Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (ISSN 2083-5205) is a refereed journal published four times a year by the Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland. The language of publication is English. The journal is devoted to reporting previously unpublished highest quality theoretical and empirical research on learning and teaching second and foreign languages. It deals with the learning and teaching of any language, not only English, and focuses on a variety of topics ranging from the processes underlying second language acquisition, various aspects of language learning in instructed and non-instructed settings, as well as different facets of the teaching process, including syllabus choice, materials design, classroom practices and evaluation. Each issue carries about 6 papers, 6000-8000 words in length, as well as reply articles and reviews. Submissions are subjected to an anonymous review process conducted by at least two referees who may be members of the Editorial Board and other leading specialists in the field. Authors are notified of acceptance or rejection of their papers within three months of the submission date.</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></p> <p>SCOPUS; Web of Science Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI), European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Index Copernicus; Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH); The MLA International Bibliography; The MLA Directory of Periodicals; EBSCO; Linguistic Abstracts; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); WorldCat</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:</strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=21100794681&amp;tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="https://www.scimagojr.com/journal_img.php?id=21100794681" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0"></a> </strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"> <div class="oczasopismie" style="height: 100px; width: 180px; font-family: Arial, Verdana, helvetica, sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff; display: inline-block;"> <div style="padding: 0px 16px;"> <div style="padding-top: 3px; line-height: 1;"> <div style="float: left; font-size: 28px;"><span id="citescoreVal" style="letter-spacing: -2px; display: inline-block; padding-top: 7px; line-height: .75;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">0,88</span></span></span></span></span></div> <div style="float: right; font-size: 14px; padding-top: 3px; text-align: right;"><span id="citescoreYearVal" style="display: block;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">2018</span></span></span></span></span><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> CiteScore</span></span></span></span></div> </div> <div style="clear: both;">&nbsp;</div> <div style="padding-top: 3px;"> <div style="height: 4px; background-color: #dcdcdc;">&nbsp;</div> <div style="font-size: 11px;"><span id="citescorePerVal"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">78 procent</span></span></span></span></span></div> </div> <div style="font-size: 12px; text-align: right;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Obsługiwane przez </span></span></span></span><img style="width: 50px; height: 15px;" src="https://www.scopus.com/static/images/scopusLogoOrange.svg" alt="Scopus"></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">CiteScoreTracker: 2,07 (update 06.02.2020)</span></span></span></span></strong></strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">MNiSW: 100 </span></span></span></span></strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">Google Scholar Metrics h5: 18 (09.2019)</span></span></span></span></strong></p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">DOI:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 10.14746 /ssllt</span></span></span></span></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2083-5205 </span></span></span></span><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">e-ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2084–1965</span></span></span></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS (2016 -): </a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nd/3.0/88x31.png" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><br></a><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/"><br></a></div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2083-5205 <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p><p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p><p>2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:</p><p>2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;</p><p>2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;</p><p>2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;</p><p>2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);</p><p>2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;</p><p>2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;</p><p>2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;</p><p>2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a> as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.</p><p>3. 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The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:</p><p>5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a> Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;</p><p>5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;</p><p>5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).</p><p>6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p><p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p><p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p><p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. </p><p> </p> Notes on Contributors https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20573 ssllt@amu.edu.pl Copyright (c) 2019 ssllt@amu.edu.pl http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 9 4 567 576 Editorial https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20578 <p>This final 2019 issue of <em>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching </em>brings together six original empirical studies and two book reviews. In the first paper, Marco Octavio Cancino Avila reports the results of a study that investigated the learning opportunities arising in classroom interactions, placing special emphasis on the contribution of teachers’ and learners’ overlapped turns. Using conversational analysis, he analyzed extracts from six classes taught by three teachers to adult learners of English as a foreign language in Chile. He found that teachers’ skill in appropriately handling learners’ turns that overlapped or directly followed their own had a positive impact on participation and language learning as long as learners were given adequate interactional space (Sert, 2015). The second contribution by Reza Shirani also focuses upon classroom interaction, with the caveat that the main concern is with the effectiveness of different types of corrective feedback (CF). The study explored the relationship between the level of explicitness of input-providing (i.e., recasts) and output-promoting (i.e., prompts) CF moves, and the occurrence of uptake and repair in a foreign language context in Iran. Using the model of error treatment proposed by Lyster and Ranta (1997) to analyze transcripts of 36 hours of classroom interactions in three intact classes, the researcher found that prompts tended to be used more frequently than recasts, which stands in contrast to previous findings, but at the same time produced evidence that greater salience of CF is a crucial factor for the occurrence of self-correction, which is in line with prior research.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2019 Mirosław Pawlak http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 577 579 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.1 Exploring teachers’ and learners’ overlapped turns in the language classroom: Implications for classroom interactional competence https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20611 <p>The language choices that teachers make in the language classroom have been found to influence the opportunities for learning given to learners (Seedhouse, 2004; Walsh, 2012; Waring, 2009, 2011). The present study expands on research addressing learner-initiated contributions (Garton, 2012; Jacknick, 2011; Waring, Reddington, &amp; Tadic, 2016; Yataganbaba &amp; Yıldırım, 2016) by demonstrating that opportunities for participation and learning can be promoted when teachers allow learners to expand and finish their overlapped turns. Audio recordings of lessons portraying language classroom interaction from three teachers in an adult foreign language classroom (EFL) setting were analyzed and discussed through conversation analysis (CA) methodology. Findings suggest that when teachers are able to navigate overlapping talk in such a way that provides interactional space for learners to complete their contributions, they demonstrate classroom interactional competence (Sert, 2015; Walsh, 2006). The present study contributes to the literature by addressing interactional features that increase interactional space, and an approach to teacher and learner talk that highlights CA’s methodological advantages in capturing the interactional nuances of classroom discourse.</p> Marco Octavio Cancino Avila Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Octavio Cancino Avila http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 581 606 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.2 Patterns of uptake and repair following recasts and prompts in an EFL context: Does feedback explicitness play a role? https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20612 <p>This study sought to examine the effectiveness of two categories of feedback, namely recasts and prompts. Also, the study focused on the relationship between subsets of each feedback type and the extent to which they led to learner uptake and repair in an EFL context. Data were collected through non-participant observations of three intact upper-intermediate EFL classes where 36 hours of interactions among 59 students and three teachers were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed in terms of pre-specified coding systems that addressed four different subtypes of prompts – clarification requests, repetitions, elicitations, and metalinguistic clues – and two recast subtypes – explicit and implicit recasts. Data analysis showed that among prompts, clarification requests led to the highest percentage of uptake whereas elicitations were associated with the highest repair percentage. As for recasts, more explicit ones led to higher percentages of uptake and repair. The results of the study may contribute to a more in-depth understanding of the patterns of uptake and repair in an EFL context. The study confirms the role of feedback explicitness in such a context.</p> Reza Shirani Copyright (c) 2019 Reza Shirani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 607 631 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.3 Longitudinal effects of task performance and self-concept on preadolescent EFL learners’ causal attributions of grammar success and failure https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/13329 <p>Learners’ academic self-concepts and attributions have been widely evidenced to substantially regulate their educational development. Develop­men­tally, they will not only oper­ate in a mu­tually reinforcing manner. Rather, self-concepts will di­­­­rectly affect learners’ out­come attri­bu­­tions in a particular academic set­ting. Current research in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context has increasingly anal­­yzed learners’ attributions and self-concepts on a task-spe­­cific construct level. Never­the­less, there still exist certain research gaps in the field, partic­ularly con­cerning learners’ gram­mar self-con­cept and attributions. There­fore, the present study aimed at anal­yzing lon­gi­tu­dinal re­­lat­ions of prior performance and self-concept with subsequent attri­bu­tions of gram­mar suc­cess and failure in a samp­le of preadolescent EFL learners. Findings demonstrated that attri­bu­tional pat­terns most­­­­ly but not en­tire­ly depended on learn­ers’ grammar self-concept. Poor per­­form­ing learn­ers hold­ing a low self-concept dis­­played a maladaptive attri­bu­tion pattern for ex­­plain­ing both gram­­­mar suc­cess and failure. Though not with respect to all causal factors, these findings largely con­firm the crucial role of task-spe­cific self-concept in longitudinally explaining re­­lated control beliefs in the EFL con­text.</p> Günter Faber Copyright (c) 2019 Günter Faber https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-11 2019-12-11 9 4 633 656 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.4 Factors influencing language teacher cognition: An ecological systems study https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/13673 <p>Learning about language teacher cognition (LTC) is useful for understanding how language teachers act in the classroom. Employing an ecological framework, this study aimed to explore the factors influencing language teachers’ LTCs at different levels. To this end, qualitative data using semi-structured interviews and observation were collected from 62 (30 males and 32 females) Iranian EFL teachers. The results indicated that, at microsystem level, factors such as teaching equipment and facilities, teachers’ mood and feelings, their job satisfaction, and language proficiency influenced LTC. At mesosystem level, LTC was influenced by teachers’ prior learning experience, the collaboration and collegiality among teachers working in the language institute, teachers’ self-efficacy, and critical incidents that happened when teaching or learning. Additionally, the results indicated that exosystem level factors including teacher appraisal criteria, the teaching program and curriculum, and teacher immunity affected LTC. Moreover, LTC was subject to the influence of the government’s attitudes about ELT and religious beliefs about self and interaction, and friendliness with students at macrosystem level. More importantly, it was found that the factors influencing LTC were interrelated and interconnected and in several cases, LTC was a product of joint effect of several factors at various ecosystem levels. Finally, findings in this study suggest that language teaching programs provide recent educational technology in the classroom, foster collaboration and collegiality among teachers, and clarify teacher appraisal criteria for teachers in order to help create positive language teaching beliefs.</p> Alireza Mohammadzadeh Mohammadabadi Saeed Ketabi Dariush Nejadansari Copyright (c) 2019 Alireza Mohammadzadeh, Saeed Ketabi, Dariush Nejad Ansari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 657 680 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.5 The impact of studying abroad on students’ intercultural competence: An interview study https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/11402 <p>This paper presents qualitative research examining to what extent sojourns abroad engage their participants in intercultural interactions and whether or not such experience translates into students’ intercultural growth. The results of the study demonstrated that studying abroad did not provide students with ample opportunities to immerse into the local community and fully discover a new cultural environment. However, students surrounded by local and their fellow international students met foreign cultures, which motivated them to explore and interpret the encountered diversity, and thus equipped them with knowledge about foreign cultures, sensitizing them to cultural diversity. Sometimes such contacts challenged students’ preconceived judgments and stereotypes of specific cultural groups, their ways of thinking, valuing and acting, and resulted, to a lesser or greater extent, in rethinking these, leading to changing attitudes and values. International experiences also stimulated students to self-analyze their own cultural identity, and thereby contributed to their growth in self-awareness in this respect. By offering opportunities for experiencing cultural differences and prompting students to develop coping strategies and to make references to the home culture, the sojourn is thus of significant importance for tertiary students, allowing for fostering their intercultural development to a certain degree.</p> Paweł Sobkowiak Copyright (c) 2019 Paweł Sobkowiak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 681 710 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.6 Using drama activities to teach beginner’s French to Chinese students at a tertiary institution in Hong Kong: An exploratory case study https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/9066 <p>The exam-oriented education system in Hong Kong has created a language learning environment that is largely confined to traditional classroom settings, which may not take best advantage of students’ abilities to relate what they have learnt in class to real-life scenarios. Such learning environments may have implications for the way second language learners learn a new language. Numerous studies suggest that drama activities used in language classrooms can enhance second language learning. These studies put forward tasks that generate pleasant and rewarding experiences, enhance confidence and subsequently increase motivation to learn a language. By focusing on students studying in a beginning French course at a tertiary institution in Hong Kong, this article reports on how drama activities make a target language more enjoyable and easier to recall. Classroom observations and interviews with students (<em>N</em> = 30) revealed that learning French via drama had a number of positive effects on second language learners especially in terms of their confidence. The learning of French through drama may provide a language learning environment that enables students to apply their French language skills more effectively in real-life situations.</p> Zarina Marie Krystle M. Abenoja Matthew DeCoursey Copyright (c) 2019 Zarina Marie Krystle Mallare Abenoja, Matthew DeCoursey https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-31 2019-10-31 9 4 711 736 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.7 Exploring teachers’ and learners’ overlapped turns in the language classroom: Implications for Classroom Interactional Competence. https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/13569 The language choices that teachers make in the language classroom have been found to influence the opportunities for learning given to learners (Seedhouse, 2004, Walsh, 2012; Waring, 2009; 2011). The present study expands on research addressing learner-initiated contributions (Waring et al., 2016; Jacknick, 2011; Garton, 2012; Yataganbaba &amp; Yıldırım, 2016) by demonstrating that opportunities for participation and learning can be promoted when teachers allow learners to expand and finish their overlapped turns. Audio recordings of lessons portraying language classroom interaction from three teachers in an adult foreign language classroom (EFL) setting were analyzed and discussed through a Conversation Analysis (CA) methodology. Findings suggested that when teachers are able to navigate overlapping talk in such a way that provides interactional space for learners to complete their contributions, they demonstrate classroom interactional competence (Walsh, 2006, Sert, 2015). The present study contributes to the literature by addressing interactional features that increase interactional space, and an approach to teacher and learner talk that highlights CA’s methodological advantages in capturing the interactional nuances of classroom discourse. Marco Cancino Copyright (c) 2019 Marco Cancino https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-16 2020-02-16 9 4 Review of Early instructed second language acquisition: Pathways to competence; Editors: Joanna Rokita-Jaśkow, Melanie Ellis; Publisher: Multilingual Matters, 2019; ISBN: 9781788922494; Pages: 257 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20162 <p>In a large scale survey of teachers’ perceptions of the challenges they face in teaching English to young primary school learners (Copland, Garton, &amp; Burns, 2014), some of the key issues that are identified are as follows: teaching speaking, using only English in the classroom, enhancing motivation, maintaining discipline, catering for different individual needs (including special educational needs), dealing with parents, and teaching grammar as well as reading and writing. The relevance of <em>Early Instructed Second Language Acquisition</em>, edited by Rokita-Jaśkow and Ellis, is clearly shown by the fact that it addresses most of these central issues.</p> Paweł Scheffler Copyright (c) 2019 Paweł Scheffler https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 737 744 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.8 Review of Learning strategy instruction in the language classroom: Issues and implementation; Editors: Anna Uhl Chamot, Vee Harris; Publisher: Multilingual Matters, 2019; ISBN: 9781788923392; Pages: 296 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/19752 <p>The book <em>Learning Strategy Instruction in the Language Classroom: Issues and Implementation</em>, edited by Anna Uhl Chamot and Vee Harris, touches upon crucial issues pertaining to language learning strategies (LLS) and language learning strategy instruction (LLSI), both from a theoretical and practical perspective. All the contributors to the volume are specialists with considerable expertise in the field of LLS and LLSI, which makes the book an informative and inspirational read. The authors look at the concept of strategy instruction from different perspectives, meticulously not only investigating various LLSI models, taking account of “learner needs and settings and particular language skills,” but also “considering curricula, materials, teachers roles, the ways in which scaffolding is enacted in the classrooms” (p. viii). Since the volume adeptly combines research into LLSI with its theoretical aspects and complexities, it will prove useful to practitioners and researchers alike. Delineating new directions in the field of LLSI, the edited collection is undoubtedly a valuable contribution to ongoing discussions about LLSI and its implementation in the classroom.</p> Olga Trendak Copyright (c) 2019 Olga Trendak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 745 753 10.14746/ssllt.2018.8.4.9 Reviewers for Volume 9/2019 https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/ssllt/article/view/20616 ssllt Copyright (c) 2019 ssllt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 9 4 755 760 10.14746/ssllt.2019.9.4.10