Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt <h4>Founding Editor and Editor in Chief</h4> <p>Mirosław Pawlak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href="mailto:pawlakmi@amu.edu.pl">pawlakmi@amu.edu.pl</a></p> <h4>Editors</h4> <p>Jakub Bielak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href="mailto:kubabogu@amu.edu.pl">kubabogu@amu.edu.pl</a></p> <p>Mariusz Kruk (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href="mailto:mkruk@uz.zgora.pl">mkruk@uz.zgora.pl</a></p> <p>Chengchen Li (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China)</p> <p><a href="mailto:lichengchen@hust.edu.cn">lichengchen@hust.edu.cn</a></p> <p>Aleksandra Wach (Adami Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland) <a href="mailto:waleks@wa.amu.edu.pl">waleks@wa.amu.edu.pl</a></p> <p>Joanna Zawodniak (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href="mailto:j.zawodniak@in.uz.zgora.pl">j.zawodniak@in.uz.zgora.pl</a></p> <h4>Language Editor</h4> <p>Melanie Ellis, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (ISSN 2083-5205) is a refereed journal published four times a year by the Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland. The language of publication is English. The journal is devoted to reporting previously unpublished highest quality theoretical and empirical research on learning and teaching second and foreign languages. It deals with the learning and teaching of any language, not only English, and focuses on a variety of topics ranging from the processes underlying second language acquisition, various aspects of language learning in instructed and non-instructed settings, as well as different facets of the teaching process, including syllabus choice, materials design, classroom practices and evaluation. Each issue carries about 6 papers, 6000-8000 words in length, as well as reply articles and reviews. Submissions are subjected to an anonymous review process conducted by at least two referees who may be members of the Editorial Board and other leading specialists in the field. Authors are notified of acceptance or rejection of their papers within three months of the submission date.</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></p> <p>Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS Core Collection); Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences (WoS); Scopus; European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Index Copernicus; Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH); The MLA International Bibliography; The MLA Directory of Periodicals; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); EBSCO; Linguistic Abstracts;&nbsp; WorldCat (OCLC); Current Contents – Social and Behavioral Sciences (WoS); Essential Science Indicators (WoS)</p> <h4>&nbsp;</h4> <h4>Editorial Board</h4> <p>Ali Al-Hoorie, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Larissa Aronin, Oranim Academic College of Education, Israel, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Helen Basturkmen, University of Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Adriana Biedroń, Pomeranian University, Słupsk, Poland</p> <p>Simon Borg, University of Leeds, UK</p> <p>Anne Burns, Aston University, Birmingham,UK, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia</p> <p>Anna Cieślicka, Texas A&amp;M International University, Laredo, USA</p> <p>Kata Csizér, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary</p> <p>Maria Dakowska, University of Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Robert DeKeyser, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK</p> <p>Zoltán Dörnyei, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Krystyna Droździał-Szelest, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Rod Ellis, Curtin University, Perth, Australia</p> <p>Danuta Gabryś-Barker, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p>Tammy Gregersen, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates</p> <p>Carol Griffiths, University of Leeds, UK, AIS, Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Rebecca Hughes, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Hanna Komorowska, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Terry Lamb, University of Westminster, London, UK</p> <p>Diane Larsen-Freeman, University of Michigan, USA</p> <p>Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, State University of Applied Sciences, Konin, Poland</p> <p>Jan Majer, State University of Applied Sciences, Włocławek, Poland</p> <p>Paul Meara, Swansea University, UK</p> <p>Sarah Mercer, University of Graz, Austria</p> <p>Anna Michońska-Stadnik, University of Wrocław, Poland</p> <p>Carmen Muñoz, University of Barcelona, Spain</p> <p>Anna Niżegorodcew, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland</p> <p>Bonny Norton, University of British Columbia, Canada</p> <p>Terrence Odlin, Ohio State University, USA</p> <p>Rebecca Oxford, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Aneta Pavlenko, University of Oslo, Norway</p> <p>Simone Pfenninger, University of Salzburg, Austria</p> <p>François Pichette, TÉLUQ University, Quebec, Canada</p> <p>Luke Plonsky, Northern Arizona University, USA</p> <p>Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel, Opole University, Poland</p> <p>Vera Regan, University College, Dublin, Irlandia</p> <p>Barry Lee Reynolds, University of Macau, China</p> <p>Heidemarie Sarter, University of Potsdam, Germany</p> <p>Paweł Scheffler, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Norbert Schmitt, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Michael Sharwood Smith, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK</p> <p>Linda Shockey, University of Reading, UK</p> <p>Teresa Siek-Piskozub, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>David S. Singleton, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Merrill Swain, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p>Elaine Tarone, University of Minnesota, USA</p> <p>Pavel Trofimovich, Concordia University, Canada</p> <p>Ewa Waniek-Klimczak, University of Łódź, Poland</p> <p>Stuart Webb, University of Western Ontario, Canada</p> <p>Maria Wysocka, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100794681&amp;tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="https://www.scimagojr.com/journal_img.php?id=21100794681" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0"></a> </strong></div> <p><img src="/public/site/images/admin/CiteScore2020_Studies_in_Second_La.png"></p> <p>CiteScore (2020): 3.2 (93%)<br>CiteScoreTracker: 5.3 (update 05.10.2021)</p> <p>IF: 3.036 (2020); 2.299 (5 year) - Data from the edition of Journal Citation Reports</p> <p>SJR 2020 1.304<br>SNIP 2020 1.441<br>&nbsp;<br>MNiSW: 100</p> <p>Google Scholar Metrics h5: 23 (06.2021)<br>Google Scholar Metrics h5-median: 32 (06.2021)<br>Google Scholar h-index: 39 (06.2021)</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">DOI:</span></span></span></span></strong><a href="https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/index"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 10.14746 /ssllt</span></span></span></span></a></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2083-5205 </span></span></span></span><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">e-ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2084–1965</span></span></span></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS (2016 -):</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><br></a><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">&nbsp;Attribution 4.0 International License</a><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">.<br></a></div> </div> Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan en-US Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2083-5205 <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the&nbsp; legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p> <p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p> <p>2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:</p> <p>2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including&nbsp; printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;</p> <p>2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;</p> <p>2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,&nbsp; made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;</p> <p>2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);</p> <p>2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;</p> <p>2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of&nbsp; the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;</p> <p>2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;</p> <p>2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.</p> <p>3. 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The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:</p> <p>5.1.&nbsp; allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;</p> <p>5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;</p> <p>5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).</p> <p>6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p> <p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p> <p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p> <p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Notes on Contributors https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29299 ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2021 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 313 324 Editorial: Introduction to the special issue on teaching English reading and writing to young learners https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29300 <p>We aimed for this special issue to offer up empirically supported advice to teachers for tackling some of the challenges in teaching reading and writing to young English as a second (L2) or foreign language (FL) learners. These challenges teachers face when providing instruction to young learners include cognitive development, motivation, attention, strategy use, and assessment (Nunan, 2011). It is now well understood that the teaching of reading and writing to young learners can no longer be equated with the teaching of adult learners (Cameron, 2001). In terms of cognitive development, language learners need to go through significant developmental changes in their learning journey from infancy to adulthood (Richardson, 2019). These differences in language learners’ cognitive development call for a need to design language learning tasks and materials that can fit the developmental stages of learners (Teng, 2020a). Language learner motivation can decline over time due to a lack of clarity in the goals of language learning and potential feelings that effort invested in learning the language has not paid off (Linse &amp; Nunan, 2006). Furthermore, as young learners tend to have short attention spans, activities that can maintain their motivation and involvement are essential (Fenyvesi, 2020). Language learning strategy researchers have focused their attention on adult learners; however, we believe they should begin considering young learners’ language use and learning preferences, as this knowledge could help inform teachers’ instruction (Plonsky, 2019). To provide proper instruction, an educator of young learners must understand these needs. This requires the construction of appropriate language assessment tools, which will allow teachers to gauge learners’ strengths and weaknesses; doing so can further facilitate teacher scaffolding and other forms of feedback (Ma &amp; Bui, this issue). Despite the acknowledged impact that these issues have on the teaching of reading and writing to young learners, we are still lacking in empirical evidence to support many creative and pedagogical decisions made in the young learner classroom (Cameron &amp; McKay, 2010). Our intention in this special issue was to further focus language researchers’ attention on the young learner classroom and to encourage a rethinking of classroom practices for teaching reading and writing.</p> Barry Lee Reynolds Mark Feng Teng Copyright (c) 2021 Barry Lee Reynolds, Mark Feng Teng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 325 330 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.1 Morphological instruction and reading development in young L2 readers: A scoping review of causal relationships https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29302 <p>This scoping review explores the causal relationship between morphological instruction and reading development in young L2 learners by synthesizing 12 primary studies published between 2004 and 2019 (<em>N</em> = 1,535). These studies focused on reading English as the target language and involved participants between kindergarten and Grade 12 from four countries (China, Egypt, Singapore, and the USA). Findings suggested that (a) morphological instruction led to consistent and positive gains in L2 children’s morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge, and the effect sizes (Cohen’s <em>d</em>s) ranged from small to large; and (b) the relationship between morphological instruction and other outcomes such as phonological awareness, word reading accuracy, word reading fluency, spelling, and reading comprehension was inconclusive. Notably, transfer effects of L2 English morphological instruction on novel word learning in English or on reading development in an additional language were only examined and observed in four primary studies. Discussion was provided regarding future instructional and research design.</p> Sihui (Echo) Ke Dongbo Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Sihui (Echo) Ke, Dongbo Zhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 331 350 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.2 Exploring the importance of vocabulary for English as an additional language learners’ reading comprehension https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29304 <p>This exploratory study represents an attempt to investigate the factors that may affect the reading comprehension abilities of English as an additional language (EAL) learners. For this study, we examined a participant group of 31 (25 EAL and 6 first language English) learners studying at an international school in Japan. We assessed the participants according to four factors shown to influence reading comprehension: vocabulary knowledge, word decoding skills, reading fluency, and general linguistic ability. Our results show that differences in vocabulary knowledge show more variance in reading comprehension scores than the other factors examined in this study, highlighting the importance of vocabulary knowledge for reading comprehension. However, other factors such as reading fluency and general linguistic knowledge are also shown to be moderate to strong predictors of reading comprehension. Based on these results, we suggest that EAL learners need targeted language support to enhance academic text comprehension.</p> Gavin Brooks Jon Clenton Simon Fraser Copyright (c) 2021 Gavin Brooks, Jon Clenton, Simon Fraser https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 351 376 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.3 Topic familiarity and story continuation in young English as a foreign language learners’ writing tasks https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29305 <p>Prior research demonstrates that primary and secondary school teachers often find teaching young learners to write in a second language a slow and effortful process. Moreover, students in this age range lack the motivation to write. Therefore, it is important to explore the EFL writing pedagogy suitable for young learners. The present study investigated how story continuation (with or without reading input) under different topic familiarity conditions serves as a viable pedagogical means for secondary school students. Ninety-one Chinese students in four intact classes of comparable proficiency levels were assigned four writing task conditions in a 2 ⨉ 2 factorial design. Group 1 (Fam) was provided with the beginning of a familiar story in L1 Chinese and was required to complete the story in L2 English. Group 2 (UnFam) had the same task as Group 1, with an unfamiliar story. Group 3 (Fam+Input) was initially provided with the complete familiar story in Chinese (the same story as Group 1) as reading input and were then instructed to write the story in English with the reading material taken away. Group 4 (Unfam+Input) received the full unfamiliar story in Chinese (the same story as Group 2) as input before writing. Again they were not allowed to refer to the reading in the composing process. The results revealed that the young learners who wrote on familiar topics (Groups 1 and 3) produced longer texts and demonstrated greater lexical diversity than those with unfamiliar stories (Groups 2 and 4), although topic familiarity did not affect their writing quality or lexical sophistication. As for the story continuation conditions, students who completed writing the story without the L1 reading input on the topics (Groups 1 and 2) developed longer compositions and better writing quality than those with such input (Groups 3 and 4), although their lexical profiles (both lexical diversity and lexical sophistication) remained uninfluenced. Pedagogical implications for EFL writing among young learners were also discussed in the present study.</p> Gavin Bui Xueya Luo Copyright (c) 2021 Gavin Bui, Xueya Luo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 377 400 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.4 Creative writing for publication: An action research study of motivation, engagement, and language development in Argentinian secondary schools https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29306 <p>There has been much research on the connections between second language (L2) writing and learner motivation. However, few studies have focused on contexts in which L2 learning is mandatory, rather than elective. This technical action research-based study evaluated a project in which teenage learners in Argentina were engaged in creative writing tasks, with the goal of including their final written pieces in a formal publication. Through focus group interviews and group discussions, it was found that the project had increased the motivation not only of the learners, but also of the teachers. Further, the study highlights the importance of making such writing tasks student-centered, and calls attention to the role played by the teachers in motivating and engaging students. The study suggests that effort should be made to develop more initiatives in formal education settings in order to motivate and engage learners involved in mandatory language study.</p> Darío Luis Banegas Robert J. Lowe Copyright (c) 2021 Darío Luis Banegas, Robert J. Lowe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 401 421 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.5 Innovating teacher feedback with writing activities aimed at raising secondary school students’ awareness of collocation errors https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29307 <p>The study examined the types of written corrective feedback given by second language writing teachers on Taiwanese secondary school students’ collocation errors. First, the written corrective feedback that teachers provided on learners’ word choice errors was examined to uncover the types of feedback provided. Then, analysis focused on verb–noun collocations to draw attention to how students had been receiving different types of written corrective feedback from teachers on a single collocation error type. Results showed that some sentences tagged as including word choice errors only contained rule-based errors. Furthermore, for verb-noun collocation errors, teachers chose to provide indirect and direct feedback almost equally at the expense of metalinguistic feedback. Based on the results, we suggested options for second language writing teachers when providing feedback on word choice errors.</p> Barry Lee Reynolds Mark Feng Teng Copyright (c) 2021 Barry Lee Reynolds, Mark Feng Teng https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 423 444 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.6 Chinese secondary school teachers’ conceptions of L2 assessment: A mixed-methods study https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/29308 <p>Teacher conceptions of assessment influence their implementation of learning-focused assessment initiatives as advocated in many educational policy documents. This mixed-methods study investigated Chinese secondary school teachers’ conceptions of L2 assessment in the context of an exam-oriented educational system which emphasizes English grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehension skills. For the quantitative part of the study, survey data were collected to gauge the conceptions of assessment held by 66 senior secondary EFL teachers from six schools in Eastern China. For the qualitative part, case studies of two teachers from schools with different rankings were conducted. Quantitative results showed that the teacher participants as a group agreed most with the view that assessment is to help learning. However, there was a strong association between two factors, that is, the assessment as accurate for examination and teacher/school control factor, and the assessment as accurate for student development factor. The strong association indicated that it may be less likely for the group of teachers to adopt the formative assessment initiatives emphasizing student development as promoted in the English curriculum reform. Qualitative findings further revealed individual differences in the two case study teachers’ conceptions and practices of assessment as well as the interplay among meso-level (e.g., school factor), micro-level (e.g., student factor), and macro-level (e.g., sociocultural and policy contexts) factors in shaping the teachers’ different conceptions and practices of assessment. A situated approach has been proposed to enhance teachers’ assessment literacy.</p> Maggie Ma Gavin Bui Copyright (c) 2021 Maggie Ma, Gavin Bui https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2021-09-13 2021-09-13 11 3 445 472 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.3.7