Main Article Content

Alexander Druzhinin


The World Ocean and, in particular, its resource potential have always had a dramatic effect on the progress and spatial organisation of humanity. Recently, the effect of the sea factor on the economy and the settlement system has increased amid globalisation, geoeconomic changes, increasing geopolitical turbulence, and the growing competition for resources. In this article, I attempt to assess the influence of the sea factor on the socioeconomic geography of the Russian Federation. A country with an extensive coastline and a vast inland area, Russia has territories that are very different in geographical terms. I pay special attention to the post-Soviet changes in the major components of the country’s maritime economy: seaports, fishing industry, offshore production, recreation, etc. Another focus is the assessment of these industries’ impact on the development of the coastal areas. I demonstrate the growing dependence between the maritime economy and the economic development of Russia’s inland regions. I identify the key natural geographic, foreign economy, settlement-related, and geopolitical factors of the coastalisation of the economy, infrastructure, and population, observed in Russia today. This process is taking place in the Baltic, Black, and Caspian Sea areas, as well as in the Arctic and Pacific regions of the country. I conclude that Russia’s integration into the system of multi-dimensional Eurasian partnerships (including the Belt and Road initiative) and the ‘turn to the East’ contribute to both the further ‘marinisation’ of Russian space and the differentiation of coastal zones by the level and rates of socio-economic development.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Druzhinin, A. (2019). THE SEA FACTOR IN THE SPATIAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF TODAY’S RUSSIA. Quaestiones Geographicae, 38(2), 91-100.


  1. Alkhimenko A.P., 1992. Issues of the regional organisation of marine nature management and management of marine complexes. In: Alkhimenko A.P. (ed.), Regional’naya organizatsiya i upravlenie morekhozyaistvennymi kompleksami strany. Abstracts of the Vth Conference on Geography and Oceanography, St. Petersburg: 3–8 (in Russ.).
  2. Baklanov P.Ya., 1987. Formation of aqua-territorial economic complexes and areas in the Far East. In: Primorskie regiony: geograficheskie i sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie problemy razvitiya (Primorye regions: geographical and socio-economic development problems). Vladivostok: 84–93 (in Russ.).
  3. Baklanov P.Ya., 2018. Marine spatial planning: Theoretical aspects. Baltic Region 10(2): 76–85.
  4. Bezrukov L.A., 2008. Kontinental’no-okeanicheskaya dikhotomiya v mezhdunarodnom i regional’nom razvitii (Continental-oceanic dichotomy in international and regional development). Novosibirsk: 286 (In Russ.).
  5. Bowen B., Frankic A., Davis M., 2006. Human development and resources use in the coastal zone: Influences on human health. Oceanography 19(2): 62–71.
  6. Brodel F., 2006. Material`naya civilizaciya, e`konomika i kapitalizm, XV–XVIII vv. (Material civilization, Economics and capitalism, XV–XVIII centuries) T. 2. Igry` obmena. Moskva: Izd-vo «Ves` Mir»: 672 (in Russ.).
  7. Cori B., 1999. Spatial dynamics of Mediterranean coastal regions. Journal of Coastal Conservation 5: 105–112.
  8. Dobranski S., 2013. Formirovanie Chernomorskogo soobshhestva (Formation of the black sea community). Polis. Politicheskie issledovaniya 1: 177–181 (in Russ.).
  9. Domański R., 1994. Spatial organization in the process of transition from a centrally planned to a market economy. Geographia Polonica 1: 5–12.
  10. Druzhinin A.G., 2013. Spatial possibilities and barriers of the postindustrial development of a regional metropolis (the case study of Rostov-on-Don). Regional Research of Russia 3(4): 356–361.
  11. Druzhinin A.G., 2016. «Maritime» component in the Russian human geography: Traditions and novations. Izvestiya Rossiiskaya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Geograficheskaya 6: 7–16 (in Russ.).
  12. Druzhinin A., 2016. Russia in modern Eurasia: The vision of a Russian geographer. Quaestiones Geographicae 35(3). Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe, Poznań: 31–39.
  13. Druzhinin A.G., Dong Y., 2018. One Belt – One Road initiative: A window of opportunity for Russia’s western border regions. Baltic Region 2: 39–55.
  14. Eberhardt P., 2013. Koncepcja nawalizmu Alfreda Thayera Mahana (Conception of navalism by Alfred Thayer Mahan). Przeglad Geograficzny 85(4): 629–654.
  15. Feodorov G.M., Korneevecz V.S., 2009. Transgranichny`e regiony` v ierarxicheskoj sisteme regionov: sistemny`j podxod (Cross-border regions in the hierarchical system of regions: A systematic approach). Baltijskij region 2: 32–41 (in Russ.).
  16. Fedorov G.M., Mikhailov A.S., Kuznetsova T.Yu., 2017. The influence of the sea on the economic development and settlement structure in the Baltic Sea Region. Baltic Region 9(2): 7–27.
  17. Friedmann J., 1967. A general theory of polarized development. Ford Foundation. Urban and Regional Development Advisory Program in Chile: 473.
  18. Granberg A.G., 2000. Osnovy` regional`noj e`konomiki (The foundations of the regional economy). M.: Gosudarstvenny`j universitet «Vy`sshaya shkola e`konomiki»: 400 (in Russ.).
  19. Harvey D., 1972. Revolutionary and counter revolutionary theory in geography and the problem of ghetto formation. Antipode 4(2): 1–13.
  20. Kaluczkov V.N., 2017. Russkij Sever i Sibir`: istorikoi kul`turno-geograficheskie aspekty` vzaimodejstviya (Russian North and Siberia: Historical, cultural and geographical aspects of interaction). Social`no-e`konomicheskaya geografiya. Vestnik ARGO 5: 148–156. (in Russ.).
  21. Koncepciya federal`noj celevoj programmy` «Mirovoj okean» (The concept of the Federal target program «World ocean»). Rossijskaya gazeta, January 28, 1997 (in Russ.).
  22. Lachininskij S.S., Lachininskij A.S., Semenova I.V., 2016. Geoe`konomicheskij faktor v formirovanii prostranstvennoj struktury` Sankt-Peterburgskogo primorskogo regiona (Geo-economic factor in the formation of the spatial structure of the St. Petersburg seaside region). Izvestiya RGO 148(2): 52–67 (in Russ.).
  23. Lappo G.M., 2012. Goroda Rossii. Vzglyad geografa (Cities of Russia. The opinion of the geographer). M.: Novy`j xronograf: 504.
  24. Leszczycki S., 1964. Research problems in Polish geography. Geographia Polonica 1: 7–22.
  25. Liu W.D., 2015. Scientific understanding of the Belt and Road Initiative of China and related research themes. Progress in Geography 35(5): 538–544.
  26. Mackinder H.J., 1904. The geographical pivot of history. The Geographical Journal 23: 421–37.
  27. McFadden L., 2007. Governing coastal spaces: The case of disappearing science in integrated coastal zone management. Coastal Management 35(4): 429–443.
  28. Martinez M.L., Intralawana A., Vazquezb G., Perez-Maqueo O., Sutton P., Landgrave R., 2007. The coasts of our world: Ecological, economic and social importance. Ecological Economics 63: 254–272.
  29. Mechnikov L.I., 1995. Tsivilizatsiya i velikie istoricheskie reki (Civilization and the great historical rivers). M.: Pangeya: 461 (in Russ.).
  30. Palmowski T., 2016. Morskie uwarunkowania ładu przestrzennego (Marine determinants of spatial order). In: Chaberek-Karwacka G. (ed.), Współczesne uwarunkowania procesów zarządzania prestrzenią w Polsce (Contemporary determinants of sptial management processes in Poland). Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego: 119–137.
  31. Parfenov A., 1997. Rol’ transportnykh kommunikatsiy i portovykh kompleksov v razvitii ekonomiki Rossii (The role of transport communications and port facilities in the development of the Russian economy). Morskie porty 2: 34–47 (in Russ.).
  32. Pilyasov A.N., 2016. Goroda-bazy` Arkticheskogo frontira (Base cities of the Arctic frontier). Voprosy` geografii. Sb. 141. In: Kotlyakov V.M., Streleczkij V.N., Glezer O.B., Safronov S.G. (eds), Problemy` regional`nogo razvitiya Rossii. M.: izdatel`skij dom «Kodeks»: 503–528 (in Russ.).
  33. Radvanyi J., 2017. Quand Vladimir Poutine se fait géographe… Hérodote. Géopolitique de la Russie 166–167: 113–132.
  34. Raj V.V., 2015. Zernovoj sektor Rossii v usloviyax VTO (Grain sector of Russia in the WTO). Problemy` prognozirovaniya 1: 76–83 (in Russ.).
  35. Salnikov S.S., 1984. Ekonomicheskaya geografiya okeana – novoe perspektivnoe napravlenie ekonomicheskoy i sotsial’noy geografii (The economic geography of the ocean – a new perspective direction of economic and social geography). Sovetskaya geografiya (Soviet geography). L.: Nauka: 231–242 (in Russ.).
  36. Savitskiy P.N., 1997. Kontinent-Okean (Rossiya i mirovoy rynok) Continent – Ocean (Russia and the world market). Kontinent-Evraziya. M.: Agraf: 398–418 (in Russ.).
  37. Sea economic complex of Russia, 2005. Saint-Petersburg: 273 (in Russ.).
  38. Slavin S.V., 1961. Promy`shlennoe i transportnoe osvoenie Severa SSSR (Industrial and transport development of the North of the USSR). M.: E`konomiizdat: 302 (in Russ.).
  39. Shepovalov M., 2018. Predvaritel`ny`e itogi Gosudarstvennoj programmy` vooruzhenij-2020 v chasti voennogo korablestroeniya (Preliminary results of the state program of arms-2020 in the part of the military shipbuilding). E`ksport vooruzhenij 1: 34–49 (in Russ.).
  40. Shuper V.A., 2016. Evrazijskoe budushhee Rossii v svete cheredovaniya integracionny`x i dezintegracionny`x ciklov (Eurasian future of Russia in the light of alternation of integration and disintegration cycles). Baltijskij region 8(4): 7–17 (in Russ.).
  41. Slevich S.B., 1988. Okean, resursy i khozyaistvo (Ocean, resources and economy). Leningrad: 246 (in Russ.).
  42. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskoe razvitie primorskikh territoriy Evropeyskoy chasti Rossii: faktory, trendy, modeli (Socio-economic development of coastal areas of the European part of Russia: Factors, trends, models), 2016. Druzhinin A.G.(ed.), Yuzhnyy federal’nyy universitet. Izdatel’stvo Yuzhnogo federal’nogo universiteta, Rostov-na-Donu: 236 (in Russ.).
  43. Soviet Maritime Newsletter, 2003: 138.
  44. Suárez Vivero J.L. de, Rodríguez Mateos J.C., 2005. Coastal crisis: The failure of coastal management in the Spanish mediterranean region. Coastal Management 33(2): 197–214.
  45. Tikhookeanskaya Rossiya: stranitsy proshlogo, nastoyashchego, budushchego (Pacific Russia: The last page, present, future), 2008. Baklanov P.Ya. (academic ed. RAN), Vladivostok, Dal’nauka: 216 (in Russ.).
  46. Transgranichnoe klasteroobrazovanie v primorskix zonax Evropejskoj chasti Rossii: faktory`, modeli, e`konomicheskie i e`kisticheskie e`ffekty` (Cross-border cluster formation in the coastal zones of the European part of Russia: Factors, models, economic and economic effects), 2017. Druzhinin A.G. (ed.), Izdatel`stvo Yuzhnogo federal`nogo universiteta, Rostov-na-Donu: 421 (in Russ.).
  47. Trejvish A.I., 2009. Gorod, rajon, strana i mir. Razvitie Rossii glazami stranoveda (City, district, country and world. Development of Russia through the eyes of a country historian). M.: Novy`j xronograf: 372 (in Russ.).
  48. Turner R.K., Subak S., Adger W.N., 1996. Pressures, trends, and impacts in coastal zones: Interactions between socioeconomic and natural systems. Environmental Management 20(2): 159–173.
  49. Vardomskij L.B., 2016. Ob Aziatskom vektore transformacii e`konomicheskogo prostranstva Rossii (About the Asian vector of transformation of economic space of Russia). Voprosy` geografii. Sb. 141. In: Kotlyakov V.M., Streleczkij V.N., Glezer O.B., Safronov S.G. (eds), Problemy` regional`nogo razvitiya Rossii. M.: izdatel`skij dom «Kodeks»: 539–555 (in Russ.).
  50. Zhivopisnaya Rossiya. Otechestvo nashe v ego zemel’nom, istoricheskom, plemennom, ekonomicheskom i bytovom znachenii (Picturesque Russia. Home of his land, historic, tribal, economic and domestic value), 1895. In: Semenov P.P. (ed.), T.12. Vostochnye okrainy Rossii. Primorskaya i Amurskaya oblasti (Eastern border regions of Russia. Maritime and Amur regions). M.: 493 (in Russ.).