Studia Rossica Posnaniensia <p class="oczasopismie"><strong>OPIS CZASOPISMA</strong><br>Czasopismo Studia Rossica Posnaniensia wydawane jest przez Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu. Ukazuje się od 1970 roku, na przestrzeni lat publikowali w nim badacze zatrudnieni w renomowanych ośrodkach slawistycznych całego świata. Czasopismo jest „wizytówką" Instytutu Filologii Rosyjskiej i Ukraińskiej UAM. Dotychczas ukazało się 45 tomów. Do roku 2018 czasopismo ukazywało się jako rocznik, od 2019 roku jest publikowane dwa razy w roku.</p> <ul class="oczasopismie"> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/strp/about">O CZASOPIŚMIE</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/strp/issue/current">AKTUALNY NUMER</a></li> <li class="show"><a href="/index.php/strp/issue/archive">ARCHIWUM</a></li> </ul> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>INDEKSOWANE W:</strong> <p>DOAJ, CEEOL, CEJSH, ERIH PLUS, EBSCO, PKP index, Index Copernicus - Journals Master List, PBN - Polska Bibliografia Naukowa, POL-index Polska Baza Cytowań, WorldCat, Google Scholar, Arianta, BazHum;</p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>WSKAŹNIKI OCENY CZASOPISMA: </strong> <p><span class="fs-journal-icv-ibox-title ng-binding ng-scope">ICV 2020: 100.00</span><br><br><strong>MNiSW:</strong> <strong>20</strong></p> </div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.14746/strp</a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>ISSN: </strong>0081-6884 (wersja podstawowa)</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>e-ISSN</strong>: 0081-6884</div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Czasopismo nie pobiera opłaty za publikację artykułów (APCs) oraz oferuje natychmiastowy i darmowy dostęp do opublikowanych tekstów na platformie OJS.</strong></span></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong>PRACE PUBLIKOWANE W CZASOPIŚMIE DOSTĘPNE SĄ NA LICENCJI CREATIVE COMMONS: </strong><a href=""><strong><img src="" alt="CC_by-nd/4.0"></strong></a></div> <div class="oczasopismie"><strong><a href="" rel="license">Uznanie autorstwa-Użycie niekomercyjne-Na tych samych warunkach 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie"> <p>Autorzy tekstów przyjętych do publikacji w czasopiśmie „Studia Rossica Posnaniensia” są zobowiązani do wypełnienia, podpisania i odesłania na adres redakcji umowy&nbsp;o udzielenie nieodpłatnej licencji do utworów, z zobowiązaniem do udzielania sublicencji <strong>Creative Commons.</strong><br><br>Zgodnie z umową, autorzy tekstów opublikowanych w czasopiśmie “Studia Rossica Posnaniensia” &nbsp;udzielają Uniwersytetowi im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu niewyłącznej i nieodpłatnej licencji oraz zezwalają na użycie sublicencji Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).<br><br>Autorzy zachowują prawa do dalszego, swobodnego rozporządzania utworem.<br><br>Autorzy, którzy wykorzystują w swoim tekście cudze utwory (np. ilustracje, fotografie) proszeni są o dostarczenie do redakcji czasopisma zgody na publikację.</p> <p>Użytkownicy internetu uprawnieni są do korzystania z utworów opublikowanych po 2015 roku “Studia Rossica Posnaniensia” tylko w celach niekomercyjnych, pod następującymi warunkami:</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <strong>Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu zachowuje prawo do czasopisma jako całości (układ, forma graficzna, tytuł, projekt okładki, logo itp.).</strong></div> <div class="oczasopismie">&nbsp;</div> pl-PL <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Licencja Creative Commons"></a><br>Ten utwór jest dostępny na&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">licencji Creative Commons Uznanie autorstwa-Użycie niekomercyjne-Na tych samych warunkach 4.0 Międzynarodowe</a>.</p> (prof. UAM dr hab. Beata Waligórska-Olejniczak) (Dr Konrad Rachut) czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Słowo wstępne Beata Waligórska-Olejniczak, Bożena Hrynkiewicz-Adamskich Copyright (c) 2021 Beata Waligórska-Olejniczak, Bożena Hrynkiewicz-Adamskich czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Świat jako tranzyt. Poetyka przestrzeni w poezji Gizelli Lachman <p>The article is an analysis of the poetry of Gisella Lachman (1895–1969), poet of the “first wave” of Russian emigration, from the perspective of the poetics of space. The poet expressed her emigration experience (multiple changes of residence: Russia, Germany, Switzerland, USA) in her poems in spatial relations. They appear on different levels of the works’ morphology: in the construction of the lyrical “I”, in the organisation of the presented world, in the repertoire of motifs and the selection of poetic lexis and genre forms. Space plays a literal role in Lachman’s poetry; it is a representation of extra-literary reality, seen subjectively. It is also subject to metaphorisation, becoming a tool for expressing philosophical content. The poet creates not only a spatial model of the world, but also a spatial model of human life, which she perceives as a transit on the road to eternity.</p> Jolanta Brzykcy Copyright (c) 2021 Jolanta Brzykcy czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Пространства Марины Цветаевой <p>The hallmarks of space in Tsvetaeva’s poetic world are vertical orientation, two-worldness (many-worldness), measurability, and “immensity”, often expressed by asymmetry. Tsvetaeva’s model of the double world is presented both in its pure form and in a multilayer one (the model of “matryoshka” according to Lotman) with a hierarchical vertical correlation of spaces. The vertical sets the plots, stylistics, system of characters, system of time and expectations of the reader. Tsvetaeva is a bright representative of irrational tendencies in art, which manifest themselves against the background of rational ones, through their violation. Thus, The Attempt of a Room (1926) builds on an imaginary effort to present a hexagonal box of a rendezvous, but fails. The last poem I Keep Repeating the First Verse… (1940) is a poetic reaction to the “mistake in counting”: there should be not six but seven souls at the table. In one of her poems, Tsvetaeva calls herself “one who has edited the miracle with numbers”. This formula aphoristically expresses the nature of creativity as<br>first intuitive search, and then rational design. The mathematical calculation of the composition of her books is an analogue of the metric-stanzaic “frame” of her lyrics. In the given proportions she often uses a deliberate failure by one unit (for example, in the collection From Two Books she adds one extra poem, which was originally missing in these two books).</p> Roman Voitekhovich Copyright (c) 2021 Roman Voitekhovich czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 „Die Moskauer Sonne scheint überall“. Die sowjetische Hauptstandt als Raum der Utopie in Das neue Moskau (1938) und Die Schweinepflegerin und der Hirt (1941) <p>Basing on Aleksandr Medvedkin’s New Moscow and Ivan Pyryev’s The Swineherd and the Shepherd, this case study analyses the way the “new” Moscow was represented as a space of realised utopia in the Soviet socialist realist films of the 1930s and at the beginning of the 1940s. Functioning as a supranational centre of the Soviet “affirmative action empire” (Terry Martin), the cinematographic Moscow casts off all constraints of ‘Russianness’ in order to become a pan-Soviet model which, both in its architecture and semantics, could epitomize the perfect city and the perfect state. The comparative analysis of both films demonstrates that, although both directors show Moscow through the lens of the so-called “spaces of celebration” (Mikhail Ryklin), ‘their’ Soviet capital does not compensate for the “traumas of the early phases of enforced urbanization”, as Ryklin supposed. Rather, it operates as a transformation machine whose impact pertains only to periphery and can be effective once the representatives of this periphery have left Moscow. The complex inclusion and exclusion mechanisms resulting from this logic turn the idealised Soviet capital into a space which only the guests from peripheral regions can perceive as utopian. The ensuing suppression of<br>the inner perspectives on ‘utopian’ Moscow is interpreted here as a manifestation of the “cinematic<br>unconscious”, which accounts for the anxieties of the inhabitants of the capital concerning both Stalinist terror and their own hegemony in a society haunted by the purges.</p> Alexander Chertenko Copyright (c) 2021 Alexander Chertenko czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Атрофия разума: Юрьев день Кирилла Серебренникова <p>The article analyses the figure of the heroine Lubov in Kirill Serebrennikov’s film St George’s Day. The main aim is to show how the town of Yuriev and its residents affect the spiritual change of Lubov. The author examines the consistent rejection of the truth of the mind in favour of the truth of faith in Lubov’s life. The initial multilevel conflict between the opera singer and the town is supposed to be laid out in the Russian attitude to the world, which is based on the verge of two binary paradigms – the West and the East – exemplifying in turn the culture of the mind (reason) and the culture of faith (intuition). The provincial Russian town is correlated with the view of St. Petersburg in V. Toporov’s ‘Petersburg text’ due to its particular and distinguishable influence on outer visitors: the town imposes on Lubov its rules, affecting her present life not only materially but most of all spiritually. Besides, the consecutive analyses allow to draw an analogy between Lubov and Dostoevsky’s meek heroines. Like the ‘humiliated and insulted’ women of the author of Crime and punishment, the former opera singer enters the path of suffering and self-sacrifice to completely abandon her own self.</p> Edyta Fedorushkov Copyright (c) 2021 Edyta Fedorushkov czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Od kulturowego pojmowania przestrzeni ku rozważaniom o wieczności. Dyskurs przestrzenny w powieści Brisbane Jewgienija Wodołazkina <p>This article deals with different aspects of space in the text of Eugene Vodolazkin’s novel Brisbane as well as in its studies and reception. Successive parts of the research are devoted to lieux de mémoire in autobiographical fiction, cultural understanding of the space of the home and places which traditionally create the image of Kiev and the individual mythology of this city. Space perceived in the way modified by culture is a certain frame in which both the hero of Vodolazkin lives and a receiver reads the novel. It is also an important component of the work’s internal structure, the factor responsible for certain genre associations that determine the direction of the reading process. In all these forms of functioning, space is thematically related to the reflection on death. The author concludes that the understanding of space leads to the rejection of the physical future and the affirmation of eternity understood in a religious way, in line with medieval tradition.</p> Monika Sidor Copyright (c) 2021 Monika Sidor czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Travelling to the described present: mago-space in the Strugatskys’ Monday starts on Saturday <p>Fantasy and science fiction genres extensively use imaginary settings and locations different from realistic ones but striving to look real. Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, pioneers of the science fiction genre in Russia, actively exploited the potential of both genres in their early tale, Monday starts on Saturday (1964), which combines features of the two space types. The present paper analyses the principles of creating ‘mago-space’ in the book. To do so, we look at the spatial organization of the events involved in the plot and the personages’ ideas regarding space. The research will enable us to clarify the role of space in conveying the authors’ message, which in this tale is quite explicit. We argue that the space changes significantly within the book, accompanying genre transformations and the development of the protagonist. Since the tale uses ‘mental sublocations’ as the main units of spatial organization, each part is determined by a certain type of cultural heritage. In the first part, it is the mental space of folklore and classical literature, in the second – that of mythology and science fiction, and in the final – philosophy and science. Mental spaces that coexist and follow various laws form a narrative which turns out to be a journey to the described present in the variety of its forms.</p> Наталья Тулякова, Наталья Никитина Copyright (c) 2021 Наталья Тулякова, Наталья Никитина czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A sour cherry orchard. An excursion through Chekhovian green spaces <p>The cherry orchard marks the end of Anton Chekhov’s life, consecrating him as the author who defined the threshold of the new epoch. In this article, I construe the garden as the motif linking Chekhov’s sensitivity to the general spirit of his era, revealing his poetics to the global stage as the distinctive mark of a historical and socioeconomic shift. On this path, I will clarify how the subtle difference between sour cherries and sweet cherries becomes a symbol of Chekhov’s dramatic construction, and how his poetics are built on nuances and subtle shifts in meanings, representing the irrevocable fading of a culture. A philological reflection combined with an attentive reading of Chekhov’s letters, Stanislavsky’s memoirs and scenic sketches reveal the author’s interest in the relationship between man and nature as well as the need to read his work from a more spatial-oriented standpoint. Chekhov clearly anticipates the so-called ‘spatial turn’, approaching space not through the description of a specific landscape or dramaturgical setting, but from a phenomenological point of view, leading him to profound reflections on the relationship between physical planning and socio-<br>political development, as later conceptualised by key social thinkers such as Henry Lefebvre and Edward Soja. Chekhov’s dramaturgical construction and symbology are the result of this awareness and endless passion for nature in all its forms.</p> Francesca Negro Copyright (c) 2021 Francesca Negro czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Ироническое начало в фельетоне Киев-город Михаила Булгакова <p>The subject of the article is the analysis of the image of Kiev, presented in Mikhail Bulgakov’s feuilleton Kiev, the City. This work has rarely been the subject of in-depth analysis, despite the fact that it is one of the few texts in which the writer presents the image of his hometown. A characteristic element of the description of Kiev’s past and present is the irony. It is noticeable in the title of the feuilleton, as well as in the names of its parts. The ironic image of Soviet Kiev stands in stark contrast to the vision of the city captured in the novel The White Guard. The analysis of the techniques used by the writer in the text of Kiev, the City (e.g. the naive narrator’s mask, a combination of pompous style and colloquial speech) is carried out in order to prove that the feuilleton, in its style and ideas expressed, also shows the author’s rejection of post-revolutionary reality and his attempt to overcome the trauma of the past through laughter. The ironic image of the Soviet reality on the background of eternal spiritual values makes Kiev, the City a harbinger of the problems covered in<br>Mikhail Bulgakov’s later works.</p> Antoni Bortnowski Copyright (c) 2021 Antoni Bortnowski czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 „Перед зарей вас родила земля, погибнете вы раньше звезд вечерних”. Роман-памфлет Юрия Домбровского Обезьяна приходит за своим черепом <p>This article presents the thesis that the novel The ape is coming to pick up its skull (1943) by Yuri Dombrovsky bears the genre features of a pamphlet and the structure of the novel, which is subordinated to a didactic purpose – the work contains a warning against the dehumanization and degradation of culture. The novel aims to ridicule the fascists and their ideology. The narrator’s attitude towards all the fascist protagonists is dominated by irony and sarcasm. The character construction of the fascists is ruled by schematism. The narrator emphasizes the animal element in them. They are compared to an ape who is a caricature hybrid of a human and a monkey. The “monkey” traits and behaviours are highlighted in their portraits. In the novel, the dialogues and disputes of the main opponents serve to expose the cynical demagogy of fascism and its inability to create any universal values.</p> Monika Knurowska Copyright (c) Knurowska Monika Knurowska czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Między ratio a emotum. Polsko-rosyjskie postrzeganie wzajemne w perspektywie binarnej <p>A characteristic feature of Polish-Russian mutual perception is binarity, manifesting itself in various discursive spaces, from colloquial stereotypes, through popular literature, to sophisticated forms of meta-historical discourse. Asian-Europeanness, Latin-Byzantism/Orthodoxy, collectivism-individualism, and authenticity-falsehood, are just some of the oppositions that organise the social imagination of Poles and Russians in the sphere of their mutual assessments and opinions. The article draws attention to the partial manifestations of such oppositions (literary discourse, postcolonial studies, etc.) in order to show their hidden, dialectical dimension. To achieve this goal, the author refers to the category of ratio and emotum, which refers to a specific current of the European philosophical tradition. Both of these binary categories are the foundation for creating an image of the Other. They also fit into self-defining strategies important for understanding Polish and Russian identity.</p> Tomasz Nakoneczny Copyright (c) 2021 Tomasz Nakoneczny czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Маяковский – новатор языка? Словообразовательная структура неологизмов Маяковского и их роль в современном русском языке <p>This paper deals with the word-formation of Mayakovsky’s neologisms, the principles of their composition and also the objects subjected to neologization. Attention is also paid to the Nachleben of these neologisms in contemporary Russian, based on the research into the Russian National Corpus. The paper is a result of the analysis of all Mayakovsky’s neologisms listed in A. Humesky’s book Majakovskij and His Neologisms (1964), except for those originated by the simple connection of two words or word components. The results were compared with the most recent work dealing with Mayakovsky’s neologisms, V. N. Valavin’s dictionary (Word-formation of Mayakovsky. An Attempt at a Dictionary of Occasiоnalisms). It is argued that the main word-formation principle is that of composition (substantives and adjectives) and suffixation (verbs), that even today many neologisms show surprising vitality, and also that not all of the neologisms ascribed to Mayakovsky are indeed his authorial creations.</p> Jana Kitzlerova Copyright (c) 2021 Jana Kitzlerova czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Dwie przestrzenie wojennej propagandy. Język utworów moskiewskich Okien TASS <p>The aim of the article is to analyze the language of the Soviet propaganda posters from the Second World War period, containing the poetic commentary of the members of the Moscow TASS Agency. The research reveals the main means of persuasion used in the poems. The subject of the analysis is the phenomenon of spreading ideas in two basic social spheres that occurred in the Soviet Union during the war period, which include people who took direct part in military actions, and Soviet citizens who provided the army with all the necessary materials. Texts addressed to potential soldiers contained a direct call to defend the homeland and family. Their most important manipulative tools were emotional arguments and the technique of stereotyping the enemy. Ideas and personal patterns were instilled in the minds of the fighters with various linguistic manipulation techniques. The propaganda referenced to the belongingness need. Different propaganda techniques were used in poems targeted at people behind the lines of hostilities. The authors of the texts of TASS Windows used colloquial language, comprehensible to a wide audience. They created a vision of a world divided into two opposite poles and referred to respected authorities or raised new role models. The propaganda of the victory also required different techniques of information manipulation. The TASS Windows present the unique contribution of the Soviet poets to the action of the mobilization of<br>society to take part in the fight against the German aggressor.</p> Agata Książek Copyright (c) 2021 Agata Książek czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Прагматическая функция интертекстем в веб-медиатекстах белорусских и российских интернет-СМИ <p>The article discusses the features of the functioning of phraseological units and other stable combinations in the headings of the media texts of Belarusian and Russian online newspapers. We analyze the pragmatic function of intertexts and present them as pointers to certain types of speech acts. The intent of the addressee is the most important factor in creating a text. It is usually reflected, directly or indirectly, in every communication product. The main purpose of media texts (or a hint of it) is contained in headings, especially when they are intertextemes, various renewable speech units that we classify according to the types of speech acts: representatives, rogatives,directives, commissives, contactives, declarations and expressives. Such headings are best used to perform a pragmatic function because they retain an emotional and evaluation component that stimulates communication with the mass recipient. These stable units (phraseological locutions, winged expressions and aphorisms, paroemias and compound terms) comprise the background knowledge of the participants in communication and are therefore productive language tools used by journalists in their practice. And very often the intertextemes are transformed or updated. Employees of “BelGazeta” and “Rossiyskaya Gazeta” use both the general phraseological fund of Belarusians and Russians and the national language means in web media texts. The headlines of “BelGazeta” have<br>a distinctive feature, as they mix graphic and lexical systems of different languages (Russian, Belarusian,<br>English and, less frequently, Ukrainian). This fact can be explained, firstly, by the tendency to widely spread the features of the conversational speech of Belarusians, trasyanka, in book speech styles. And, secondly, by the address policy of the publication of the named newspaper, which is aimed at the mass Belarusian reader. Following the use of occasionalisms, updated stable expressions, we also call the above feature a specific method of influencing the addressee.</p> Alena Kalechyts Copyright (c) 2021 Alena Kalechyts czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Конфессиональная лексика в русском переводе энциклики папы Франциска Laudato si’ – пространство традиции и современности <p>The paper provides a study of religious lexis excerpted from the Russian translation of the encyclical letter Laudato si’. The Russian version of the encyclical was translated and published by Russian Franciscan Publishing House. The analyzed material consisting of single words, as well as compound multi-word expressions, related to the Catholic denomination (264 lexical items – 1000 uses, which accounts for 14% of the entire encyclical), was grouped into semantic fields. The vocabulary was described in terms of the semantics and its functioning and codification, both in the contemporary Russian religious language and in general Russian language. It was assumed that the encyclical is addressed not only to the representatives of the Church hierarchy but also to all the faithful. Hence, there was the need to draw attention to the pragmatic aspects of the religious language, including the balance between comprehensibility and the use of specialist theological terminology in the translated text. It was demonstrated that the majority of the lexical items of religious terminology is coded by the explanatory dictionary of the contemporary Russian language, except for 14 lexical items related to the Catholic denomination that enhance the lexis of the contemporary<br>Russian language.</p> Małgorzata Wideł-Ignaszczak Copyright (c) 2021 Małgorzata Wideł-Ignaszczak czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Narracyjność językowego obrazu ludzkiej egzystencji w polskich i rosyjskich połączeniach wyrazowych zawierających czasowniki ruchu iść/идти, сhodzić/ходить (na materiale leksykograficznym) <p>The purpose of the study is to show narrative (narration) as a category that combines individual elements of knowledge, expressed through language, and, thus, ensures the cohesion of the linguistic and cultural picture of the world. In the light of this concept, the linguistic-cultural picture of the world is understood as a dynamic, multi-layered narrative depending on the accepted points of view, intentions, approaches and methods of conceptualization, categorization and axiologization of reality adopted in this culture. This article deals with the narrative of human life, which creates the expressions in Polish and Russian that contain verbs of movement. The analysis of the chosen phrases allows us to determine how similar life experiences are perceived in both languages, as well as to what extent the cultural conditions and the genetic proximity of both languages have an influence on similarities in the image of human existence.</p> Karina Zając-Haduch Copyright (c) 2021 Karina Zając-Haduch czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Językowy obraz dźwięku (na materiale polsko- i rosyjskojęzycznych recenzji muzycznych) <p>The aim of the article is to present the ways of conceptualization of sound in Polish and Russian musical critical texts. For the purpose of the article 145 examples in Polish and 145 examples in Russian were analyzed. The material has been divided into three groups based on the type of sense: a visual approach to sound impressions, a tactile approach to sound impressions and a tastebased approach to sound impressions. The analyzed research material was presented with the use of the linguistic worldview methodology, and grouped into categories. The results of the comparative analysis showed a multiplicity of similarities in the types of categories, as well as in the types of synaesthetic metaphors. The largest groups of conceptualizations are those with Aristotelian origin: QUALITY, SUBSTANCE and SHAPE. Synaesthetic metaphors based on the visual approach to sound impressions proved to be the most widespread. The analyzed texts have provided a huge variety of conceptualizations and synaesthetic metaphors in Polish and Russian musical critical texts which constitute a part of the linguistic worldview of sound.</p> Maria Dzienisiewicz Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Dzienisiewicz czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Метафора systema digestorium в русском лингвокультурном пространстве <p>In recent years linguistic studies have laid great emphasis on the semantic side of linguistic expressions. The aim of this paper is to introduce and describe ‘systema digestorium’ viewed from the perspective of the conceptual metaphor in Russian. It describes the process of creating such metaphors based on the notions of source and target domains. From a linguistic point of view, an interest arises to answer the question of how the functioning of such an important organ as the digestive system is reflected in the conceptualization of the surrounding world. This issue is important because the metaphorization is based on the use of everyday human experience, reflecting processes known to all human kind, including those of a physiological nature. The research material was taken from the national corpus of the Russian language and a number of dictionaries. The figurative meaning of activities related to grinding, swallowing, digesting food, as well as excreting food debris became the object of the research. The basic identifiers are the verbs: to chew, to swallow, to digest, to defecate. Each stage of the digestive system has its own specificity and concentrates on specific parts in viewing the world. In addition, the metaphor ‘systema digestorium’ is often used in Russian<br>linguaculture to convey the expressiveness and originality of a language.</p> Andrzej Narloch Copyright (c) 2021 Andrzej Narloch czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Лингвокультурологические аспекты невербальной коммуникации <p>The article presents the issue of non-verbal communication from the perspective of translation and teaching a foreign language. The research is based on an experiment conducted among Russian students at the University of Warmia and Mazury, whose task it was to analyze data from Krystyna Jarząbek’s Dictionary of the Body Language of Polish People, from which about 30 unknown or unintelligible units of non-verbal communication were selected. The data show that body language, including gestures, is culture-rooted, and confirm that non-verbal means play a significant role in communication. This is why the author of the article believes it to be justified to introduce elements of non-verbal communication into teaching foreign languages and to compile bilingual dictionaries of body language.</p> Joanna Orzechowska Copyright (c) 2021 Joanna Orzechowska czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Kompetencje użytkowników języka obcego. Wiedza socjokulturowa i kompetencja socjolingwistyczna studentów rusycystów <p>The paper describes the assumptions of modern methods of teaching foreign languages, and this description includes the proposals of their creators regarding the knowledge that the student must acquire and the competences that he/she is to form. The results of the test checking sociocultural knowledge and sociolinguistic competences of Russian Studies students is also discussed. The low global result of the test (57% of correct answers) showed a poor record of students in terms of the examined issues. Knowledge about Russia is very superficial among the study participants. They are also not good in dealing with contacts on the level of official relations (formal records of statements).</p> Krystyna Janaszek Copyright (c) 2021 Krystyna Janaszek czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Из наблюдений над способами выражения отрицания в церковнославянском тексте русского извода <p>The article describes the specificity of the changes that took place in the process of dissemination of double negation, typical for Slavic languages, visible in the Ruthenian recension of Church Slavonic texts. The reflections on the achievements in the field are enriched with the results of research on the text of Gospel No. 7 from the collection of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (RGADA F. 381. Op. 1 Unit hr 7), which has not been analyzed so far in terms of the issues raised. Nearly three hundred negative structures were subjected to observations. In order to determine the number of single negation cases in relation to double negation the main focus was on structures such as: (1) ni Pron + V, (2) ni Pron + ne V oraz (3) ne V + ni Pron. It was determined, among other things, that their use was influenced by both the literature tradition and live language with elements of the northern dialect of the East Slavonic. On the other hand, the analysis of the negative structures preceding homogeneous parts of the sentence revealed the tendency, manifested on<br>the leaves of the monument, to transform towards the norm of the contemporary Russian language.</p> Zofia Szwed Copyright (c) 2021 Zofia Szwed czw, 14 paź 2021 00:00:00 +0000