikowski. Brighton: Academic Studies Press.
- Little Review Announcement, October 7, 1926; Little Review, October 9, 1926 (1348). Retrieved September 25, 2020 (https://labiennale.art.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/1-MP-1348-1926-ENG.pdf).
- Little Review, June 10, 1927 (1577). Retrieved September 25, 2020. (https://labiennale.art.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/3-MP-1577-1927-ENG.pdf)
- Little Review, October 21, 1927 (1308). Retrieved September 25, 2020. (https://labiennale.art.pl/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/4-MP-1308-1927-ENG.pdf).
- Markowska-Manista, Urszula. 2018. “The Ethical Dilemmas of Research with Children from the Countries of the Global South. Whose Participation.” Polish Journal of Educational Studies 71(1): 51–65.
- Meacham, Jack A. 2004. “Action, Voice, and Identity in Children’s Lives.” Pp. 69–84 in Rethinking Childhood, edited by P. B. Pufall, & R. P. Unsworth. New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University.
- Moran-Ellis, Jo & Heinz Sünker. 2013. “Adult Trust and Children’s Democratic Participation.” Pp. 32–51 in Participation, Citizenship and Trust in Children’s Lives, edited by H. Warming. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
- Parlayan Çocuklar [Shining Children]. Mart [March] 2018. İstanbul: Tarlabaşı Toplum Merkezi [Tarlabaşı Community Center]. Retrieved September 28, 2020. (http://www.tarlabasi.org/docs/parlayan-cocuklar/parlayan-cocuklar-birlikte-oynayalim-mi-mart-2018.pdf).
- Roche, Jeremy. 2002. “The Children Act 1989 and Children’s Rights: A Critical Reassessment.” Pp. 60–80 in The New Handbook of Children’s Rights: Comparative Policy and Practice, edited by B. Franklin. London and New York: Routledge.
- UNICEF, UNCRC. 1989. “United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.” Retrieved September 25, 2020. (https://downloads.unicef.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/unicef-convention-rights-child-uncrc.pdf).
- Vucic, Basia & Zuzanna Sekowska. 2020. Our Home: Janusz Korczak’s Experiments in Democracy. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Akademii Pedagogiki Specjalnej.
- Wall, John. 2010. Ethics in Light of Childhood. Washington D. C.: Georgetown.
- Wall, John. 2019. “From Childhood Studies to Childism: Reconstructing the Scholarly and Social Imaginations.” Children’s Geographies 1–14. Retrieved September 25, 2020 (https://doi.org.10.1080/14733285.2019.1668912).
- Wihstutz, Anne. 2016. “Children’s Agency: Contributions from Feminist and Ethics of Care Theories to Sociology of Childhood.” Pp. 61–74 in Routledge Research in Education: Vol. 161. Reconceptualising Agency and Childhood: New Perspectives in Childhood Studies, edited by F. Esser, M. S. Baader, T. Betz, & B. Hungerland. London and New York: Routledge.