Main Article Content

Monika Murzyn-Kupisz
Jarosław Działek


The text aims to explore the economic and spatial strategies followed by artists who run micro-firms. The authors analyse results of a qualitative study of independent artist enterprises in Kraków. It reveals that motivations for artistic entrepreneurship are diverse and foremost linked with the need to overcome challenges artists experience in the labour market and in the market for cultural goods and services. Different strategies translate into particular location choices as well as varied visibility of such firms in urban space.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Murzyn-Kupisz, M., & Działek, J. (2019). ECONOMIC AND SPATIAL STRATEGIES OF ARTISTS AS CULTURAL ENTREPRENEURS. Quaestiones Geographicae, 38(4), 29–47.


  1. Aggestam M., 2007. Art-entrepreneurship in the Scandinavian music industry. In: Henry C. (ed.), Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: An international perspective. Edwin Elgar, Cheltenham: 30–53.
  2. Blaug M., Towse R., 2011. Cultural entrepreneurship. In: Towse R. (ed.), Handbook of cultural economics, second edition. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham: 153–157.
  3. Bogacz-Wojtanowska E., Hojda P., Wrona S., Szladowski M., Siorek B., 2018. Badanie losów zawodowych absolwentów uczelni (Research on professional careers of graduates of art schools). Raport ogólny z panelowych badań ilościowych. ASP w Krakowie, Kraków.
  4. Cambridge Dictionary, 2019. Entrepreneur. (accessed: 28 February 2019).
  5. Chapain C., Stryjakiewicz T. (eds), 2017. Creative industries in Europe. Drivers of new sectoral and spatial dynamics. Springer, Cham.
  6. Cunningham J., Tolonen K.M., 2019. Maintaining the scene: Entrepreneurship in Berlin’s artistic sectors. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business 37(4): 492– 512.
  7. Debroux T., 2013. Les territoires creatifs: Quelques notions theoriques et une analyse bruxelloise. Territoire en Mouvement 19–20(2): 40–59. DOI: 10.4000/tem.2128.
  8. Działek J., Murzyn-Kupisz M., 2014. Young artists and the development of artistic quarters in Polish cities. Belgeo 3. DOI: 10.4000/belgeo.13012.
  9. Działek J., Murzyn-Kupisz M., 2017. Do artists need artistic quarters? Spatial preferences and choices of artists in Kraków. In: Murzyn-Kupisz M., Działek J. (eds), The impact of artists on contemporary urban development in Europe. Springer, Cham: 91–120.
  10. Grodach C., 2013. Cultural economy planning in creative cities: Discourse and practice. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 37(5): 1747–1765.
  11. Heebels B., van Aalst I., 2010. Creative clusters in Berlin: Entrepreneurship and the quality of place in Prenzlauer Berg and Kreuzberg. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography 92(4): 347–363.
  12. Hracs B., 2009. Beyond bohemia: Geographies of everyday creativity for musicians in Toronto. In: Edensor T., Leslie D., Millington S., Rantisi N. (eds), Spaces of vernacular creativity: Rethinking the cultural economy. Routledge, London: 75–88.
  13. Hutton T., 2016. Cities and the cultural economy. Routledge, London.
  14. Karjalainen P.T., 2003. On geobiography. In: Sarapik V., Tüür K. (eds), Place and location: Studies in environmental aesthetics and semiotics III. Estonian Literary Museum, Tartu: 87–92.
  15. Kim J.Y., 2016. Cultural entrepreneurs and urban regeneration in Itaewon, Seoul. Cities 56: 132–140.
  16. Kolb B.M., 2015. Entrepreneurship for the creative and cultural industries. Routledge, London.
  17. Krätke S., 2011. The creative capital of cities: Interactive knowledge creation and the urbanization economies of innovation. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester.
  18. Lange B., 2009. Accessing markets in creative industries – professionalization and social-spatial strategies of culturepreneurs in Berlin. Creative Industries Journal 1(2): 115–135.
  19. Leadbeater C., Oakley K., 1999. The independents: Britain’s new cultural entrepreneurs. Demos, London.
  20. Markusen A., 2014. Creative cities: A 10-year research agenda. Journal of Urban Affairs 36(2): 567–589.
  21. Mazurkiewicz P., 2017. Polscy jubilerzy z roku na rok błyszczą coraz słabiej. Rzeczpospolita, 14 March 2017.
  22. Menger P.-M., 1999. Artistic labour markets and careers. Annual Review of Sociology 25(1): 541–574.
  23. Montgomery J., 2007. The new wealth of cities. City dynamics and the fifth wave. Ashgate, Aldershot.
  24. Murzyn-Kupisz M., Działek J., 2017a. Artyści w przestrzeni miejskiej Krakowa i Katowic. Universitas, Kraków.
  25. Murzyn-Kupisz M., Działek J. (eds), 2017b. The impact of artists on contemporary urban development in Europe. Springer, Cham.
  26. Namyślak B., 2013. Działalności twórcze a rozwój miast. Przykład Wrocławia. Uniwersytet Wrocławski, Wrocław.
  27. Niemczyńska M., 2014. Trzy razy Lokator. Tygodnik Powszechny, 15 December 2014.
  28. Oakely K., 2014, Good work? Rethinking cultural entrepreneurship. In: Bilton C., Cummings S. (eds), Handbook of management and creativity. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham: 145–159.
  29. Pasquinelli C., Sjöholm J., 2015. Art and resilience: The spatial practices of making a resilient artistic career in London. City, Culture and Society 6(3): 75–81.
  30. Pratt A.C., Hutton T.A., 2013. Reconceptualising the relationship between the creative economy and the recession: Learning from the financial crisis. Cities 33: 86–95.
  31. Rae D., 2007. Creative industries in the UK: Cultural diffusion or discontinuity? In: Henry C. (ed.), Entrepreneurship in creative industries: An international perspective. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham: 54–71.
  32. Rius-Ulldemolins J., 2012. Gallery districts of Barcelona: The strategic play of art dealers. The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society 42(2): 48–62.
  33. Scherdin M., Zander I. (eds), 2011. Art entrepreneurship, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham.
  34. Scott M., 2012. Cultural entrepreneurs, cultural entrepreneurship: Music producers mobilising and converting Bourdieu’s alternative capitals. Poetics 40(3): 237–255.
  35. Smit A.J., 2011. The influence of district visual quality on location decisions of creative entrepreneurs. Journal of the American Planning Association 77(2): 167–184.
  36. Środa-Murawska S., Szymańska D., 2013. The concentration of the creative sector firms as a potential basis for the formation of creative clusters in Poland. Bulletin of Geography. Socio–economic Series 20: 85–93.
  37. Stachowiak K., 2017. Gospodarka kreatywna i mechanizmy jej funkcjonowania. Perspektywa geograficzno-ekonomiczna (Creative economy and mechanisms of its functioning. A geographical and economic perspective). Uniwersytet im. A. Mickiewicza, Poznań.
  38. Stryjakiewicz T., Męczyński M., Stachowiak K., 2014. Role of creative industries in the post-socialist urban transformation. Quaestiones Geographicae 33(2): 19–35, DOI 10.2478/ quageo-2014-0013.
  39. Suwala L., 2015. Cultural entrepreneurship. In: Wherry F.F., Schor J. (eds), The Sage encyclopaedia of economics and society. Sage, Los Angeles: 513–515.
  40. Swedberg R., 2006. The cultural entrepreneur and the creative industries: Beginning in Vienna. Journal of Cultural Economics 30(4): 243–261.
  41. Throsby D., 2001. Economics and culture. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  42. Tomczak P., Stachowiak K., 2015. Location patterns and location factors in the cultural and creative industries. Quaestiones Geographicae 34(2): 7–27.
  43. Towse R., (2010). A textbook of cultural economics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  44. Wedd K., Pettz L., Ross C., 2001., Creative quarters: The art world in London from 1700 to 2000. Museum of London, London.
  45. Zukin S., Braslow L., 2011. The life cycle of New York’s creative districts: Reflections on the unanticipated consequences of unplanned cultural zones. City, Culture and Society 2(3): 131–140.