Society Register <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>ABOUT THE JOURNAL</strong><br>SOCIETY REGISTER is an international peer reviewed journal that publishes in English empirical, conceptual, and theoretical articles that make substantial contributions to the field in all areas of social sciences including sociology, economics, political science, psychology, cultural studies, education, and social policy. SOCIETY REGISTER is published in partnership with the Department of Sociology at the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. The journal has received honorary patronage of Polish Society of Comparative Pedagogy and Sociological Committee of Poznan Society of Friends of Arts and Sciences. The mission of the Society Register Journal is to publish original works of interest to the social sciences disciplines in general, new theoretical approaches, empirical results of research that advance our understanding of fundamental social processes (and important methodological innovations), together with the practical application of those insights to the resolution of social issues. A key requirement for any author wishing to publish his/her work (be it empirically grounded, or purely theoretically oriented) needs to explicitly reflect upon the necessary underlying assumptions (axioms) and (if applicable) on how exactly a methodology was derived to study a given phenomena within a specific context of changing societies.</p> <p class="oczasopismie">Free of charge: we do not charge authors or readers! We believe in a completely free exchange of scientific thoughts.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/about">JOURNAL POLICIES</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/issue/current">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/sr/issue/archive">ARCHIVE</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEXED IN: </strong>ARIANTA<img src="/public/site/images/mbaranowski/Twitter_Social_Icon_Circle_Color.png" alt="">, Bielefeld Academic Search Engine (BASE), CEJSH (The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities), CEON (Centrum Otwartej Nauki), Crossref, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), EBSCO Discovery Service, European Reference Index for the Humanities and the Social Sciences (ERIH PLUS), EuroPub Database, PKP Index, IC Journals Master List, ICI World of Journals, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Libraries (MIT Libraries), ROAD Directory of Open Access scholarly Resources, POL-index, SSOAR (Social Science Open Access Repository), Google Scholar, WorldCat, NUKAT</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>FIND US:&nbsp;</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/sr</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>2544-5502</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ICV (</strong><strong>Index Copernicus Value):</strong>&nbsp;2017: 72,37; 2018: 92,37</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>CREATIVE COMMONS:&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong><a href=""><img src="/public/piotr/cc/cc4.png" alt="CC_by-nc/4.0" border="0"></a></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>FINANCED BY:&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/mbaranowski/MNiSW_maly1.jpg" alt=""></strong></div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Society Register 2544-5502 <p>Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.</p><p>In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.</p><p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p><p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p><p>2. 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The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p><p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. </p> THE ‘RIGHT TO THE CITY’ ON VARIOUS SCALES <p>The introduction to this volume pursues two aims. On the one hand, it refers to the problem of distinguishing between ‘right to the city’ initiatives and ‘urban city movements’ as phenomena embedded in different structural moments of society. On the other hand, it attempts to propose a supplement to the discussion about the aforementioned phenomena. This supplement addresses the need to take into account different scales by which the phenomena of self-organisation in the city are analysed. The article offers an example of such analysis referring to the Central European and the Polish perspectives, treating the two stories as separate to a certain extent. As it turns out, each of them offers a slightly different reasoning and different contexts for understanding the evolution of phenomena as well as separate decisive factors shaping the empowerment processes. The reader finds here references to research analysis in sociology, urban and economic history, supplementing the existing knowledge. The proposed interpretation is intended to lead to a discussion on the need to comprehend local and regional specifics in universalising studies.</p> MAREK NOWAK Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 7 48 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.01 URBAN MOVEMENTS IN THE PROCESS OF THE LEGITIMATION OF LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: ANALYSIS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF ALTERNATIVE GROUPS AND CIVIL ORGANISATIONS AT A TIME OF EUROPEAN CRISIS <p>This paper constitutes an analysis of urban movements, marked in the research as alternative groups and civil organisations, in terms of the new politics characteristic of new social movements. In particular it indicates that these movements, ostensibly urban, actually express demands towards the broader social system, delegitimating it in a twofold manner. &nbsp;Firstly, the acceptance of certain general principles in democratic values and rules is coupled with criticism of how the system functions in practice and of the political elites in Poland, via protest, lobbying, and watchdog activities. A separate type of delegitimation embraces organisations among which we may list cooperatives and squats, as well as organisations managing concrete spaces and withdrawing from participation in public life, shutting themselves away within autonomous spaces and realising a different cultural and democratic model. In both of these groups we are thus dealing with a strongly accentuated anti-systemic and anti-capitalist attitude towards the political reality of the period of transformation in Poland. The research delivered confirmation of the overall research hypothesis adopted in the Lifewhat project, according to which in response to economic crisis civil society responds with the emergence of alternative forms of resilience, not only alleviating the consequences of the crisis but which also, as time passes and the scale of their activities increases, may give rise to a new quality – including in a political sense. The research constitutes a part of the international Lifewhat project. It was conducted on a sample of eighteen purposefully selected civil groups and organisations operating in large cities in Poland, using the method of in-depth interviews.</p> BARBARA LEWENSTEIN Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 49 68 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.02 THE RIGHT TO A RAINBOW CITY: THE ITALIAN HOMOSEXUAL SOCIAL MOVEMENTS <p class="p2">Nowadays, the legal status of homosexual people varies widely from one country to another (ILGA 2019). In many contexts, the homosexual social movement has played a central role in fighting heterosexism and homophobia (Weinberg 1983). Especially in the democratic world, the homosexual social movement has been capable of spreading solidarity and inclusion and also of leading changes in regulatory terms, with different results context by context (Adam, Duyvendak, Krouwel 1999).</p> <p class="p2">The paper aims to point out the Italian situation and the main characteristics of the gay social movement in Italy as key factors of the social change. More specifically, the paper is aimed at recounting the political process and the symbolic and cultural factors that led the Italian homosexual social movement to impose itself on the social scene as a reality with its own specific identity. The paper’s last section analyses the so-called “Italian rainbow cities”, urban contexts where the LGBT community is highly concentrated and in which it is so active as to stimulate, in cooperation with the local urban administrations, capacity-building processes oriented to the construction and consolidation of LGBT people’s rights and social inclusion.</p> FABIO CORBISIERO SALVATORE MONACO Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 69 86 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.03 INVENTING URBANITY: URBAN MOVEMENTS IN POLAND <div>The article discusses the process of formation and transformation of urban movements in Poland. Conclusions are based on the data collected during the research project “Urban Social Movements in Poland” supported by the National Science Centre. For the requirements of the project was adopted a method of qualitative research using the techniques of in-depth narrative interviews, participant observations and secondary data analysis. The author conducted 30 in-depth interviews with leaders of urban movements from sixteen cities. The article describes the process of structuralization and the creation of the identity of the Polish urban movement and their role on the local political stage, stressing, in particular, their significant role as creators&nbsp;of a new discourse in Polish cities.</div> PAWEŁ KUBICKI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 87 104 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.04 'MEETING OF WATERS'? THE COMPLEX LANDSCAPE OF THE POLISH RIGHT TO THE CITY ACTIVISM <p><em>For over a decade, the explosion of various forms of urban activism has been observed: so- called urban social movements or the right to the city (RTTC) movements actively participate in the realm of non-institutional politics. This trend has been observed both world-wide and in Europe, particularly in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Poland is also a clear example of this tendency. The paper presented aims to achieve two goals. First of all, it is based on desk research and offers a broad literature overview, indicating the main directions and results in urban activism research in Poland of the last 10 years. Recalling and discussing the broadest possible body of literature, with particular emphasis on Polish-language references, should be useful for international readers and researchers. Secondly, the paper attempts to synthesize these current research results, including the authors own research results, identifying the complexity of the field of urban activism. As a result, it points to various entities using the RTTC slogan in their social struggles, consequently identifying two main types of RTTC activism: radical and middle-class (petite bourgeoisie?) movements.</em></p> PRZEMYSŁAW PLUCIŃSKI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 105 128 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.05 RIGHT TO THE MAP? COUNTER-MAPPING PRACTICES OF SMOG ALERTS AND URBAN GREENERY MOVEMENTS IN POLAND <p class="p2">Data production is becoming an emerging trend in critical urban activism. Precise and reliable public information, including spatial and environmental information, serves individual and collective ‘right to the city’ beliefs. One of the common strategies adopted by contemporary urban movements to ensure the accuracy and inclusiveness of urban data production processes are various forms of counter-mapping, which we introduce in this paper as a perspective aimed in critical evaluation of urban environmental conditions in Polish cities. By process tracing of smog alerts and urban greenery movements, we investigate the main strategies of using such tools and their effects for both particular social actors, and general urban environmental policy. We argue that the core idea of a citizen-driven collection of geographical data is strongly supported by its other features – social involvement and collective production of visualizations illustrating the scale and dynamics of particular environmental problems. In this sense, counter-mapping is aimed rather at repoliticizing urban environmental data in order to critically evaluate existing urban policy, than just to ensure greater citizen involvement in environmental decision-making.</p> RENATA PUTKOWSKA-SMOTER JAN FRANKOWSKI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 129 150 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.06 RIGHT TO THE CITY AND RIGHT TO THE NON-CITY: NEO-EXTRACTIVISM AND SOCIAL MOVEMENTS IN SOUTHERN EUROPE <p class="p2">This text aims to propose a reflection on the phenomenon of so-called <em>touristification </em>within the geographical area of Southern Europe concerning two points: how the processes of production of space that go under this name can be placed inside of the framework of the neo-extractive processes and how social movements against tourism may eventually resonate with the perspective of political ecology. The hypothesis is that this typology of accumulation processes responds to certain colonial rationality of capitalist exploitation within a specific area of the Global North – Southern Europe – starting from the global economic crisis of 2008, which I assume as a historical period characterized by specific forms of production of space (Lefebvre 1974) and specific social movements – the anti-tourism movements and the environmental struggles.</p> CARLA PANICO Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 151 166 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.07 TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE: A CASE STUDY FROM POLAND <p class="p2">This article presents a detailed history of the development of a particular immersion program to teach English to young Polish students. The program draws support from two organizations, the Kościuszko Foundation and the Polish Scouting Organization. Kościuszko Foundation is dedicated to strengthening the ties between the United States and Poland as well as to increase knowledge of Poland’s history and culture in the United States. The cooperation of these two organizations developed an experience of immersion in language and cultural exchange. Both the teachers and the students in this program benefited from the opportunity to engage in a number of different types of language activities and cultural events through a summer camp experience. This program is, of course, unique, but the elements of context, culture and immersion could be used in other programs to develop English skills and knowledge in the context American culture.</p> JAROSLAW R. ROMANIUK KRISTIN MILLER MARY KAY PIESKI TERESA G. WOJCIK KATHLEEN J. FARKAS Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 167 182 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.08 ELSEVIER’S SLAVES: THE WASHINGTON CONSENSUS IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES? <p class="p2">This paper investigates the mechanisms of subordinating the system of science and higher education to the needs of boosting capital in the conditions of a new business model characteristic of neoliberal capitalism. The author uses as a theoretical framework of critical studies of science and higher education systems developed in Poland by Krystian Szadkowski based on political economy (Simon Marginson and Gigi Roggero). The weakness of the recently implemented reform of Polish education, the essence of which is making the status of ‘scientist’ dependent on publication in high-ranking journals belonging to publishing corporations’ oligopoly, is that the natural and technical disciplines have been places on an equal evaluation footing with social sciences and humanities. This practice impoverishes the educational and critical functions of humanities, impoverishes the research questions, impoverishes the research methodology, and consequently, their cognitive values. The assessment of the quality of a social researcher’s work, to be reliable, should include several other components—the presence of an “invisible university” in international networks (e.g. measured by selected citation indicators), but also problematization and interpretative innovation, as well as an original contribution to the achievements of the discipline. Monographs mainly document this. Qualitative expert assessment is required for evaluation. Therefore, the publication of monographs in reputable Polish and foreign publishing houses should become a showcase of the Polish social researcher, rather than contributing journal papers. In the paper, the author synthesizes his various analyses of contemporary capitalism and the role that science and the research and development sector play in accumulating capital.</p> TADEUSZ KLEMENTEWICZ Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 183 208 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.09 THE RIGHT TO INCLUSIVE EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF NORTH MACEDONIA: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES <p>A child is a member of a vulnerable group in societies. Children's rights are equal for all children and they cannot be denied, because they are a birthright. However, throughout the world, children with disabilities and their families constantly experience a barrier in regard to the enjoyment of their basic human rights and to their inclusion in society. Their abilities are overlooked, their capacities are underestimated and their needs are given low priority. The barriers they face are more frequently a result of the environment in which they live rather than a result of their impairment. The situation began to change only when requirements to include disabled children in the education system were introduced in legislation. Following the example of other countries worldwide, the Republic of North Macedonia introduced inclusion of children with disabilities in the mainstream educational process, because the right to education is a right for all children, including the ones with special educational needs. For this purpose, the Republic of North Macedonia implemented a series of changes in the educational system for successful inclusion of children with special educational needs. Hence, the main aim of our paper is to represent the actual situation in Macedonian schools regarding the problem of educational inclusion of students with disabilities in the regular school system. The research methods are based on document studies and case studies about changes in social and educational policies for students with disabilities and special educational needs who are included in primary and secondary education. At the same time we shall present some guidelines for teachers who work with these children and future directions for a proper inclusion system in the Republic of North Macedonia, because every child has a fundamental right to education and must be given the opportunity to achieve and reach an acceptable level of learning. In this frame, school societies try to support full participation of students with disabilities in areas of their lives on equal terms, conditions, social justice and basic human rights.</p> GORDANA STANKOVSKA IMRAN MEMEDI Copyright (c) 2020 Society Register 2020-12-01 2020-12-01 4 4 209 226 10.14746/sr.2020.4.4.10