Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (ISSN 2083-5205) is a refereed journal published four times a year by the Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland. The language of publication is English. The journal is devoted to reporting previously unpublished highest quality theoretical and empirical research on learning and teaching second and foreign languages. It deals with the learning and teaching of any language, not only English, and focuses on a variety of topics ranging from the processes underlying second language acquisition, various aspects of language learning in instructed and non-instructed settings, as well as different facets of the teaching process, including syllabus choice, materials design, classroom practices and evaluation. Each issue carries about 6 papers, 6000-8000 words in length, as well as reply articles and reviews. Submissions are subjected to an anonymous review process conducted by at least two referees who may be members of the Editorial Board and other leading specialists in the field. Authors are notified of acceptance or rejection of their papers within three months of the submission date.</span></p> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p> </p> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></p> <p>Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS Core Collection); Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences (WoS); Scopus; European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Index Copernicus; Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH); The MLA International Bibliography; The MLA Directory of Periodicals; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); EBSCO; Linguistic Abstracts; WorldCat (OCLC); Current Contents – Social and Behavioral Sciences (WoS); Essential Science Indicators (WoS)</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0" /></a> </strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"> </div> <div style="height: 100px; width: 180px; font-family: Arial, Verdana, helvetica, sans-serif; background-color: #ffffff; display: inline-block;"> <div style="padding: 0px 16px;"> <div style="padding-top: 3px; line-height: 1;"> <div style="float: left; font-size: 28px;"><span id="citescoreVal" style="letter-spacing: -2px; display: inline-block; padding-top: 7px; line-height: .75;">6.1</span></div> <div style="float: right; font-size: 14px; padding-top: 3px; text-align: right;"><span id="citescoreYearVal" style="display: block;">2021</span>CiteScore</div> </div> <div style="clear: both;"> </div> <div style="padding-top: 3px;"> <div style="height: 4px; background-color: #dcdcdc;"> <div id="percentActBar" style="height: 4px; background-color: #007398;"> </div> </div> <div style="font-size: 11px;"><span id="citescorePerVal">97th percentile</span></div> </div> <div style="font-size: 12px; text-align: right;">Powered by <img style="width: 50px; height: 15px;" src="" alt="Scopus" /></div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>CiteScore (2021): 6.1 (74%)<br />CiteScoreTracker: 3.3 (update 06.06.2022)</p> <p>IF: 3.036 (2020); 2.299 (5 year) - Data from the edition of Journal Citation Reports</p> <p>SJR 2020 1.304<br />SNIP 2020 1.441<br /><br />MNiSW: 100</p> <p>Google Scholar Metrics h5: 23 (06.2021)<br />Google Scholar Metrics h5-median: 32 (06.2021)<br />Google Scholar h-index: 39 (06.2021)</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">DOI:</span></span></span></span></strong><a href=""><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 10.14746 /ssllt</span></span></span></span></a></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2083-5205 </span></span></span></span><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">e-ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2084–1965</span></span></span></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS (2016 -):</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><a href=""><br /></a><a href="" rel="license"> Attribution 4.0 International License</a><a href="">.<br /></a></div> </div> Adam Mickiewicz University Poznan en-US Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching 2083-5205 <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the&nbsp; legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p> <p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p> <p>2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:</p> <p>2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including&nbsp; printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;</p> <p>2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;</p> <p>2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,&nbsp; made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;</p> <p>2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);</p> <p>2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;</p> <p>2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of&nbsp; the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;</p> <p>2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;</p> <p>2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern <a href="" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.</p> <p>3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.</p> <p>4. The&nbsp; Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.</p> <p>5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:</p> <p>5.1.&nbsp; allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;</p> <p>5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;</p> <p>5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).</p> <p>6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p> <p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p> <p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p> <p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> A state-of-the-art review of distribution-of-practice effects on L2 learning <p>The purpose of this state-of-the-art review is to provide a general overview of recent research on time distribution and second language (L2) learning with special implications for classroom settings. Several studies have been performed to examine how to best distribute the hours of L2 practice to maximize learning by comparing conditions that promote intensive exposure versus others in which L2 input or instruction is more widely spaced. Findings from these studies are relevant not only for practical purposes but also for theory development. This review provides a summary of recent studies as well as suggestions for pedagogical practice. Additionally, it identifies areas for future research concerning the effect of time distribution on L2 learning.</p> Raquel Serrano Copyright (c) 2022 Raquel Serrano 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 355 379 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.2 Research trends in task-based language teaching: A bibliometric analysis from 1985 to 2020 <p>This study offers a bibliometric analysis of research trends in task-based language teaching (TBLT) from 1985 to 2020. The analysis covers research questions related to the publication trends, venues for publication, productive authors, highly cited articles and references and, more importantly, the most frequently explored TBLT-related topics and their developmental patterns across the past 35 years. Results showed that TBLT was still mostly approached from the traditional cognitive-interactionist and psycholinguistic perspectives with a focus on tasks, individuals (i.e., <em>learners</em> and <em>teachers</em>), task-related variables (e.g., <em>task complexity</em> and <em>task repetition</em>), task performance, and the resultant linguistic forms. While this field of research has witnessed a growing interest in learners’ individual differences and computer-mediated, technologies-assisted learning, a decreasing trend has been observed in topics related to <em>error</em> and <em>recast</em>. Implications for task-based research, pedagogy, and research methodologies are discussed.</p> Jie Qin Lei Lei Copyright (c) 2022 Jie Qin, Lei Lei 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 381 404 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.3 Timing of form-focused instruction: Effects on EFL learners’ grammar learning <p>This study investigates how different form-focused instruction (FFI) timing impacts English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ grammar development. A total of 169 Chinese middle school learners were assigned to four conditions randomly: control, before-isolated FFI, integrated FFI, and after-isolated FFI. The three experimental groups received treatments which combined form and meaning with the English passive voice as the teaching target, but learners’ attention was drawn to the passive voice with different timing. The before-isolated and after-isolated groups received the treatment before and after communicative activities, respectively. For the integrated FFI group, intervention occurred during communicative activities. A picture writing test and a written error correction test were employed to measure students’ performance. The results indicated that the three experimental groups manifested significant improvement. Before-isolated FFI produced the best immediate and delayed effects, and integrated FFI produced better immediate effect than after-isolated FFI, while after-isolated FFI produced better delayed effect than integrated FFI. The findings indicated that pedagogical sequences in FFI are important, and teachers might need to guide adolescent learners to focus on form explicitly before communicative activities.</p> Jinfen Xu Changying Li Copyright (c) 2022 Jinfen Xu, Changying Li 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 405 433 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.4 The role of motivation and vocabulary learning strategies in L2 vocabulary knowledge: A structural equation modeling analysis <p>This study explores the complex relationships between language learning motivation, vocabulary learning strategies, and two components of second language vocabulary knowledge (i.e., vocabulary size and depth), within the framework of self-regulated learning. Responses to questionnaires were gathered from 185 secondary-level Korean adolescent learners of English as a foreign language, regarding their motivation and vocabulary learning strategy use; additionally, the results of their vocabulary size and depth tests were collected. We adopted structural equation modeling for analysis, with vocabulary learning strategies consisting of memory, cognitive, and metacognitive categories, and vocabulary knowledge consisting of vocabulary size and depth. The results showed that motivation directly predicted vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary knowledge, and indirectly predicted vocabulary knowledge via vocabulary learning strategies. When further classified, intrinsic motivation was found to have a stronger influence on the use of vocabulary learning strategies and vocabulary knowledge than extrinsic motivation. We discuss the implications of increasing learners’ motivation and repertoire of strategies for improving vocabulary size and depth.</p> Jang Ho Lee Joung Joo Ahn Hansol Lee Copyright (c) 2022 Jang Ho Lee, Joung Joo Ahn, Hansol Lee 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 435 458 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.5 Language learners’ emotion regulation and enjoyment in an online collaborative writing program <p>Collaborative learning in online contexts is emotionally challenging for language learners. To achieve successful learning outcomes, language learners need to regulate their emotions and sustain positive emotions during the collaborative learning process. This study investigated language learners’ emotion regulation and enjoyment, the most extensively researched positive emotion in foreign language learning, in an online collaborative English learning environment. In the study, we collected data by surveying 336 Chinese students majoring in English who collaboratively completed a series of English language writing tasks in 108 online groups facilitated by a social media app (<em>WeChat</em>)<em>.</em> Principal component analysis revealed two primary types of emotion regulation: peer regulation and group regulation. The analysis also revealed one factor underpinning enjoyment: enjoyment of online collaboration. Correlation analysis showed medium and positive relationships between peer regulation, group regulation, and enjoyment of online collaboration. Structural equation modeling analysis further found that group regulation exerted a medium-sized direct effect on enjoyment of online collaboration. Peer regulation affected enjoyment of online collaboration moderately and indirectly via group regulation. The theoretical and pedagogical implications of the findings can help to optimize face-to-face and online collaborative language learning activities.</p> Zhipeng Zhang Xuesong (Andy) Gao Ting Liu Chwee Beng Lee Copyright (c) 2022 Zhipeng Zhang, Xuesong (Andy) Gao, Ting Liu, Chwee Beng Lee 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 459 481 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.6 Second language psychological speaking and listening needs: Scale development, symbiosis, and demographic differences <p>This study aimed to develop and validate two parallel scales to measure the psychological L2 speaking and listening needs of 863 English-as-a-foreign language (EFL) learners. The associations between three psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) of L2 speaking and of L2 listening were examined to develop insights into oracy (i.e., integration of speaking and listening) in L2 communication. Subsequently, the impact of demographic variables was explored. The data, collected via a 5-point Likert-scale questionnaire, were analyzed through descriptive and correlation analysis, factor analysis, and ANOVA. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine the factor structures, followed by confirmatory factor analysis for validation. Results demonstrated that the validity and reliability of the two developed scales were satisfactory. L2 speaking autonomy was significantly related to L2 listening autonomy, as were competence and relatedness. The three psychological needs of both L2 speaking and listening revealed varying patterns in terms of gender, major, university geographical context, schooling stage (first year to fourth year), and study-abroad experiences. The research findings reinforce the need for integration of L2 speaking and L2 listening when satisfying university students’ psychological needs, contribute to the research field with the measurement scales of psychological needs in L2 speaking and listening settings, and yield implications for teaching the two language skills integratedly.</p> Jian Xu Xuyan Qiu Copyright (c) 2022 Jian Xu, Xuyan Qiu 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 483 507 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.7 Editorial <p>The current issue of Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching includes six papers, the first two of which offer syntheses of existing research and the remaining four are reports of original empirical investigations.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2022 Mirosław Pawlak 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 351 353 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.1 Call for Papers for the 2023 SSLLT Conference <p>The main aim of the event is to celebrate the success of the journal <em>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching </em>(, which was launched little over a decade ago but has still managed to be ranked among the best journals in the field. The event will also provide a forum for presenting cutting-edge research related to different facets of L2 learning and teaching in a wide range of contexts and demonstrating how the results of such research can inform everyday classroom practices. The conference will be of high relevance to academics, researchers, teacher educators and materials writers, as well as language teachers at different educational levels wishing to enhance their instructional practices.</p> ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 521 524 Review of Crosslinguistic influence and second language learning by Kevin McManus <p>As a prevalent phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), crosslinguistic influence (CLI) has attracted ever-lasting attention, as reflected by the publication of several monographs (e.g., Cai, 2021; Jarvis &amp; Pavlenko, 2008; Odlin, 1989; Ringbom, 2007), many edited volumes (e.g., Alonso, 2016; Gass &amp; Selinker, 1983), and numerous research articles. In these books and papers, mounting evidence for CLI has been accumulated in various areas of languages. In particular, CLI may occur between first language (L1) and second language (L2) in lexicon, grammar, phonology, discourse, and pragmatics, with its effects being both positive and negative. Besides, it has been shown that the occurrence of CLI is constrained by a variety of factors, such as linguistic and psycholinguistic factors and those related to learning environment and language use (Jarvis &amp; Pavlenko, 2008). CLI has been addressed from diverse theoretical perspectives including universal grammar, functional linguistics, and psycholinguistics (see Cai, 2021 for a review).</p> Lixia Zhu Jinting Cai Copyright (c) 2022 Lixia Zhu, Jinting Cai 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 509 513 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.8 Review of Researching language learning motivation: A concise guide by Ali H. Al-Hoorie and Fruzsina Szabó <p>In the context of buoyant research on second language acquisition (SLA), language learning motivation has remained one of the most active fields of inquiry for more than 60 years (Al-Hoorie &amp; MacIntyre, 2019; Ushioda, 2019). Several books have approached this topic from a range of perspectives (e.g., Dörnyei &amp; Ushioda, 2021; Lamb et al., 2019; MacIntyre &amp; Al-Hoorie, 2020). However, the seemingly unceasing theoretical and methodological innovation in motivation research can be confusing, and it has become increasingly overwhelming to keep abreast of all the latest advancements in this burgeoning field. In response to this “promising” yet “perplexing” situation, Ali H. Al-Hoorie and Fruzsina Szabó have edited the volume <em>Researching language learning motivation: A concise guide</em>, presenting a timely guidebook for both students and novice researchers to navigate their way through the journey of language learning motivation.</p> Zixuan Li Copyright (c) 2022 Zixuan Li 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 515 520 10.14746/ssllt.2022.12.3.9 Notes on Contributors <p>Notes on Contributors</p> ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2022 2022-09-27 2022-09-27 12 3 345 349