Society Register <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>ABOUT THE JOURNAL</strong><br>SOCIETY REGISTER is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes in English empirical, conceptual, and theoretical articles that make substantial contributions to the field in all areas of social sciences including sociology, economics, political science, psychology, cultural studies, education, and social policy. SOCIETY REGISTER is published in partnership with the Department of Sociology at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The journal has received honorary patronage of Polish Society of Comparative Pedagogy and Sociological Committee of Poznan Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences. The mission of the Society Register Journal is to publish original works of interest to the social sciences disciplines in general, new theoretical approaches, empirical results of research that advance our understanding of fundamental social processes (and important methodological innovations), together with the practical application of those insights to the resolution of social issues. A key requirement for any author wishing to publish his/her work (be it empirically grounded, or purely theoretically oriented) needs to explicitly reflect upon the necessary underlying assumptions (axioms) and (if applicable) on how exactly a methodology was derived to study a given phenomena within a specific context of changing societies.</p> <p class="oczasopismie">Free of charge: we do not charge authors or readers! We believe in a completely free exchange of scientific thoughts.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/about">JOURNAL POLICIES</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/issue/current">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/issue/archive">ARCHIVE</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN: </strong>ARIANTA<img src="/public/site/images/mbaranowski/Twitter_Social_Icon_Circle_Color.png" alt="">, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), CEJSH (The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities), CEON (Centrum Otwartej Nauki), Crossref, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EBSCO Discovery Service, European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS), EuroPub Database, PKP Index, IC Journals Master List, ICI World of Journals, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries (MIT Libraries), ROAD Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources, POL-index, SSOAR (Social Science Open Access Repository), Google Scholar, WorldCat, NUKAT</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>FIND US:&nbsp;</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/sr</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2544-5502</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ICV (</strong><strong>Index Copernicus Value):</strong>&nbsp;2017: 72,37; 2018: 92,37</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>CREATIVE COMMONS:&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong><a href=""><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc4.png" alt="CC_by-nc/4.0" border="0"></a></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>FINANCED BY:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/mbaranowski/MNiSW_maly1.jpg" alt=""></strong></div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Society Register 2544-5502 <p>Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.</p> <p>In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported&nbsp;License.</p> <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the&nbsp; legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p> <p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p> <p>2. 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Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p> <p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p> <p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p> <p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.&nbsp;</p> CHILDREN’S RIGHTS AND CHILDHOOD STUDIES AS A CHALLENGE AND A DRIVER OF SOCIAL CHANGE <p class="p2">This paper contains an introduction to a selection of papers across social sciences and humanities, based on empirical explorations and theoretical conceptualizations. Authors highlight the issues of parental roles, parental styles, child and family positioning in the family and society. The lens of children’s rights and participatory approaches is also discussed. Authors focus on diverse practices in parenting, different approaches to children’s agency and freedom of choice, family as a negotiated space mediated by culture, children’s position in family and society, life chances and wellbeing, critical approaches to children’s rights perspectives, early intervention, socio-political context, finally Freire’s and Korczak’s pedagogies.</p> URSZULA MARKOWSKA-MANISTA ANNA ODROWĄŻ-COATES Copyright (c) 2021 URSZULA MARKOWSKA-MANISTA, ANNA ODROWĄŻ-COATES 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 7 12 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.01 SOCIO-CULTURAL VALUES AND CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN CALABAR <p class="p2">This paper on Socio-Cultural Values and Children’s Rights in Calabar analyses the history and value system associated with child upbringing in the city of Calabar. Communalism, which ensured child socialisation from birth, was a common practice in Calabar like in other areas of Africa and Nigeria until European incursion and eventual introduction of capitalism during colonial times. This change resulted in the diminishing of communal lifestyle and reduction of family sizes to nuclear forms. It also necessitated the population increase and related social problems. Although historical in content and analysis, the paper adopted the multidisciplinary approach of reconstruction with data gleaned from primary and secondary sources. Findings showed that right from pre-colonial times, inhuman practices that abused children’s rights like child pawning and killing of twins characterised this study area. Population increase and the rise of urban poor and slums resulted in the breeding of abused children, with most homeless on the streets of Calabar. Witchcraft labelling and child trafficking were also highlighted as other significant and recurring causes of child abuse in Calabar. This paper concluded by reiterating that as Calabar flouts its status as a ‘restful city’, children must not be denied of this ‘restful’ lifestyle. Child rights must be implementable and child right violators prosecuted.</p> EKWUTOSI ESSIEN OFFIONG GODSPOWER ANDREW UDUIGWOMEN Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 13 30 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.02 NAVIGATING THE CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF FAMILY LANGUAGE POLICY DURING CHILDHOOD FOR IMMIGRANT YOUTH IN CANADA <p>One of the most influential decisions that immigrant parents must make for their children involves establishing a set of rules and norms governing what language(s) they will be raised with and how they will acquire proficiency in the dominant languages of the host society, a process known as family language policy. Such decisions can have long lasting effects for immigrant children into adulthood by influencing their integration into the host society and transition towards adult life. Using retrospective, in-depth interview data collected from young immigrant adults, this study explores the ways that parental decisions made throughout an immigrant child’s life course regarding language use and learning shape their multilingual identity and attitude towards the use of multiple languages in their everyday adult life. Findings suggest that the linguistic decisions parents make in the early years of an immigrant youths’ life have lasting impacts on them in terms of connecting to family members and culture in adulthood. We found that when parents created either a flexible or strict family language policy, such policies produced more positive experiences in the migration and early settlement process for immigrant youth compared to those whose parents did not form a family language policy.</p> MEGAN MACCORMAC KATHERINE MACCORMAC Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 31 56 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.03 VIOLATIONS OF CHILDREN’S RIGHTS IN SUDAN AND THEIR CIRCUMSTANCES: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND THE POSSIBILITY OF SOLUTIONS <p>This paper aims to demonstrate the main aspects and weaknesses of children's rights in Sudan and describe how to work towards enhancing the immediate response to violations against children. This discussion will help develop future plans to strengthen the enforcement of children’s rights in Sudan and create an environment that protects children's rights against all kinds of violations. This paper presents the current situation of children’s rights violations in Sudan and factors that have a great and direct impact on these situations, especially social and cultural factors concerning female circumcision, genital mutilation, and marriage of underage girls; and laws that violate the dignity of Sudanese children, such as laws related to flogging, imprisonment, and death. The article also addresses issues of wars and internal conflicts and their impact on children, including their recruitment and trafficking. It also discusses the weaknesses of laws in place to protect children in Sudan and the changes these laws have undergone in recent years, especially the fundamental changes following the revolution that broke out in Sudan in 2018, which replaced the dictatorial military regime with Islamic orientations and trying to find objective solutions.</p> NAGMELDIN KARAMALLA-GAIBALLA Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 57 68 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.04 REALISING THE CHILD'S RIGHTS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD IN THE CONTEXT OF CHILDREN’S SOCIAL PARTICIPATION: THE CASE OF THE CHILD’S RIGHT TO A FAMILY <p>The article presents the need to make the culture of children's rights fundamental from the earliest years of their lives, given the idea of children's social participation. Creating and practising such a culture throughout childhood is a task that requires not only a thorough knowledge of the child’s rights among both parents and teachers but also the wider acceptance of these ideas and the creation of the right environment for sharing and speaking up for them both at home and in early education settings. The academic and colloquial discourse on parental practices and institutional childcare often overlooks the dimension/significance of recognising children's participation in safeguarding their human rights. Meanwhile, the processes of early normative socialisation are of great importance to their development and their future attitudes towards law in general and towards their human rights and others' rights. Social participation is where the child can experience his or her rights and learn about respecting others' rights. With this in mind, a question must be asked about how children's rights are realised in early childhood in the context of their participation in the socialisation process. The author uses the example of the child’s right to a family as a lens to observe how the idea of the children’s participation in securing children’s rights may be realised or violated. The article is based on an analysis of the subject's literature, in which legal discourse and teachings on child-rearing and early education are used as the interpretative context.</p> MAŁGORZATA TURCZYK Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 69 82 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.05 PARENTING IN CONFLICT – PARENTAL ALIENATION: NETNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH <p>Parental alienation is a phenomenon that appears after the divorce or break-up in a situation, where there is high conflict between the separating parents accompanying the termination of the relationship. It includes actions intentionally taken by one of the sides, who is seeking to distort the relationship between the child and the other parent. As a result of the alienation, the child starts to excessively prefer the custodial parent and intensively reject the non-custodial parent. The discussion concerning parental alienation was initiated by Richard Gardner, a psychiatrist, who introduced the idea of PAS ‘<em>parental alienation syndrome’. </em>His concept was widely commented by its supporters as well as by sceptics and opponents, as a result of which its modified version, PA ‘<em>parental alienation’</em>, was developed. Published research concerning the subject can be found in English-language scientific articles as early as in 1998. However, in Polish academic literature parental alienation is almost non-existent. The objective of this article is to open a discussion on this subject. Apart from theoretical analysis of the phenomenon, the narratives of parents who believe to experience PA were analysed. The analysis regarded aspects such as: definition, characteristics and sources of parental alienation. The article analyses also actions, which are the alienated parents’ reactions to PA. The performed analysis was of netnographic nature.</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MAGDALENA ROSZAK Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 83 98 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.06 CHILDREN’S POWER TO CHALLENGE AUTHORITY <p>Child rights can be considered through the different characteristics of human rights, according to the classification “3P” as Protection, Provision, and Participation. The (potential) distinction between child rights and human rights recalls the former perspective about children’s not seen as human beings. The development of the fields on childhood studies such as “children’s participation” and “agency” are also related to the concept “empowerment,” which indicates the power relations between children and grown-ups. The main purpose of this paper is to debate all those notions through the children’s own experiences by referring to various examples in the frame of Power of children as the Fourth-P right. After discussing how children have the power to “challenge the authority,” I will indicate some examples from Little Review, as a remarkable experience of children’s participation. Lastly, I will try to reveal what today’s children consider the topic of child rights by sharing the findings of a pilot research with children, which I realized in 2019 December. In this study, twelve children who were 11-year-old then, wrote their commentaries about children’s rights and the requirements to have the rights. Thus, in the final part of this paper, the rights will be addressed through children’s perspectives.</p> SERAN DEMIRAL Copyright (c) 2021 SERAN DEMIRAL 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 99 114 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.07 MALE AND FEMALE CLIENTS OF MEN PROVIDING SEXUAL SERVICES: RESEARCH REPORT <p class="p2">The aim of the research was to gain knowledge of who the people using sexual services are, why they do it and what their relationship with men offering paid sex looked like. Results show that the people who used sexual services were both men and women of different ages and with different professional status. The main reasons for using paid sex services were: unsatisfactory sexual contact,; a sense of loneliness and being neglected by the life partner, partner’s infertility, heartbreak or betrayal of a partner, problems with finding the right partner, unusual sexual preferences, change of gender and treatment of sex-meetings as a form of entertainment.</p> RENATA GARDIAN-MIAŁKOWSKA Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 115 134 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.08 DEVELOPING EMPATHIC SENSITIVITY IN YOUNGER CHILDREN <p class="p2">The article presents a review of theoretical concepts on empathic sensitivity. The text demonstrates correlations between empathy and moral development and presents empathy in children and its conditions. The article is also aimed at pointing to the significance of empathy in human relations, and it introduces several factors which influence bringing up children to have empathy. Moreover, it presents the methods of working with children aimed at developing their empathic sensitivity. These include, among others, drama, working with literary texts and art techniques.</p> SANDRA KWAŚNIEWSKA-PASZTA Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 135 154 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.09 GENDER STEREOTYPES PRESENTED IN POPULAR CHILDREN’S FAIRY TALES <p>The article aims to contribute to the discussion on gender stereotypes in stories for children by mapping gender stereotypes in traditional fairy tales. The article presents fairy tales' value in children’s education and indicates potential dangers in traditional cultural transmissions, paying special attention to gender stereotypes. A selection of texts was analyzed in terms of their stereotypical gender portrayals. The methodological framework represents an interpretative paradigm in social sciences, using a qualitative method of analysis. The texts were purposely selected, and the most popular fairy tales were chosen: Cinderella, Snow White and Sleeping Beauty, which despite the passing of time, are still popular, widely read and also used in film adaptations. It was shown that in all analyzed fairy tales, there was a stereotypical division of roles according to gender. The article also presents possible ways to counteract gender stereotypes. A limitation of the article is that the analysis is limited to three fairy tales only, but the overarching value raises awareness of gender stereotypes in fairy tales for children.</p> JOANNA PAWŁOWSKA Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 155 170 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.10 JOHN B. SIMON, STRANGERS IN A STRANGER LAND <p>This is a book review of "STRANGERS IN A STRANGER LAND: How One Country's Jews Fought an Unwinnable War Alongside Nazi Troops…and Survived"; by John B. Simon; Rowman and Littlefield; 2019 (originally published in Finnish as Mahdoton sota, "The Impossible War," by Siltala Publishing, 2017).</p> <p>The review was written for the Jewish Book Council by a Professor Emeritus of English and contains both historical and pedagogical reflections on the educational messages emmerging from the book. This is important not only for memory studies and for identity politics but also when looking deep into the complex issues of socialization and education after the WWII. The book contains a story of the contradictory role of Finland's Jewish community in the wars against the Soviet Union and Germany.</p> MARK BERNHEIM Copyright (c) 2021 Society Register 2021-05-15 2021-05-15 5 2 171 174 10.14746/sr.2021.5.2.11