Studia Rossica Posnaniensia https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp <p><strong>О ЖУРНАЛЕ</strong></p> <p>Журнал <em>Studia Rossica Posnaniensia</em> издаётся Научным издательством Университета им. Адама Мицкевича в Познани с 1970 года. На протяжении лет в нём публиковались учёные, работающие в известных и престижных славистических центрах всего мира. Журнал является «визитной карточкой» института русской и украинской филологии Университета им. Адама Мицкевича в Познани. До настоящего времени были изданы 44 тома журнала. По 2018 год он издавался ежегодно, с 2019 года издаётся два раза в год.</p> <p><strong>ИНДЕКСИРУЕТСЯ В:</strong></p> <p>DOAJ, CEEOL, CEJSH, ERIH PLUS, EBSCO, PKP index, Index Copernicus - IC World of Journals, PBN - Polska Bibliografia Naukowa, POL-index Polska Baza Cytowań, WorldCat, Google Scholar, Arianta, BazHum;</p> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>НАУКОМЕТРИЧЕСКИЕ ПОКАЗАТЕЛИ ЖУРНАЛА:</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/gs_1.png" alt=""></strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>MNiSW (Министерство науки и высшего образования Польши): </strong>20 пунктов</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><img src="/public/piotr/ikonki/ic_80_64.png" alt=""></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong>10.14746/strp</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0081-6884&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>e-ISSN: </strong>0081-6884</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>THE ARTICLES ARE PUBLISHED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS LICENCE: <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License"></a><br><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">&nbsp;Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</strong></div> <p>&nbsp;</p> Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan ru-RU Studia Rossica Posnaniensia 0081-6884 <p><a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc-sa/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Лицензия Creative Commons"></a><br>Это произведение доступно по&nbsp;<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/" rel="license">лицензии Creative Commons «Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike» («Атрибуция — Некоммерческое использование — На тех же условиях») 4.0 Всемирная</a>.</p> Англофонный диптих о России и русских Вирджинии Вулф и Джона Стейнбека https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25018 <p>The paper deals with the reception of the Russian character (mind and soul) by two prominent anglophone writers: Virginia Woolf and John Steinbeck. Virginia Woolf recognizes the Russians and their soul through the perception of the great Russian masterpieces of Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, and Chekhov (The Russian Point of View, essay, 1925); Steinbeck’s A Russian Journal, 1948, presents the Russians as they were observed by the American author in their everyday life, rebuilding their country after WWII. The genre specificity of each work, the differences of time, emotions and purpose of writing, the Russian “experience” of each author, determine a certain heterogeneity of understanding of Russia and Russians; nevertheless, both form a heterogeneous whole of the Anglophone perception.</p> Oksana Weretiuk Copyright (c) 2020-10-26 2020-10-26 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.1 Sanctus Amor (1908) Нины Петровской как жизнетворческий манифест https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25103 <p>Sanctus Amor is the only intravital storybook by Nina Petrovskaya, dedicated to Sergey Auslender. The title of the book, borrowed from the poem by Andrey Bely, initiates a literary polylogue addressed to several lovers of Petrovskaya: to Bely, as he once was her teacher of heavenly love; to Valery Bryusov, as he was Petrovskaya’s beloved one at the time of publication; to Auslender as the addressee of dedication and a new contender for being Petrovskaya’s favorite. Sanctus Amor represents the ideal of the Saintly Love, the manifesto which Petrovskaya followed rigorously in real life. Her letters to Bryusov and Vladislav Khodasevich reveal multiple congruences with the novels of Sanctus Amor, which demonstrate the inextricable character of life and literature in Petrovskaya’s worldview. The paper is devoted to the analysis of Sanctus Amor in the aspect of life-creating practices and its meaning in the literary dialogue with Auslender. Sanctus Amor is a complicated prescriptive symbolic message designed to proclaim its own, and to program another’s, concept of love.</p> Aleksey Samarin Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.2 Dobroczynność w Rosji w świetle publikacji w czasopismach i almanachach literackich pierwszej połowy XIX wieku https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25112 <p>The article presents the publications in the periodical “Zhurnal Imperatorskogo chelovekolubivogo obshchestva” and the literary almanac Podarok bednym in the light of the development of charity in Russia (motives, forms, results): 1. The publications of Alexander Sturdza (About social charity, About private charity), Pyotr Shalikov etc.; 2. The charity institutions in the capital and the provinces; 3. The charity initiatives of women and the Russian writers. “Zhurnal Imperatorskogo chelovekolubivogo obshchestva” (the monthly magazine) was published in St. Petersburg from 1817 to 1826. It contained, among other elements, information and reports about the activity of philanthropists and charity institutions, and literary works (Hymn to love for a man by Pyotr Shalikov). Podarok bednym was published in Odessa in 1834 (the motto was a quotation from the Aeneid by Vergil: “Miseris succurrere disco”) by a women’s benevolent society. It contained the commentaries and works of belles-lettres. The paper compares “Zhurnal Imperatorskogo chelovekolubivogo obshchestva” and Podarok bednym (the “common places”, for instance the articles by Alexander Strudza About social charity published in “Zhurnal Imperatorskogo chelovekolubivogo obshchestva” in 1817 and in Podarok bednym in 1834). It presents also the discussions about charity in the Russian periodicals in the first half of the 19th century.</p> Magdalena Dąbrowska Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.3 Arka pamięci? Kilka uwag na marginesie filmów Aleksandra Sokurowa Rosyjska arka i Frankofonia https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25105 <p>Alexander Sokurov is considered to be a creator who often attempts to settle with the uncomfortable past, at the same time revealing the mechanisms of the functioning of power and politics, including the policy of remembrance. The Russian Ark (2002) and Francofonia (2015), which divides over a dozen years and which seemingly concern two different countries and situations, are no different in this respect. And yet, using the same motif in them, i.e. the motif of the museum, Sokurov in Francofonia returns to events that he could not, for various reasons, deal with in a prior movie. We mean here the role of museums, “silent” witnesses of history. The evacuation of works of art from the Hermitage and the Louvre during the war is a source of pride and an element of the victorious narrative, but in the case of Hermitage it is impossible not to think about the price that the city and its inhabitants paid during their siege. They could not be evacuated as efficiently as the museum collections. And thus the idea of saving valuable works of the Hermitage will be invariably associated with the inept evacuation of the people of Leningrad. And it must be admitted that this is not the first opportunity when it comes to Sokurov to remind the world of the painful wound inflicted on the city of Neva and its inhabitants, not only by the Germans, but also to ask about the price of survival.</p> Beata Pawletko Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.4 Intelektualista w łagrze. Perspektywa Julija Margolina https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25106 <p>The aim of this article is to attempt to discuss the report of Yuliy Margolin from the Soviet Gulag. A Journey to the Land of Ze-Ka is an original work, written from the perspective of a prisoner, who is mostly an intellectual, a philosopher, an excellent observer and interpreter of European reality. The author of the article tries to prove that for Margolin the superior value in the Gulag is the mind, which wins over emotions and thanks to that allows to preserve dignity and humanity. The analysis of identity, carried out by Margolin, allows us to read his testimony in the context of contemporary identity research in extreme situations, where instead of building up our own self, we are fighting for our moral values. As it turns out, the basic foundation of identity is freedom. The article also undertakes a preliminary analysis of Margolin’s concept of hate as the most destructive force for the human individual and the intellect. The mind, according to Margolin, effectively defends freedom, and hate kills free thought, destroys goodness, and consequently leads to dehumanization. The research allows us to call Margolin a rationally thinking humanist, an intellectual who is against historical fatalism, who constantly analyses current events and human behaviour, without losing faith in the mind and the human individual.</p> Agnieszka Lenart Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.5 Особенности образа современного русского интеллигента на примере романа Алексея Варламова Затонувший ковчег (1997) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25107 <p>The article focuses on the image of the modern Russian intellectual, depicted in the artistic text of Aleksey Varlamov, the Sunken Ark. Understanding the phenomenon of the Russian intelligentsia in the analysed literary work is associated with the problem of the opposition of reason and faith in the process of the personality formation of the modern intellectual. The analysis carried out in the text allows not only to trace and better understand the social processes of the crisis period in Russia, but also to notice their enormous impact on the consciousness of the main hero-intellectual Ilya Petrovich. The use of the methodology of historical and literary research in the work is adequate to the problems posed. The novel under analysis, as a kind of warning, has a deep philosophical undertone that touches upon the problems of faith, unbelief, freedom of the individual and the pursuit of moral perfection. Varlamov’s intellectual, as a typical “hero of our time”, regardless of his weakness, defenselessness and internal rupture, seems to be most needed in life.</p> Natalia Królikiewicz Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.6 Потенциал иронии в творчестве Людмилы Петрушевской (на примере романа Нас украли. История преступлений) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25108 <p>Many researchers of Lyudmila Petrushevskaya’s works draw attention to the irony which is the significant element of her prose, drama and poetry. It is important that the ironic principle manifests itself not only as an artistic technique but also as a philosophical aspect. Irony demonstrates the ambivalence of reality. On the one hand, it ridicules and profanes everything. On the other hand, irony gives the certitude of the ontological status of reality. We can see a good example of this function of irony in the novel Nas ukrali. Istoriya prestupleniy (2017). This novel shows the common features of Petrushevskaya’s works – the unity of ironic potential and language. In this case, language is not only the style but first of all the ontological element. This is why the language becomes almost a character in Petrushevskaya’s novel. Irony opens the vital potential of the linguistic personality. As a result, one of the heroes imitates foreign speech but doesn’t speak a foreign language. Irony also helps to reveal the ambivalent nature of life. It shows that our “umora” in Sanskrit and in ancient Indian is “humour” and “death”. So, the game and profanity not only reduce the status of the hero, the image, or the reader’s expectations but, first of all, fill the gap between words, ideas, feelings, and people.</p> Юлия Брюханова Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.7 Fatalne zauroczenie (Wiktor Pielewin, Miłość do trzech Zuckerbrinów) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25109 <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze an increasingly dangerous phenomenon in modern times – the Internet addiction – in the context of contemporary Russian literature. It seems that in this light, the work of Viktor Pelevin can serve as a perfect example of a literary voice in the discussion about the condition of the modern world. The present paper uses the findings of modern technology experts (e.g. Clifford Stoll), philosophers, and sociologists (e.g. Jean Baudrillard, Kazimierz Krzysztofek). In Viktor Pelevin’s novel entitled Love for Three Zuckerbrins (Любовь к трeм цукербринам, 2014) the author continues his analysis of the problem, already marked in The Helmet of Horror (Шлем ужаса: Креатифф о Тесее и Минотавре, 2005), centered on the impact of the development of the latest technologies on human beings. While in the author’s earlier works this issue remained in the sphere of predictions and guesses, here it is unequivocally resolved to the detriment of the human individual. By touching upon the question of popular games for people, Pelevin shows their real role – playing with people. In this context the abovementioned attraction to simple entertainment has irreversible effects – a win in an Internet game means a failure in real life. While advocating unequivocally on the side of the opponents of the adulation for cyberspace, Pelevin points out that a complete unification with it will lead to the end of humanity.</p> Aleksandra Zywert Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.8 Podmiot groteskowy w dramatach Olega Bogajewa https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25110 <p>The article analyses three dramas written by Oleg Bogayev (The Russian National Postal Service. A Room of Laughter for a Lonely Pensioner; Bashmachkin and Sansara). The purpose of the work was primarily to expose various forms, due to which we can talk about the grotesqueness of the subject, i.e. the relationship I – Others, the violation of the boundary between the categories of significant and signified, subject-object relations, the subject of the act of behaviour and the act of speech as well as the occurrence of the Voice as a separate unit from the subject. The author emphasises the fact that the contemporary figure of the subject has been reduced to the language level and experiences a crisis of self-identification, which in turn leads to the crisis of the drama itself. Comic characters balance between the real and the fantastic world. Their statements are often pictures-simulations, heavily saturated with irony, the grotesque and absurdity.</p> Agnieszka Juchniewicz Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.9 Синтактико-семантические особенности русских и словацких языковых афоризмов https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25113 <p>The article compares/contrasts the syntactic and semantic features of language aphorisms in Russian and Slovak. The Russian and Slovak language aphorisms have a priori axiological modality and are capable of referemental use, as potential acts of motivation and acts of affirmation. The expediency of this analysis is due to the fact that the illocutionary force has national and cultural specifics, which is manifested at all levels of language, speech and discourse. The object of the article is Russian and Slovak proverbs, sayings and winged expressions, in which the value bases of interpersonal speech communication are focused. A group of examples of the greatest illocutionary force is given, i.e. speech acts of prompting, then affirmative speech acts, as well as speech acts of inducement and affirmations that acquire additional illocutionary power. The taxonomy of the illocutionary force contained in Russian and Slovak folk aphorisms takes the following outlines: a) the most illocutionary power is speech acts of motivation, in which proverbs are used; b) affirmative speech and behavioral acts, which are evaluative aphorisms, have the status of passing thoughts with a light touch of lax edification, warning, or wish, and therefore, their illocutionary force is less pronounced; c) speech acts of inducement and affirmation acquire additional illocutionary force if the proverbs used in them retain the connotation of an authoritative original source. In the last part of the text, conclusions of the presented issue are drawn.</p> Ján Gallo Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.10 Polsko-, niemiecko- i rosyjskojęzyczny obraz „innego” i „obcego”. Analiza porównawcza pól asocjacyjnych https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25114 <p>The article is concerned with reconstructing the cultural meanings included in the Polish signs “inny” (“different”) and “obcy” (“foreign”) and comparing them with their Russian and German counterparts, i.e. “другой” and “чужой”, “der Andere” and “der Fremde” respectively. The data for the comparative analysis were collected by means of the free association method. The features indicated by the respondents reflected culture-specific and language-specific associative profiles of images of the lexical items “different” and “foreign”, characteristic of the representatives of the Polish, Russian and German cultures. The results of the association test confirm that there exist numerous criteria which the Polish, Russian and German respondents referred to while specifying the meaning of “different” and “foreign”. The questionnaire allowed for establishing a hierarchy of the criteria as well as for indicating significant similarities and differences between the Polish, Russian and German associative definitions of both terms.</p> Roman Gawarkiewicz Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.11 Małżeństwo w językowym obrazie świata. Na przykładzie paremii w języku polskim, rosyjskim i angielskim https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25115 <p>The essence of marriage is being widely discussed in the last few decades in many social circles and at many different levels. From the linguistic point of view it is usually characterised on the basis of man’s and woman’s roles in their relationship. The aim of the paper is to present the view of marriage in Polish, Russian and English proverbial phrases. For the purposes of the article about 350 Polish and Russian and about 300 English proverbs have been subjected to cognitive analysis. The research proves that the concept of marriage is roughly universal in all three languages and it presents definitely an androcentric perspective. Wives in proverbs are shown in a very unfavourable light as grouchy, quarrelsome, unfaithful and narrow-minded human beings. Marriage reflected in sayings is usually a burden which diminishes man’s happiness and may even lead to his sickness, fast aging and death. What is more, quite a lot of proverbial phrases in all three languages under study foster violence against women. The concept of marriage presented in proverbs is undoubtedly a reflection of the old way of thinking and the old system of values, but the preliminary research of anti-proverbs, i.e. more modern expressions, proves that it has not undergone any fundamental changes in the language awareness of the Polish, Russian and English native speakers.</p> Katarzyna Kuligowska Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.12 Культурная идентичность в процессе русско-польского перевода https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25116 <p>The article deals with the issue of transferring intertextual cultural elements in the process of translation from Russian into Polish. The material for analysis is the fragments of the novel The Black City by Boris Akunin and its translation into Polish by Aleksandra Okuniewska-Stronka. The aim of this article is to present and evaluate the results of transferring cultural connotations and intertextual references from one culture to another. Cultural elements play a significant role in the process of the reception of the text and its translation both by the readers of the original text ‒ native language users – and by the recipients of the translated variant, belonging to a different culture. The comparison of source units and translated target units shows how different the associative circles arising in the process of text reception are. The analysis leads to the conclusion that taking into account the associative and intertextual potential of language units in translation is a very complex process. It requires a double cultural competence from the translator, and involves not only the interpretation of language signs in terms of their cultural code, but also the assessment of the interpretative abilities and capabilities of the recipients.</p> Jolanta Jóźwiak Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.13 Сравнительный анализ современных тенденций развития украинской и русской терминографической критики https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25117 <p>Compiling special dictionaries in Ukraine and Russia has its own history, national specifics, significant achievements and groundworks. Terminological dictionaries play an important role – they preserve and transmit the scientific terminology fund from generation to generation, which necessitates a critical examination of each specific publication. Terminographic criticism is an integral, interdisciplinary direction which is formed simultaneously on the basis of scientific criticism and scientific communication combining their features. As a result of the study, it was established that modern Ukrainian and Russian critics in their reviews adhere to the same principles to examine terminological dictionaries: the intention to comprehensively analyse, first of all, definition and translation publications as well as reference dictionaries, regarding the representation of their mega-, macro- and microstructure parameters; determining the national and linguacultural values of branch dictionaries. The potential importance of the practical application of the results lies in improving the theoretical and methodological principles and foundations of compiling terminological dictionaries, as well as their use in the development of new models of special publications, in particular dictionaries of a new type, which will comprehensively present the terminology of a certain field of science.</p> Татьяна Петрова Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.14 Вызовы современному русскому литературному языку https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25119 <p>The article is devoted to the study of some active processes affecting the system of the modern Russian language. The result of the study is the identification of factors that negatively affect the dynamics of the Russian language, which are presented in socio-political and linguistic aspects. The socio-political reasons are caused by the active reduction of the Russian-language information space in the near and far abroad area under the influence of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Unsuccessful phenomena in the current state of the Russian language consist in the intentional violation of the language norms in the Internet space, the substitution of normative vocabulary for meaningfully and stylistically belittled expressions of rural life, the clogging of the Russian literary language with words and verbal turns of slang origin, the dissemination of obscene vocabulary, the saturation of the language with words and expressions of foreign origin, and the unjustified euphemization of speech, leading to the erosion of the meaning of words. The general conclusion is the need for the serious efforts of the whole society against the simplification and the purity of the Russian literary language.</p> Владимир Медведев Copyright (c) 2020-10-27 2020-10-27 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.15 Лексические инновации в мемосфере: названия мемных жанров https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25122 <p>The development of the Internet gave life to Internet memes. Their diversity and rapid growth contributed to the formation of the memosphere, the development of which is accompanied by the emergence of lexical innovations. These include language memes and the names of meme genres. All of them are the result of linguistic creativity, which in relation to the names of meme genres, covers several stages: English loanwords for the name of the meme genre, their adaptation in Russian, changes in semantics, and preference for specific neologisms. The concept of lexical innovation was apprehended on the foundation of Markovsky’s concept. The study of lexical innovations was carried out within the framework of the structural-semantic direction, as well as on the basis of the theory of Kotelova and the concepts of Rakhmanova and Suzdaltseva. Studies have shown that semantic changes in the names of meme genres are associated with a denotation change. Changes in the semantics of word loaning are very dynamic as English loanwords enable the swift naming of new realities. This tendency towards the internationalization of vocabulary is related to the Internet and the memosphere. The obtained results fill the gap in the study of vocabulary related to the memosphere. A few studies of meme genres relate to their description and analysis, yet do not focus on the semantic and graphic modification of loanwords. This work presents the unprecedented mechanisms and stages of the formation of meme genres names.</p> Olga Makarowska Copyright (c) 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.16 Межъязыковые омонимы в лексико-семантической группе „Религия” (на примере польского и русского языков) https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25123 <p>The paper aims to present the types of semantic relations which hold between the interlingual homonyms existing in the semantic field of “people’s spiritual life”. The primary type of the relations among the studied lexical units is exclusion (the presence of a religious component in the semantics of a word of one of the studied languages and the lack of such a component in the other language). Because of the significant number of the examples of this type of relation, the words were divided into three thematic groups: 1) concepts (пассия – pasja), 2) objects (арка – arka), 3) people (лектор – lektor). The relation type of inclusion (with the shared religious semantics, one of the homonyms has an additional meaning related to this area) was observed in a few pairs (катафалк – katafalk). The relation type of overlapping (with the shared religious semantics, each of the homonyms has an additional meaning) in a given lexical field was not identified. No relation of overlapping in a given lexical field and only a few cases of the inclusion relation can prove that the resources of Russian and Polish homonymous words belonging to the religious theme of the Orthodox and Catholic Churches contrast with one another in quite an unobvious way. It is conditioned by both linguistic as well as cultural factors.</p> Natalya Didenko Copyright (c) 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.17 Особенности употребления вспомогательного глагола в формах перфекта во 2-м лице единственного числа в древнерусских грамотах XIV–XVI вв. https://pressto.amu.edu.pl/index.php/strp/article/view/25124 <p>The article analyses 2nd person singular perfect forms in a collection of Old Russian documents of the 14–16th centuries. The main focus is placed on their formal aspects and the transition from an analytic to synthetic form. The process itself is well-known, yet it still lacks a detailed description and fully explained reasons for its occurrence. The author, providing statistical data on the use of the auxiliary verb byti and explicitly expressed subject, proves its great regularity. There is a strong dependence between the two items and usually only one of them is applied with perfect constructions. This shows that the function of the auxiliary verb has been completely changed and in the period described it played only the role of a person indicator. Thus, it became redundant when the use of personal pronouns was increased. All the exceptions to this rule are scarce and can be explained with factors of a syntactical or extra-linguistic character. The author’s assumptions are confirmed with statistical data and examples taken from spiritual and contractual charters of grand princes and appanage princes in the XIV–XVI centuries.</p> Maciej Waraczewski Copyright (c) 2020-10-28 2020-10-28 45 2 10.14746/strp.2020.45.2.18