Society Register <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>ABOUT THE JOURNAL</strong><br>SOCIETY REGISTER is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes in English empirical, conceptual, and theoretical articles that make substantial contributions to the field in all areas of social sciences including sociology, economics, political science, psychology, cultural studies, education, and social policy. SOCIETY REGISTER is published in partnership with the Department of Sociology at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The journal has received honorary patronage of Polish Society of Comparative Pedagogy and Sociological Committee of Poznan Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences. 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Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p><p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p><p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p><p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. </p> GENDER EQUALITY AND CHILDREN’S EQUALITY IN LIBERAL AND CONSERVATIVE DISCOURSES: IMPLICATIONS TOWARD LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY <p>This introductory article is intended to open the volume of work prepared by the participants of the 12th UNESCO Janusz Korczak Chair International Summer School. The participants presented these papers at the RC25 ISA Interim International Conference in Warsaw, entitled: "Language and Society. Research Advances in Social Sciences" (26-27.09.2019), exploring the concepts of gender equality and children's equality in liberal and conservative discourses and practices invested in language. The papers in this volume primarily use the methodology of discourse analysis and a range of tools and methods within this framework. The purpose is to shed light on how discourses inform preferences, behaviours and representations, towards the positioning of individuals in society, based on their respective gender and their individual status - whether an adult or a child. It is interesting to explore what is expected of the holders of these positions and whether they are able to confront and renegotiate their situation. The authors look into gendered childhood, analysing if differences can be found in so-called conservative and liberal discourses. The gender aspect of childhood and the resistance towards children’s expected positions interlinked to their gender is visible to diverse degrees in this selection of papers. The concept of social positioning due to one's gender is at the heart of this volume. Therefore, this Editorial forms a theoretical backstage for the volume of works included in the special post-conference issue of Society Register.</p> ANNA ODROWĄŻ-COATES Copyright (c) 2019 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 7 16 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.01 ROMANIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: INTERCULTURAL EDUCATION IMPLICATIONS <p>The study approaches the new curriculum documents for pre-university education in the Republic of Moldova from the intercultural education perspective. In the 2019-2020 school year, the schools in the country are carrying out the education process based on a new curriculum, which represents the result of the third reform after the country's independence in 1992. The author analyses the correspondence of the curriculum texts to the stipulations of the Education Code, and the extent to which they respond to the demands in the development of the students’ intercultural competence. The findings of the study reveal that the texts are focused not only on the promotion of the national values and identity, but are open, at the same time, to the intercultural education and to the dialogue with representatives of different cultures in the multicultural divided society. Literature and policy review supplemented by discourse analysis are the main qualitative methods applied.<em></em></p> VIORICA GORAS-POSTICA Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 17 36 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.02 LANGUAGE AND DISCOURSE IN NIGERIAN EDUCATION: HISTORIC IMPLICATION OF GENDER ISSUES <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>This paper examines the influence and power of language in education in Nigeria from the precolonial to colonial and post-colonial times. This is with regards to the effect of language on gender issues within the country. Nigeria, a country on the west coast of Africa is multi-ethnic with over 150 (one hundred and fifty) ethnic groups with their different indigenous languages and cultures. As a colony of the British, the Christian missionaries who first introduced western form of education in Nigeria used the British English language as a medium of communication and subsequently with the establishment of colonial administration in the country, English language was made the official language of the country. This paper contains a critical analysis of the use of English Language in the country and its implications on communication in social and economic interactions of individuals within the various communities across the country.&nbsp; It argues that the proliferation of the English language was through education of which the male gender benefitted more than their female counterparts due to the patriarchal dominance in the country. The data for the study was collated from random interviews and other written sources. The research discovered that the knowledge and ability to speak fluently and write the English language had a direct influence on the socio-political and economic status of individuals within the country. The women who benefitted from this were comparatively fewer than the men due to some prevailing conditions of what could be called in the present the subjugation of women the society. Critical discourse analysis is adopted for this study. It argues that English language dependency by Nigerians shows that forms of the colonial experience is still evident and these were all initiated during the past interactions with west through the transatlantic slave trade and colonial rule. This is because discourse as a social construct is created and perpetuated by the persons who have the language power and means of communication. The Nigerian family being of a conservative orientation derives its power directly from the father who is the patriarch of the family as obtained in the traditional set up of communities and the Nigerian society in general. This has grave effect on the opposite gender</p> EKWUTOSI ESSIEN OFFIONG Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 37 56 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.03 GIRLS’ EXPLOITATION IN THE TRIPLE BORDER AMONG ARGENTINA, BRASIL AND PARAGUAY: BETWEEN COLONIALISM AND HUMAN RIGHTS NARRATIVES <p>This article focuses on the narratives and underlying ideologies that enable the persistence of girls’ sexual exploitation in the region of the Triple Border among Argentina, Brasil and Paraguay, where field work was conducted. We argue that the persistence of colonial practices has contributed to the reproduction of subalternity positions for girls and women – especially from impoverished sectors – enforced by the conservative and patriarchal discourse present in many countries of the region. This scenario enables the persistence and naturalization of certain practices that became “invisible” or even accepted and justified as being “cultural”. In this sense, we propose that human rights narrative, although being a Eurocentric construction, can comprise a platform for raising issues on gender inequality and all forms of violence and exploitation taking place in the peripheral regions of the world.</p> MARIA CECILIA ZSÖGÖN Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 57 74 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.04 SKOLOMBO AND THEIR CONTINUED EXISTENCE: REVISITING LOST HUMANISM AND PARENTIFICATION IMPULSE <p class="p1">This paper examines the Skolombo-street children of Calabar. It also investigates the reason for their continued existence, the derivatives in form of social and economic insecurity, inequality and other monstrosities visible in their presence. It questions the oblivious role of the institutions responsible for the care of the child, and parentification impulse as well as the lost humanism which existed in high premium in traditional African society resisted and reflected by text and language. The study is anchored upon Theo Van Leeuwen’s perspective on Critical Discourse Analysis which primarily studies the way social-power abuse and inequality are enacted, reproduced, legitimized, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. The study is a qualitative research conducted with the eclectic research methodologies such as biography, Participant Observation and Conversation. Among other findings, this study reveals that the Cross river state government has not provided enough fair ground to fully tackle the social and economic needs of the street child, that the desired comfort has not been provided for the girl child and that they have not been able to fully integrate the Skolombo into the echelon of the privileged. Conclusively, this has created spaces for youth delinquency, thievery, moral laxity and decadence. In the light of the findings, it is recommended that the government needs to put alternative and effective measures to play with the aim to curbing the menace of Skolombo and the street child culture. There ought to be an implementation of the child right boy and girl child. Stringent punishment should be meted on parents, religious leadact in the global space in order to reduce the molestation and marginalization of the ers and guardians who subject children to unnecessary molestation. Religious leaders and parents should be sensitized about the need to integrate their children within the family, intervention should be made compulsory.</p> CHINYERE L. OKAM Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-01-07 2020-01-07 3 4 75 96 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.05 ‘NO ONE KNOWS ANYTHING’: KINSHIP CAREGIVERS AND THEIR EXPERIENCES WITH SOCIAL SERVICES IN POLAND <p dir="ltr">This paper provides a window into the ways kinship caregivers of elderly persons and people with disabilities describe their experiences with social services in Poland. Kinship caregivers in Poland, the majority of whom are women, often struggle with inadequate access to social services dedicated to people with disabilities and the elderly. One of the major issues faced by caregivers who try to secure these services, are complex rules and regulations which frequently make it very difficult to access information and assistance. By the way of critical discourse analysis, this paper examines letters by and interviews with kinship caregivers in Poland. These two data sets present the problems faced by kinship caregivers of elderly persons and people with disabilities who are frequently left frustrated by their interactions the social services system and its gatekeepers. Therefore, the authors hope that this study will provide policymakers responsible for social policy in Poland with some useful insights and suggestions.</p> <div>&nbsp;</div> MICHALINA GRZELKA KATARZYNA SZOSTAKOWSKA Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 97 114 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.06 THE VISION OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS IN POLISH AND UKRAINIAN CORE CIRRICULA. ANALYSIS BASED ON THE HOFSTEDE 4-D MODEL <p>National curricula are documents describing the knowledge, skills and social competences that students should acquire at the appropriate stages of education. In our article, we assume that these documents have the power to buttress the existing status quo or to change reality. Generally speaking, they are an attempt at transforming selected areas of culture in a deliberate, planned, and systemic manner.</p> <p>This paper, by means of&nbsp; Hofstede’s 4-D model of cultural differences among societies (viz power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity), is aimed at studying the way Polish and Ukrainian national curricula define the educational processes and Teacher-Student relations, in order to reveal the correlation between the cultural differences and learning/teaching process in Poland and Ukraine. A critical discourse analysis of the two state curricula has been done to interpret their contents.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ANZHELA POPYK ANNA ANNA PERKOWSKA-KLEJMAN Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 115 136 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.07 THERE IS NO DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN GIRLS AND BOYS! <p>This paper refers to a selected fragmant, which is about children’s gendered behaviours and children’s thoughts on gender issue, of an ethnographic study on children’s subjectivitation processes through digital technologies. For this whole study, philosophy for children approach was used as a technique to conduct focus group interviews with children in a periodical basis. The selected parts for this paper are based on three different sections of those interviews; first one is about children’s opinions on gender roles, referring to gendered occupations and plays for kids, the second one is also conducted to reveal the hidden discourses on gender in real society and virtual world which has been built on the existed world, and lastly adult-children hierarchical relations, was debated with children in order to connect this distinction to gender differences, will be mentioned.&nbsp;</p> SERAN DEMIRAL Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 137 156 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.08 CHILD PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY DECISION-MAKING: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE RUSSIAN PARENTS’ FORUM <p>The topic of children's participation in various issues was updated in the second half of the last century. It was largely due to the adoption of an important international document such as the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Children are as important participants in social life as adults so they have the right to express their opinions on various issues related to their activities, as well as to take into account these opinions by adults in decision-making in the family, in school, in the community, etc. Russian society is dominated by the traditional discourse of the perception of children as human becoming, socially and mentally immature, not-yet-an-adult. To study the parental discourse of children's participation in family issues, empirical material of the network discussion organized at the parental forum called Vladmama (Vladivostok, Russia) is used. In order to organize the discussion, an information injection was carried out. It was the description of the imagined problematic situation of child-parental relations on the issue of child’s participation in family affairs. The 81 messages received from 25 users were analyzed according to James Gee approach. &nbsp;Seven Gee’s “building tasks” (Activities; Identities; Relationships; Politics; Connections; Sign Systems and Knowledge) are researched on the materials of mother’s forum. The process of creating value is always connected with the exercise of power. In our case, mothers using their power as parents redefine the meanings of children's participation. The main resource that opens the way for adults to power is money. Earning money is interpreted by the participants of the forum as a way for a child to involve in the adult’s world, an opportunity to legalize the child’s right to express his/her own opinion and defend this opinion. Other sources of parent’s power are their own life experience, knowledge and social skills.</p> ALEXANDRA FILIPOVA Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 157 170 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.09 JUSTICE FOR CHILDREN IN ARGENTINA: A BACKLASH TO CONSERVATIVE DISCOURSES <p>The author uses Critical Discourse Analysis to compare two legal documents of critical relevance for the rights of children in conflict with the law in Argentina: the current law no. 22,278, called <em>Régimen Penal de la Minoridad,</em> and the project named <em>Sistema de Responsabilidad Penal Juvenil </em>which was under consideration by the National Congress during 2019. This project was proposed by the government so as to stablish a new juvenile justice system in Argentina, following a widely spread tendency in the Latin American region. The purpose of the article is to show that, even though the language of human rights is used in official discourse and in the legal text submitted to Parliament, many of its features represent a clear backlash to a more conservative regime.</p> YAMILA VANESA RODRIGUEZ Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 171 184 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.10 THE WRETCHED OF THE AFRICAN EARTH. AN ATTEMPT AT DECONSTRUCTING THE STEREOTYPE OF AFRICANISED MIGRATION DESTINED FOR EUROPE <p>The aim of the article is to deconstruct the Africanization of migration destined for Europe, to disprove several cognitive scripts on migration from Africa, most frequently quoted in the conservative media discourse. In the introduction, the migration of Africans destined for Europe in relations to the migration of Asians via Africa destined for Europe were characterized inter alia on the basis of the official documents, UNHCR and FRONTEX reports. Then, the dynamics of transcontinental and intra-Africa migrations – in synchronous and diachronic approach, with the reference to the research results of scholars specialized in the demography, social policy, history of migration – were discussed. Finally, the cultural meanings of migration among Africans is presented.</p> CYPRIAN ALEKSANDER KOZERA BŁAŻEJ POPŁAWSKI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 185 198 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.11 A THINKING PIECE. THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION FOR PEACE <p class="p1">Iran is a country of great ethnic diversity. Although the official language of the country is Farsi, more than 8 other languages and hundreds of dialects are spoken throughout the country. This great ethnic diversity has led to emergence and growth of different cultures and religions (both official and non-official). This great diversity has potential for cultural growth and development. In recent years, many non-governmental organizations have made great efforts to teach children peace in different ways. The biggest motivation for these trainings are: to end misbelieves toward education, and professing to equal citizenship rights for all the ethnic groups. In the past 20 years, the issue of the right to equal education has been a hot topic of discussion in most non-governmental children’s researches. This refers to the promotion of peace culture, by peace-based educational programs for all age groups, from the beginning pre-school education stages. A group of active consultants and educational planners did a lot of work in this way. They held lots of workshops and meetings, and achieved successful programs with positive results.</p> SANAZ ETEMADIBOUSHERI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 3 4 199 207 10.14746/sr.2019.3.4.12