Mapping and monitoring erosion-accretion in an alluvial river using satellite imagery – the river bank changes of the Padma river in Bangladesh

Main Article Content

Mohammad Maruf Billah


The Padma river is widely known for its dynamic and disastrous behaviour, and the river has been experiencing intense and frequent bank erosion and deposition leading to the changes and shifting of bank line. In this paper, a time series of Landsat satellite imagery MSS, TM and OLI and TIRS images and are used to detect river bank erosion-accretion and bank line shifting during the study period 1975-2015. This study exhibits a drastic increase of erosion and accretion of land along the Padma river. The results show that from 1975 to 2015, the total amount of river bank erosion is 49,951 ha of land, at a rate of 1,249 ha a−1 and the total amount of accretion is 83,333 ha of land, at a rate of 2,083 ha a−1. Throughout the monitoring period, erosion-accretion was more pronounced in the right part of the river and bank line had been shifting towards the southern direction. The paper also reveals that the total area of islands had been increased significantly, in 2015 there was about 50,967 ha of island area increased from 20,533 ha of island area in 1975, and the results evidence consistency of sedimentation in the river bed.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Billah, M. M. (2018). Mapping and monitoring erosion-accretion in an alluvial river using satellite imagery – the river bank changes of the Padma river in Bangladesh. Quaestiones Geographicae, 37(3), 87–95.


  1. ADB [Asian Development Bank], 2010. Padma Multipurpose Bridge Project: Environmental Assessment Report. Project Number: 35049. Asian Development Bank. Dhaka, Bangladesh. Online: (accessed 20 July 2017).
  2. Ahmed N., 1989. Study of some bank protective works in Bangladesh. Department of water resource engineering, BUET, Dhaka.
  3. Alam M.S., Hoque N., 1998. Channel pattern and sedimentation style in the Meghna river, Bangladesh: an example of a large-scale anastomosing fluvial system. Journal of remote sensing and environment 2.
  4. Azuma R., Sekiguchi H., Ono T., 2007. Studies of High-resolution Morphodynamics with Special Reference to River Bank Erosion vol. 50(C). Annuals of Disaster Prevention Research Institute. Kyoto University, Japan.
  5. BWDB [Bangladesh Water Development Board], 2013. Water discharge data. Bangladesh Water Development Board. Govt. of Bangladesh, Dhaka.
  6. CEGIS [Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services], 2003. Ganges River: Morphological Evolution and Predictions. Prepared for Water Resources Planning Organization (WARPO). Dhaka.
  7. CEGIS [Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services], 2005. Prediction for Bank Erosion and Morphological Changes of the Jamuna and Padma River. Dhaka.
  8. CEGIS [Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services], 2010. Long-term Erosion Process of the Padma River. Prepared for Jamuna-Meghna River Erosion Mitigation Project. Bangladesh Water Development Board. Dhaka.
  9. Chowdhury M.H., 2003. Padma River. In: Banglapedia the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Bangladesh asiatic Society. Dhaka.
  10. Dewan A., Corner R., Saleem A., Rahman M.M., Haider M.R., Rahman M.M., Sarker M.H., 2016. Assessing channel changes of the Ganges–Padma River system in Bangladesh using Landsat and hydrological data. Geomorphology 276: 257–279. DOI 10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.10.0170169-555X.
  11. Earth Explorer, 2015. Data Sets. U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey. Online: (accessed 10 February 2017).
  12. EGIS [Environmental and GIS Support], 2000. Riverine Chars in Bangladesh: Environmental Dynamics and Management Issues. The University Press Limited, Dhaka.
  13. Haque C.E., 1985. Impact of River Bank Erosion in Kazipur: An Application of Landsat Imagery. Workshop of the Impact of River Bank Erosion and Flood Hazards in Bangladesh, Dhaka.
  14. Hassan S., Akhtaruzzaman A.F.M., 2010. Environmental Change Detection of the Padma river in the North-Western part of Bangladesh using Multi-date Landsat Data. Proc. of International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bangladesh (ICEAB10), Japan.
  15. Hassan M.S., Mahmud-ul-Islam S., 2016. Quantification of River Bank Erosion and Bar Deposition in Chowhali Upazila, Sirajganj District of Bangladesh: A Remote Sensing Study. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection 4(1): 50–57. DOI 10.4236/gep.2016.41006.
  16. Hossain M.Z., 1984. Riverbank erosion and population displacement: A case of Kazipur in Pabna. Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka.
  17. Hossain M.M., Baki A.B.M., Ahmad S.S., 2008. The Flood Problem and Mitigation Methods in Bangladesh. 4th International Symposium on Flood Defense: Managing Flood Risk, Reliability and Vulnerability. Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
  18. Hossain M.A., Gan T.Y., Baki A.B.M., 2013. Assessing morphological changes of the Ganges River using satellite images. Quaternary International 304:142–155. DOI 10.1016/j.quaint.2013.03.028.
  19. Islam S.N., 2000. Char people, living with the Padma River and fragile environment: char study report March 2000. Gono Unnayan Prochesta (GUP), Dhaka.
  20. Islam M.T., 2009. Bank Erosion and Movement of River Channel: A Study of Padma and Jamuna Rivers in Bangladesh Using Remote Sensing and GIS. Division of Geoinformatics, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
  21. Islam M.T., 2010. River Channel Migration: A Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis. ESA Living Planet Symposium 052-D4: 1–6.
  22. Kammu M., Lu X.X., Rasphone A., Sarkkula J., Koponen J., 2008. Riverbank changes along the Mekong River: remote sensing detection in the vientiane-Nong Khai area. Quaternary International 186: 100–112.
  23. Khan N.I., Islam A., 2003. Quantification of erosion patterns in the Brahmaputra–Jamuna River using geographical information system and remote sensing techniques. Hydrological Processes 17(5): 959–966. DOI 10.1002/hyp.1173.
  24. Mahmud I.H., Pal P.K., Rahman A., Yunus, A., 2018. A Study on Seasonal variation of Hydrodynamic Parameters of Padma River. Journal of Modern Science and Technology 5(1): 1–10.
  25. Mclean D.G., Vasquez J.A., Oberhagemann K., 2012. Padma River morphodynamics near Padma Bridge. In: E. David, T.P. Reisner (eds), Aquananotechnology: Global prospects River Flow: 741–747.
  26. Nath B., Naznin S.N., Paul A., 2013. Trends Analysis of River Bank Erosion at Chandpur, Bangladesh: A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences 3(3): 454–463.
  27. NPDM [National Plan for Disaster Management], 2006. National Plan for Disaster Management. Ministry of Food and Disaster Management, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Draft National Plan v.6.
  28. Rahman M.M., Islam M.N., 2017. Comparison of Right and Left Bank Erosion Pattern of the Padma River Part III. Journal of Geology and Geophysics 6(6). DOI 10.4172/2381-8719.1000315.
  29. Sarifuzzaman M.N.E.A., Siddique M.A., Rahman M.A., Ahmed E., Alam A.M.S., 2010. Study of arsenic mobilization through the sediments of the Padma-Jamuna Belt. In: J. Jean, J. Bundschuh, P. Bhattacharya (eds), Arsenic in Geosphere and Human Diseases; Arsenic 2010. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the Third International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment (As-2010). London, CRC Press: 114–115.
  30. Sarker M.H., Huque I., Alam M., 2003. Rivers, chars and char dwellers of Bangladesh. International Journal of River Basin Management 1(1): 61–80.
  31. Sarker M. H., 2004. Impact of upstream human interventions on the morphology of the Ganges–Gorai system. In: M.M.Q. Mirza (ed.) The Ganges Water Diversion: Environmental Effects and Implications. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: 49–80.
  32. Yeasmin A., 2011. Changing trends of channel pattern of the Ganges–Padma River. International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences 2: 669–675.