Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching <h4>Founding Editor and Editor in Chief</h4> <p>Mirosław Pawlak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <h4>Editors</h4> <p>Jakub Bielak (Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Mariusz Kruk (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Chengchen Li (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Aleksandra Wach (Adami Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <p>Joanna Zawodniak (University of Zielona Góra, Poland) <a href=""></a></p> <h4>Language Editor</h4> <p>Melanie Ellis, Pedagogical University of Kraków, Poland</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong></p> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching (ISSN 2083-5205) is a refereed journal published four times a year by the Department of English Studies, Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts, Adam Mickiewicz University, Kalisz, Poland. The language of publication is English. The journal is devoted to reporting previously unpublished highest quality theoretical and empirical research on learning and teaching second and foreign languages. It deals with the learning and teaching of any language, not only English, and focuses on a variety of topics ranging from the processes underlying second language acquisition, various aspects of language learning in instructed and non-instructed settings, as well as different facets of the teaching process, including syllabus choice, materials design, classroom practices and evaluation. Each issue carries about 6 papers, 6000-8000 words in length, as well as reply articles and reviews. Submissions are subjected to an anonymous review process conducted by at least two referees who may be members of the Editorial Board and other leading specialists in the field. Authors are notified of acceptance or rejection of their papers within three months of the submission date.</p> <ul> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/about" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ABOUT THE JOURNAL</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/current" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CURRENT ISSUE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/ssllt/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">ARCHIVES</a></li> </ul> <p><strong>INDEXED IN:</strong></p> <p>Social Sciences Citation Index (WoS Core Collection); Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences (WoS); Scopus; European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH PLUS); Education Resources Information Center (ERIC); Index Copernicus; Central and Eastern European Online Library (CEEOL); The Central European Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities (CEJSH); The MLA International Bibliography; The MLA Directory of Periodicals; Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ); EBSCO; Linguistic Abstracts;&nbsp; WorldCat (OCLC); Current Contents – Social and Behavioral Sciences (WoS); Essential Science Indicators (WoS)</p> <h4>&nbsp;</h4> <h4>Editorial Board</h4> <p>Ali Al-Hoorie, Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu, Jubail, Saudi Arabia</p> <p>Larissa Aronin, Oranim Academic College of Education, Israel, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Helen Basturkmen, University of Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Adriana Biedroń, Pomeranian University, Słupsk, Poland</p> <p>Simon Borg, University of Leeds, UK</p> <p>Anne Burns, Aston University, Birmingham,UK, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia</p> <p>Anna Cieślicka, Texas A&amp;M International University, Laredo, USA</p> <p>Kata Csizér, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary</p> <p>Maria Dakowska, University of Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Robert DeKeyser, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Jean-Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, University of London, UK</p> <p>Zoltán Dörnyei, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Krystyna Droździał-Szelest, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Rod Ellis, Curtin University, Perth, Australia</p> <p>Danuta Gabryś-Barker, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p>Tammy Gregersen, American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates</p> <p>Carol Griffiths, University of Leeds, UK, AIS, Auckland, New Zealand</p> <p>Rebecca Hughes, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Hanna Komorowska, University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland</p> <p>Terry Lamb, University of Westminster, London, UK</p> <p>Diane Larsen-Freeman, University of Michigan, USA</p> <p>Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, State University of Applied Sciences, Konin, Poland</p> <p>Jan Majer, State University of Applied Sciences, Włocławek, Poland</p> <p>Paul Meara, Swansea University, UK</p> <p>Sarah Mercer, University of Graz, Austria</p> <p>Anna Michońska-Stadnik, University of Wrocław, Poland</p> <p>Carmen Muñoz, University of Barcelona, Spain</p> <p>Anna Niżegorodcew, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland</p> <p>Bonny Norton, University of British Columbia, Canada</p> <p>Terrence Odlin, Ohio State University, USA</p> <p>Rebecca Oxford, University of Maryland, USA</p> <p>Aneta Pavlenko, University of Oslo, Norway</p> <p>Simone Pfenninger, University of Salzburg, Austria</p> <p>François Pichette, TÉLUQ University, Quebec, Canada</p> <p>Luke Plonsky, Northern Arizona University, USA</p> <p>Ewa Piechurska-Kuciel, Opole University, Poland</p> <p>Vera Regan, University College, Dublin, Irlandia</p> <p>Barry Lee Reynolds, University of Macau, China</p> <p>Heidemarie Sarter, University of Potsdam, Germany</p> <p>Paweł Scheffler, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Norbert Schmitt, University of Nottingham, UK</p> <p>Michael Sharwood Smith, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK</p> <p>Linda Shockey, University of Reading, UK</p> <p>Teresa Siek-Piskozub, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>David S. Singleton, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland</p> <p>Włodzimierz Sobkowiak, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland</p> <p>Merrill Swain, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada</p> <p>Elaine Tarone, University of Minnesota, USA</p> <p>Pavel Trofimovich, Concordia University, Canada</p> <p>Ewa Waniek-Klimczak, University of Łódź, Poland</p> <p>Stuart Webb, University of Western Ontario, Canada</p> <p>Maria Wysocka, University of Silesia, Poland</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>JOURNAL METRICS:</strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong> <a title="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" href=";tip=sid&amp;exact=no"><img src="" alt="SCImago Journal &amp; Country Rank" border="0"></a> </strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> <img src="/public/site/images/admin/CiteScore2019_Studies_in_Second_La.png"></span></span></span></span></strong></strong></div> <p>CiteScore (2019): 2.2 (89%)<br>CiteScoreTracker: 3.0 (update 10.01.2021)<br>&nbsp;<br>MNiSW: 100</p> <p>Google Scholar Metrics h5: 18 (09.2019)<br>Google Scholar h-index: 23</p> <p><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">DOI:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 10.14746 /ssllt</span></span></span></span></p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2083-5205 </span></span></span></span><strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;">e-ISSN:</span></span></span></span></strong><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"><span style="vertical-align: inherit;"> 2084–1965</span></span></span></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ARTICLES ARE LICENSED UNDER A CREATIVE COMMONS (2016 -):</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><a href=""><br></a><a href="" rel="license">&nbsp;Attribution 4.0 International License</a><a href="">.<br></a></div> en-US <p>1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the&nbsp; legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.</p> <p>1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.</p> <p>2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:</p> <p>2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including&nbsp; printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;</p> <p>2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;</p> <p>2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,&nbsp; made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;</p> <p>2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);</p> <p>2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;</p> <p>2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of&nbsp; the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;</p> <p>2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;</p> <p>2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern <a href="" target="_self">Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)</a>&nbsp;as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.</p> <p>3. 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Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).</p> <p>7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis</p> <p>7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.</p> <p>7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> (Mirosław Pawlak) (Pressto) Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Notes on Contributors ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2020 ssllt ssllt Fri, 18 Dec 2020 16:34:39 +0000 Editorial <p>I have to honestly admit that writing this editorial feels very different from writing the one for the December of 2011 when <em>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching</em> had just completed its first year of existence. At that time, I was feeling a lot of uncertainty and trepidation about the future of the journal, wondering whether it would survive beyond the first year or two as well as whether it would stand a chance of becoming internationally recognizable. Today the situation is very different. Even though this has been an unprecedented year because of the COVID pandemic with all the havoc it has been wreaking all over the world, 2020 has proved to be exceptionally gracious to <em>SSLLT</em>. For one thing, not only has the journal survived and it is now turning 10 years of age, but it has also managed to secure its place among the most influential journals in the field, as can be seen, for example, from its ever-increasing indices in Scopus. Even more importantly, SSLLT has at last been included in some of the databases in Web of Science, most notably Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and Journal Citation Reports Social Sciences (JCRSS). Needless to say, we have been waiting for this momentous turn of events for quite a few years and now we cannot wait again to find out the impact factor for the journal, which should be announced some time in 2021. Once again, I cannot stress enough that the huge success of the journal is the outcome of the contribution of numerous individuals, in particular the consecutive associate editors, authors, reviewers, as well as editors of special issues. All of this certainly calls for a celebration and it is our intention to do so by organizing a conference that would bring together all those who have been involved in SSLLT and supported it from its inception, in whatever capacity this might have happened. We are sincerely hoping to be able to hold this event in October 2021 and will be sending out a call for papers some time in December. We do realize that the pandemic can foil any plan now, but we are determined to celebrate the success of the journal. Should autumn 2021 turn out to be unfeasible, we will be aiming for spring 2022 and we are very confident that sooner rather than later we will be able to finally meet face-to-face to discuss key issues involved in the process of second language learning and teaching. While there is surely nothing wrong with online conferences, I am convinced that we would all rather have a chance to talk in person at along last and we will do our best to make this happen. One thing is for sure, whatever the timing, the Faculty of Pedagogy and Fine Arts in Kalisz, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland, will be the venue for this event. After all, this is where the idea for SSLLT was conceived well over 10 years ago and where the journal has been published from the get-go.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2020 Mirosław Pawlak Fri, 18 Dec 2020 16:31:40 +0000 Comparing self-determination theory and the L2 motivational self system and their relationships to L2 proficiency <p style="margin: 0mm 0mm 0pt; line-height: 200%;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;" lang="EN-US"><span style="font-size: medium;">This study empirically compares two often-utilized motivation theories in L2 studies: self-determination theory and the L2 motivational self system. It also examines the relationships among their motivational constructs, learners’ intended L2 learning effort, and L2 proficiency. While a number of studies have utilized these models in order to examine second language learners’ motivation, there has not been a thorough comparison of the two. Furthermore, while many studies have demonstrated the structural relationships between the motivational constructs of the two theories and the learner’s self-reported amount of effort, fewer studies have examined their L2 achievement. The results of this study indicated that the constituents in the two theories are correlated as predicted. Furthermore, while internalized types of motivation in self-determination theory predicted intended learning effort, which then led to L2 proficiency, the strength of the ideal L2 self was much weaker than the L2 learning experience, unlike what is argued in the theory. </span></span></p> Chika Takahashi, Seongah Im Copyright (c) 2020 Chika Takahashi, Seongah Im Fri, 18 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 On the fractal nature of complex syntax and the timescale problem <p>Fundamental to complex dynamic systems theory is the assumption that the recursive behavior of complex systems results in the generation of physical forms and dynamic processes that are self-similar and scale-invariant. Such fractal-like structures and the organismic benefit that they engender has been widely noted in physiology, biology, and medicine, yet discussions of the fractal-like nature of language have remained at the level of metaphor in applied linguistics. Motivated by the lack of empirical evidence supporting this assumption, the present study examines the extent to which the use and development of complex syntax in a learner of English as a second language demonstrate the characteristics of self-similarity and scale invariance at nested timescales. Findings suggest that the use and development of syntactic complexity are governed by fractal scaling as the dynamic relationship among the subconstructs of syntax maintain their complexity and variability across multiple temporal scales. Overall, fractal analysis appears to be a fruitful analytic tool when attempting to discern the dynamic relationships among the multiple component parts of complex systems as they interact over time.</p> D. Reid Evans Copyright (c) 2020 D. Reid Evans Sat, 05 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring the relationships between L2 vocabulary knowledge, lexical segmentation, and L2 listening comprehension <p>The capacity to perceive and meaningfully process foreign or second language (L2) words from the aural modality is a fundamentally important aspect of successful L2 listening. Despite this, the relationships between L2 listening and learners’ capacity to process aural input at the lexical level has received relatively little research focus. This study explores the relationships between measures of aural vocabulary, lexical segmentation and two measures of L2 listening comprehension (i.e., TOEIC &amp; Eiken Pre-2) among a cohort of 130 tertiary level English as a foreign language (EFL) Japanese learners. Multiple regression modelling indicated that in combination, aural knowledge of vocabulary at the first 1,000-word level and lexical segmentation ability could predict 34% and 38% of total variance observed in TOEIC listening and Eiken Pre-2 listening scores respectively. The findings are used to provide some preliminary recommendations for building the capacity of EFL learners to process aural input at the lexical level.</p> Kriss Lange, Joshua Matthews Copyright (c) 2020 Joshua Matthews, Kriss Lange Fri, 18 Dec 2020 13:15:17 +0000 The use of refusal strategies in interlanguage speech act performance of Korean and Norwegian users of English <p>The present paper describes a contrastive study of interlanguage refusal strategies employed by Korean and Norwegian learners of English as an additional language. The data were collected from multilingual first-year students at an American university in South Korea and in an English-medium program at a Norwegian university by means of an online open discourse completion task and analyzed using the coding categories based on Beebe, Takahashi, and Uliss-Welts (1990), and Salazar Campillo, Safont-Jordà, and Codina Espurz (2009). The data were analyzed to compare the average frequencies of refusal strategies used by the two groups, and the types of direct, indirect, and adjunct strategies that they employed. Independent samples <em>t</em>-tests revealed significant differences in the use of direct and indirect strategies with small effect sizes. The differences in the use of adjunct strategies were not statistically significant, and the effect sizes were negligible. Descriptive statistics of the differences in the types of direct, indirect, and adjunct strategies also revealed interesting patterns. The findings suggest that multilinguals’ pragmatic performance is a complex phenomenon that cannot be explained by the differences in cultural and pragmatic norms of their first language alone.</p> Anna Krulatz, Tülay Dixon Copyright (c) 2020 Anna Krulatz, Tülay Dixon Fri, 18 Dec 2020 13:26:20 +0000 Cross-country comparison of EFL teacher preparedness to include dyslexic learners: Validation of a questionnaire <p>The aim of this study was to validate a 24-item TEPID (Teachers of EFL Preparedness to Include Dyslexics) scale measuring the beliefs of 546 pre-service and in-service teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) across three countries (Cyprus, Greece, and Poland) on their preparedness to include learners with dyslexia in mainstream foreign language (FL) classes. Principal component analysis of the scale led to a two-factor structure, that is, knowledge and self-efficacy in implementing inclusive instructional practices with dyslexic EFL learners, and stance towards inclusion. The analysis of measurement invariance confirmed the generalizability of the TEPID across all subgroups and allowed valid comparisons between factor variances and covariances. The scale is a useful tool for investigating perceived teacher preparedness to include dyslexic learners and variables that influence TEPID, comparing the results across countries, and designing tailored pre-service and in-service training schemes on inclusion.</p> Joanna Nijakowska, Dina Tsagari, George Spanoudis Copyright (c) 2020 Joanna Nijakowska, Dina Tsagari, George Spanoudis Fri, 18 Dec 2020 13:40:57 +0000 Review of Directed motivational currents and language education: Exploring implications for pedagogy; Author: Christine Muir; Publisher: Multilingual Matters, 2020; ISBN: 978-1-78892-884-7; Pages: 252 <p>The construct of a <em>directed motivational current</em> (DMC), or “. . . a surge of motivational energy that seemingly picks an individual up and carries them sometimes unimaginable distances” (p. xvi) was introduced into research on motivation in second and foreign language (L2) learning less than a decade ago (e.g., Dörnyei, Ibrahim, &amp; Muir, 2015; Muir &amp; Dörnyei, 2013). Despite being a relative newcomer to the field, the concept has provided an impulse for empirical investigations which have primarily focused on validating its core assumptions and proposed dimensions using largely qualitative methodology (e.g., Safdari &amp; Maftoon, 2007; Zarrinabadi &amp; Tavakoli, 2017). The book <em>Directed Motivational Currents in Language Education: Implications for Pedagogy</em> by Christine Muir is another valuable addition to this line of inquiry and it can be seen in a way as a follow-up to and extension of the monograph <em>Motivational Currents in Language Learning: Frameworks for Focused Interventions</em> that she co-authored with Zoltán Dörnyei and Alastair Henry in 2016. Since I had the opportunity to write a review of this volume for <em>Studies in Second Language Learning and Teaching</em> (Pawlak, 2017), I was all the more curious to see how research on DMCs has progressed and what promise it currently holds for L2 pedagogy. Therefore, the moment the publisher contacted me with the suggestion that SSLLT might be a good venue for a review, I immediately jumped on the offer and simply felt compelled to take on this task myself. I have to say from the get-go that the book has lived up to my expectations and, although I might be somewhat skeptical about some of the implications for classroom practice, I have to admit that Christine Muir’s work represents a so-much-needed step forward in the study of DMCs. This certainly cannot too often be said about all the apparently innovative ideas introduced into the domain of second language acquisition research.</p> Mirosław Pawlak Copyright (c) 2020 Mirosław Pawlak Fri, 18 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Review of Engaging language learners in contemporary classrooms; Authors: Sarah Mercer, Zoltán Dörnyei; Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 2020; ISBN: 9781108445924; Pages: 208 <p>Learner engagement is key to successful learning experiences in general education and language learning is no exception. When students are engaged, they are focusing on the task at hand, paying attention and enjoying their language learning (Aubrey et al., 2020; Ellis, 2018; Mercer, 2019; Oga-Baldwin, 2019). Yet, as Mercer and Dörnyei affirm in their introduction to the book, “discussions of engagement . . . have been largely absent from the literature of L2 [second language] learning and teaching” (p. 4). <em>Engaging Language Learners in Contemporary Classrooms</em> addresses this gap directly and in great depth, thus making it a ground-breaking contribution to the growing body of second language (L2) literature on learner engagement.</p> Haydab Almukhaild Copyright (c) 2020 Haydab Almukhaild Fri, 04 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reviewers for Volume 10/2020 ssllt ssllt Copyright (c) 2020 ssllt ssllt Fri, 18 Dec 2020 16:38:44 +0000