Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching <h4>Founding Editor and Editor in Chief</h4> <p>Mirosław Pawlak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <h4>Editors</h4> <p>Jakub Bielak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Mariusz Kruk (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Chengchen Li (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China)</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p>Aleksandra Wach (Adami Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Joanna Zawodniak (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <h4>Language Editor</h4> <p>Melanie Ellis, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (ISSN 2083-5205) is a refereed journal published four times a year by the Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland. The language of publication is English. The journal is devoted to reporting previously unpublished highest quality theoretical and empirical research on learning and teaching second and foreign languages. It deals with the learning and teaching of any language, not only English, and focuses on a variety of topics ranging from the processes underlying second language acquisition, various aspects of language learning in instructed and non-instructed settings, as well as different facets of the teaching process, including syllabus choice, materials design, classroom practices and evaluation. Each issue carries about 6 papers, 6000-8000 words in length, as well as reply articles and reviews. Submissions are subjected to an anonymous review process conducted by at least two referees who may be members of the Editorial Board and other leading specialists in the field. Authors are notified of acceptance or rejection of their papers within three months of the submission date.</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></p> <p>Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS Core Collection); Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences (WoS); Scopus; European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Index Copernicus; Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH); The MLA International Bibliography; The MLA Directory of Periodicals; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); EBSCO; Linguistic Abstracts;&nbsp; WorldCat (OCLC); Current Contents – Social and Behavioral Sciences (WoS); Essential Science Indicators (WoS)</p> <h4>&nbsp;</h4> <h4>Editorial Board</h4> <p>Ali Al-Hoorie, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Larissa Aronin, Oranim Academic College of Education, Israel, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Helen Basturkmen, University of Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Adriana Biedroń, Pomeranian University, Słupsk, Poland</p> <p>Simon Borg, University of Leeds, UK</p> <p>Anne Burns, Aston University, Birmingham,UK, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia</p> <p>Anna Cieślicka, Texas A&amp;M International University, Laredo, USA</p> <p>Kata Csizér, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary</p> <p>Maria Dakowska, University of Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Robert DeKeyser, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK</p> <p>Zoltán Dörnyei, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Krystyna Droździał-Szelest, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Rod Ellis, Curtin University, Perth, Australia</p> <p>Danuta Gabryś-Barker, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p>Tammy Gregersen, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates</p> <p>Carol Griffiths, University of Leeds, UK, AIS, Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Rebecca Hughes, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Hanna Komorowska, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Terry Lamb, University of Westminster, London, UK</p> <p>Diane Larsen-Freeman, University of Michigan, USA</p> <p>Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, State University of Applied Sciences, Konin, Poland</p> <p>Jan Majer, State University of Applied Sciences, Włocławek, Poland</p> <p>Paul Meara, Swansea University, UK</p> <p>Sarah Mercer, University of Graz, Austria</p> <p>Anna Michońska-Stadnik, University of Wrocław, Poland</p> <p>Carmen Muñoz, University of Barcelona, Spain</p> <p>Anna Niżegorodcew, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland</p> <p>Bonny Norton, University of British Columbia, Canada</p> <p>Terrence Odlin, Ohio State University, USA</p> <p>Rebecca Oxford, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Aneta Pavlenko, University of Oslo, Norway</p> <p>Simone Pfenninger, University of Salzburg, Austria</p> <p>François Pichette, TÉLUQ University, Quebec, Canada</p> <p>Luke Plonsky, Northern Arizona University, USA</p> <p>Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel, Opole University, Poland</p> <p>Vera Regan, University College, Dublin, Irlandia</p> <p>Barry Lee Reynolds, University of Macau, China</p> <p>Heidemarie Sarter, University of Potsdam, Germany</p> <p>Paweł Scheffler, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Norbert Schmitt, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Michael Sharwood Smith, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK</p> <p>Linda Shockey, University of Reading, UK</p> <p>Teresa Siek-Piskozub, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>David S. Singleton, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Włodzimierz Sobkowiak, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Merrill Swain, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p>Elaine Tarone, University of Minnesota, USA</p> <p>Pavel Trofimovich, Concordia University, Canada</p> <p>Ewa Waniek-Klimczak, University of Łódź, Poland</p> <p>Stuart Webb, University of Western Ontario, Canada</p> <p>Maria Wysocka, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:</strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0"></a> </strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="/public/site/images/admin/CiteScore2019_Studies_in_Second_La.png"></span></span></span></span></strong></strong></div> <p>CiteScore (2019): 2.2 (89%)<br>CiteScoreTracker: 3.1 (update 02.03.2021)<br>&nbsp;<br>MNiSW: 100</p> <p>Google Scholar Metrics h5: 18 (09.2019)<br>Google Scholar h-index: 23</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">DOI:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 10.14746 /ssllt</span></span></span></span></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2083-5205 </span></span></span></span><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">e-ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2084–1965</span></span></span></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS (2016 -):</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><a href=""><br></a><a href="" rel="license">&nbsp;Attribution 4.0 International License</a><a href="">.<br></a></div> Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan en-US Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2083-5205 <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the&nbsp; legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p> <p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p> <p>2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:</p> <p>2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including&nbsp; printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;</p> <p>2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;</p> <p>2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,&nbsp; made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;</p> <p>2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);</p> <p>2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;</p> <p>2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of&nbsp; the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;</p> <p>2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;</p> <p>2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern <a href="" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.</p> <p>3. 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The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p> <p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Notes on Contributors ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2021 SSLLT 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 1 10 Editorial <p>It is my immense pleasure to share with you the first 2021 issue of <em>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching</em>. It brings together five papers reporting the findings of empirical studies as well as two reviews of very recent publications. The issue opens with the contribution by Mariusz Kruk, Mirosław Pawlak, and Joanna Zawodniak, who investigate changes in the levels of boredom experienced by 13 Polish university students majoring in English during four EFL classes as well as factors responsible for such fluctuations. Multiple sources of data were applied which included boredom-grids, where participants indicated the intensity of this negative emotion on a 7-point Likert scale at 5-minute intervals, class evaluation forms, narratives, semi-structured interviews with four students after each class, and lesson plans. A combination of quantitative and qualitative analysis demonstrated that boredom was indeed subject to between- and within-class variation, which resulted from various constellations of variables, with repetitiveness, monotony and predictability playing a key role. In the second paper, Xiaowan Yang and Mark Wyatt report a qualitative case study which examined teachers’ beliefs about learners’ motivation and their own motivational practices, and the actions they actually took in this respect in the classroom in the context of teaching English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in China. The analysis of the data collected from three university-level teachers of business English by means of pre-observation interviews, in-class observations and stimulated recall interviews yielded evidence for tensions between participants’ cognitions and practices they engaged in, showing that such mismatches negatively affect their self-determination. The existence of this cognitive disharmony is attributed to scarce opportunities for professional development, outdated knowledge about motivation and cultural influences. The theme of ESP also features in the following paper by Cailing Lu, Frank Boers and Averil Coxhead, who explored understanding of technical terms included in a list of technical words related to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the aim of determining which of these terms should be emphasized during instruction. The requisite data were collected by means of a word association task, drawing on Read’s (1998) Word Association Test, as well as retrospective interviews from 21 BA students in China and New Zealand. The analysis showed that although the students manifested good understanding of the targeted items, especially high-frequency ones, some Chinese participants experienced difficulty understanding mid- and low-frequency words. By contrast, the Western learners mainly struggled with Chinese loan words, but their comprehension was not impacted by cultural differences. In the fourth paper, Bryła-Cruz reports the findings of a study which looked into the role of gender in the perception of English segments by Polish learners of English as a foreign language. The data were collected from 40 male and 40 female secondary school students who were asked to indicate the sound they heard in 20 sentences containing minimal pairs. The differences between males and females failed to reach statistical significance for most targeted segments and while the hierarchy of perceptual difficulty was not identical for both groups, it was similar, which suggests that differences between the sound systems of the first and second language might trump the mediating role of gender. In the final paper, Jesús Izquierdo, Silvia Patricia Aquino Zúñiga, and Verónica García Martínez shift the focus to the context of foreign language education in rural schools in southeast Mexico, zooming in on the challenges faced by generalist teachers, or non-language specialists, tasked with the job of teaching English. The data were collected by means of questionnaires administered to 155 such teachers in 17 schools and semi-structured interviews with those who manifested the greatest involvement in professional development. Using frequency analysis and categorical aggregation, the researchers show that generalist teachers are confronted with a wide array of problems related to their professional preparation, instructional techniques used as well as the sociocultural realities of L2 instruction in rural communities. In addition, only a few teachers are prepared to develop professionally, relying instead on limited strategies that help them combat the challenges they encounter. The issue also includes two book reviews by Jarosław Krajka and Mirosław Pawlak. The first book deals with the assessment of English proficiency among young learners while the second is devoted to research into learning and teacher psychology from the perspective of complex dynamic systems theory (Larsen-Freeman &amp; Cameron, 2007). I am hopeful that all the contributions will provide food for thought to our readers and inspire them to further disentangle the intricacies of second language learning and teaching.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2021 Mirosław Pawlak 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 11 13 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.1 Another look at boredom in language instruction: The role of the predictable and the unexpected <p>Although recent years have seen a growing interest in positive emotions in second or foreign language learning and teaching, negative emotions are always present in the classroom and they deserve to be investigated in their own right. The article focuses on boredom, a construct that has been explored in educational psychology but has received only scant attention from second language acquisition researchers. It reports a study which examined the changes in the levels of boredom experienced by 13 English majors in four EFL classes and the factors accounting for such changes. Using data obtained from a few different sources (i.e., boredom grids, narratives, interviews, class evaluations and lesson plans), it was found that although boredom can be attributed to different constellations of factors, it was mainly traced to repetitiveness, monotony and predictability of what transpired during a particular class.</p> Mariusz Kruk Mirosław Pawlak Joanna Zawodniak Copyright (c) 2021 Mariusz Kruk, Mirosław Pawlak, Joanna Zawodniak 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 15 40 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.2 English for specific purposes teachers’ beliefs about their motivational practices and student motivation at a Chinese university <p>While it is increasingly recognized that teachers have a crucial role to play in motivating learners, language teacher cognition research that focuses on beliefs about second language (L2) learner motivation and motivational practices is still rare, particularly in English for specific purposes (ESP) settings in Asia. Furthermore, much of what is available does not employ stimulated recall interviews to facilitate a comparison of espoused beliefs elicited beforehand, observed classroom practices and situated cognitions. We have employed such methodology in an under-researched ESP setting in China, to gain insights into the influence of culture and context on teacher beliefs and behavior. Our qualitative case study of three Chinese ESP teachers highlights harmony and tensions between espoused beliefs regarding student motivation and the teacher’s motivational role, and motivational practices, this harmony/disharmony being likely to impact these teachers’ self-determination. It considers possible reasons for identified tensions, including limited professional development opportunities in ESP, apparently dated knowledge of L2 motivation theory, deeply embedded Confucian values and an entrenched assessment culture. Findings suggest the need for awareness-raising and mentoring activities designed to support cognitive harmony regarding motivation and motivational practices amongst ESP teachers.</p> Xiaowan Yang Mark Wyatt Copyright (c) 2021 Xiaowan Yang, Mark Wyatt 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 41 70 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.3 Exploring learners’ understanding of technical vocabulary in Traditional Chinese Medicine <p>This study explores English for specific purposes learners’ understanding of technical words in a previously-developed technical word list in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The principal aim was to estimate what kind of technical terms pose problems to TCM learners and might therefore merit special attention in instruction. Of particular interest was the question whether there is a divergence in the understanding of technical vocabulary in TCM between Chinese and Western background learners. To achieve these aims, a combination of word association tasks and retrospective interviews was implemented with 11 Chinese and 10 Western background TCM learners. The data showed that both Chinese and Western learners encountered certain difficulties in understanding technical vocabulary in their study. However, their sources of difficulty were different. Comparisons of typical word associations between Chinese and Western learners indicated that there was a degree of divergence in the way these two participant groups understood TCM terms.</p> Cailing Lu Frank Boers Averil Coxhead Copyright (c) 2021 Cailing Lu, Frank Boers, Averil Coxhead 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 71 101 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.4 The gender factor in the perception of English segments by non-native speakers <p>The aim of the paper is to present the findings of an empirical study which contributes to the ongoing research into gender effects on second language acquisition by exploring a biological influence on L2 pronunciation learning. One of the most frequent arguments used to vindicate single-sex education is that there are substantial sensory and perceptual differences between males and females which rationalize gender-specific teaching methods and gender-segregation at schools. The present study provides some preliminary insights into the perception of selected phonetic contrasts by Polish secondary school learners with the aim of investigating gender-based similarities and differences in the accuracy of sound recognition by males and females. The findings suggest that a commonly cited female advantage in acquiring L2 pronunciation cannot be attributed to their superior phonetic perception, as male participants performed equally well and identified the same number of English segments correctly.</p> Agnieszka Bryła-Cruz Copyright (c) 2021 Agnieszka Bryła-Cruz 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 103 131 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.5 Foreign language education in rural schools: Struggles and initiatives among generalist teachers teaching English in Mexico <p>In many countries, English as a foreign/second language (L2) teaching has become compulsory in urban and rural public schools. In rural areas, the challenges for the implementation of this state-sanctioned policy have been explored among L2 teaching specialists. However, this mixed-methods study considered a different teacher group and examined the struggles and initiatives of generalist teachers who are obligated to teach English in rural schools. To this end, data were collected from 115 teachers in 17 rural secondary schools in the Southeast of Mexico. First, the participants completed a survey with closed-ended questions that elicited information about teacher education, teaching experience and knowledge of the rural school system. Then, a subsample of participants completed an individual thematized semi-structured interview. They were selected on the basis of L2 teacher education involvement. In the survey data, response patterns were identified using frequency analyses. The interview data were analyzed using categorical aggregation. The data revealed that the generalist teachers struggle with L2 professionalization, sociocultural and instructional challenges. Nonetheless, only few participants have been engaged in L2 teacher education which could help them overcome these challenges. Instead, they rely upon limited strategies to counteract the day-to-day challenges at the expense of effective L2 teaching practices.</p> Jesús Izquierdo Silvia Patricia Aquino Zúñiga Verónica García Martínez Copyright (c) 2021 Jesús Izquierdo, Silvia Patricia Aquino Zúñiga, Verónica García Martínez 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 133 156 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.6 Review of English language proficiency assessments for young learners; Editors: Mikyung Kim Wolf, Yuko Goto Butler; Publisher: Routledge, 2017; ISBN: 9781138940369; Pages: 295 <p>Language assessment has recently attracted a great deal of attention of both researchers and practitioners, which is evidenced, among other things, by a number of well-known monographs (Brown &amp; Abeywickrama, 2010; Coombe et al., 2012; Gordon &amp; Rajagopalan, 2016; Gottlieb, 2006; Komorowska, 2002; Tsagari &amp; Banerjee, 2016, to name just a few), as well as a proliferation of journals oriented towards language testing and assessment (e.g., <em>Language Testing, Assessing Writing, Language Assessment Quarterly, International Journal of Language Testing and Assessment, </em>and <em>Educational Assessment</em>). In recent years, great popularity of computers and easy access to the Internet have made it possible to move testing to a new dimension, through enabling Web-based testing (delivered via the internet) as well as computer-adaptive testing (see Krajka, 2016; Malec, 2018; Marczak et al., 2016). The use of computers has enhanced the assessment of not only target language skills and subsystems, which could be easily predicted, but also more complex constructs, such as intercultural communicative competence (Marczak &amp; Krajka, 2014; Wilczyńska et al., 2019). <em>Formative assessment</em>, often referred to as <em>assessment for learning </em>(Black et al., 2003), <em>dynamic assessment</em> (Shohamy, 2015) or <em>alternative assessment</em> (Alismail &amp; McGuire, 2015; Tedesco et al., 2014) is redefining the way school teachers think about assessment, moving them away from testing towards more comprehensive ways of evaluation. At the same time, even though a great number of publications have appeared on teaching young learners, also with a focus on assessment, this does not necessarily translate into widespread awareness of these assessment issues among teachers. The question might arise, then, whether there is a need for a new publication dealing with the complex nature of language assessment, and if yes, what kind of reader to aim at, how to bridge the gap between what is available and what might be desired, and how to structure it to respond to the changing educational reality.</p> Jaroslaw Krajka Copyright (c) 2021 Jaroslaw Krajka 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 157 163 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.7 Review of Complexity perspectives on researching language learner and teacher psychology; Editors: Richard J. Sampson, Richard S. Pinner; Publisher: Multilingual Matters, 2021; ISBN: 9781788923545; Pages: 304 <p>One thing that immediately struck me when I sat down to write this piece was the realization that this is yet another review of a book devoted to the application of complex dynamic systems theory (CDST) to second and foreign language (L2) education. On the one hand, this might appear a little strange since I am certainly not an ardent believer in this theory and while I do recognize some of its merits, I have not used it as a theoretical framework in any of the studies I have conducted so far. On the other hand, though, the reason why I am attracted to publications on this topic could be that I am still waiting for someone to convince me that it is indeed the “silver bullet” that will not only help us disentangle the intricacies of L2 learning and teaching but also offer pedagogically sound insights that will contribute to more effective instruction. In fact, I finished my previous review of a recent book dealing with CDST-driven research methods in applied linguistics with the following comment: “I hope that Phil Hiver and Ali Al-Hoorie will continue their efforts to show the utility of CDST and perhaps one day they will also write a book about how adopting complexity theory can actually translate into more effective instruction in the language classroom” (Pawlak, 2020a, p. 394). As fate would have it, a different tandem of scholars has decided to confront this formidable challenge. Richard J. Samson and Richard S. Pinner state in the introduction to their edited volume: “We united under the motto <em>complexity should be made simple</em> [emphasis in original]. Our aim was to make complexity paradigms and research more accessible to people like ourselves, that is, practitioning language teachers who also engage in research” (p. 6). When going over the successive chapters included in this edited collection, I was constantly asking myself if the authors were succeeding in accomplishing this undoubtedly ambitious goal, and it is this vital issue that the review focuses on. Given the nature of the book and limitations of space, I am not going to describe in detail, let alone evaluate, each of the chapters. Rather, the comments are meant to refer to the entire publication, even though they might be illustrated by examples taken from specific papers.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2021 Mirosław Pawlak 2021-03-29 2021-03-29 11 1 165 170 10.14746/ssllt.2021.11.1.8