Main Article Content

Magdalena Szczepańska
Agnieszka Wilkaniec
Lucia Škamlová


The phenomenon of outdoor advertising is particularly worrying in protected areas due to the limitation and depreciation of natural and landscape assets. The paper aims to identify and compare legal provisions concerning the advertising policy in relation to naturally and visually precious areas in Poland and Slovakia. Moreover, it determines the scale of visual pollution in a protected area – trends in the location, size, form and influence on the surroundings and perception. In both analysed countries there are regulations that would not bring the desired effects regarding the advertising policy. Advertisement devices are present in settlements and at significant road points, entrances to facilities connected with tourism. A point of concern is that they are frequently placed in the most precious landscape areas.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Szczepańska, M., Wilkaniec, A., & Škamlová, L. (2019). VISUAL POLLUTION IN NATURAL AND LANDSCAPE PROTECTED AREAS: CASE STUDIES FROM POLAND AND SLOVAKIA. Quaestiones Geographicae, 38(4), 133–149.


  1. Bankole O.E., 2013. Urban environmental graphics: Impact, problems and visual pollution of signs and billboards in Nigerian cities. International Journal of Education and Research 1(6): 1–12.
  2. Bendak S., Al-Saleh K., 2010. The role of roadside advertising signs in distracting drivers. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 40(3): 233–236.
  3. Brown G., 2006. Mapping landscape values and development preferences: A method for tourism and residential development planning. International Journal of Tourism Research 8(2): 101–113.
  4. Cercleux A.L., Merciu F.C., Merciu G.L., 2016. A model of development strategy encompassing creative industries to reduce visual pollution – Case study: Strada Franceză, Bucharest’s Old City. Procedia Environmental Sciences 32: 404–411.
  5. Cetin M., Sevik, H., 2016. Assessing potential areas of ecotourism through a case study in Ilgaz Mountain National Park. In: Butowski L. (ed.), Tourism – from empirical research towards practical application. BoD–Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany: 81–110.
  6. Cetin M., Zeren I., Sevik H., Cakir C., Akpinar H., 2018. A study on the determination of the natural park’s sustainable tourism potential. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 190(3): 167.
  7. Chigbu U.E., 2012. Village renewal as an instrument of rural development: Evidence from Weyarn, Germany. Community Development 43(2): 209–224.
  8. Chmielewski S., Lee D.J., Tompalski P., Chmielewski T.J., Wężyk P., 2016. Measuring visual pollution by outdoor advertisements in an urban street using intervisibility analysis and public surveys. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 30(4): 801–818.
  9. Chmielewski S., Samulowska M., Lupa M., Lee D.J., Zagajewski B., 2018. Citizen science and WebGIS for outdoor advertisement visual pollution assessment. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 67: 97–109.
  10. Council of Europe, 2019. European Landscape Convention – Chart of signatures and ratifications of Treaty 176, online:
  11. Dukic T., Ahlstrom Ch., Patten Ch., Kettwich C., Kircher K. 2013. Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction, Traffic Injury Prevention 14(5): 469–476. 0.1080/15389588.2012.731546
  12. Edquist J., Horberry T., Hosking S., Johnston I., 2011. Effects of advertising billboards on simulated driving. Applied Ergonomics and Transportation Safety 42(4): 619–626. dx.
  13. Europejska Konwencja Krajobrazowa (European Landscape Convention – Journal of Laws 2006, No 14, item 98).
  14. External Advertising Association, on-line: (accessed: 13 May 2019).
  15. Forczek-Brataniec U., Zając E., 2014. Reklamy w krajobrazie Pienin. Pieniny: przyroda i człowiek (Advertisements in the Pieniny landscape. The Pieniny mountains: Nature and a human being) Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, Kraków 13: 101–112.
  16. Information Portal of MoE SR (2016).
  17. Itten J., 1970. The elements of color. John Wiley & Sons.
  18. Jensen C.U., Panduro T.E., Lundhede T.H., 2014. The vindication of Don Quixote: The impact of noise and visual pollution from wind turbines. Land Economics 90(4): 668–682.
  19. Kamičaitytė-Virbašienė J., Godienė G., Kavoliūnas G., 2015. Methodology of visual pollution assessment for natural landscapes. Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering 13(4): 80–91.
  20. Listwan-Franczak K., 2016. Wpływ reklamy zewnętrznej jako narzędzia kampanii wyborczej na okresowe kształtowanie przestrzeni publicznej miast, na przykładzie miasta Krakowa (Impact of outdoor advertising as a tool of an election campaign on the periodic shaping of the public space of cities on the example of the city of Cracow). Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, sectio B–Geographia, Geologia, Mineralogia et Petrographia 71(2).
  21. Maciejczak-Kwiatkowska Z., Retko-Bernatowicz M., Wiśniewski R., 2018. W dialogu z otoczeniem? Społeczne postrzeganie przestrzeni publicznej i architektury w Polsce. Raport z badania przeprowadzonego przez Narodowe Centrum Kultury (In dialogue with the environment? Social perception of public space and architecture in Poland. Report from a study conducted by the National Centre for Culture), Warszawa upload/2018/11/spoleczne-postrzeganie-architektury_raport.pdf
  22. Mackun T., Jamroz K., Żukowska J., Rychlewska J., 2015. Zagrożenia dla uczestników ruchu drogowego stwarzane przez reklamy widziane z drogi (Risks for road users posed by advertisements seen from the road). Drogownictwo.
  23. Madleňák R., Hudák M., 2016. The Research of visual pollution of road infrastructure in Slovakia. In International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics. Springer, Cham: 415–425.
  24. Maruani T., Amit-Cohen I., 2013. Marketing landscapes: The use of landscape values in advertisements of development projects. Landscape and Urban Planning 114: 92–101.
  25. Maszewski M., 2018. Uchwały reklamowe w świetle ankiety Instytutu Gospodarki Przestrzennej i Mieszkalnictwa; on-line: (accessed: 30 June 2019)
  26. Mattelart A., 2005. Advertising international: The privatisation of public space. Routledge.
  27. Murzyn-Kupisz M., Działek J., 2013. Cultural heritage in building and enhancing social capital. Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development 3(1): 35–54.
  28. Nagle C., 2009. Cell phone towers as visual pollution. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics and Public Policy 23: 537.
  29. NIK 2017. Kształtowanie krajobrazu i przestrzeni publicznej w Polsce. Informacja o wynikach kontroli Najwyższej Izby Kontroli (Shaping the landscape and public space in Poland. Information about the results of the audit of the Supreme Audit Office). id,15670,vp,18154.pdf
  30. Ozimek P., Böhm A., Ozimek A., Wańkowicz W., 2013. Planowanie przestrzeni o wysokich walorach krajobrazowych przy użyciu cyfrowych analiz terenu wraz z oceną ekonomiczną (Planning space of a high landscape value using digital land analysis along with economic assessment). Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej, Kraków.
  31. Petro M., 2016. Vizuálny štýl mesta a vidieka na slovensku – morálny aspekt, Krajobraz semantyczny wsi i miast. (Semantic landscape of rural and urban areas). In: Marecki J., Rotter L. (eds), Symbol. Znak. Rytuał (A symbol, a sign, a ritual). Kraków: 39–51. DOI: http://dx.doi. org/10.15633/9788374385183.04
  32. Portella A., 2016. Visual pollution: Advertising, signage and environmental quality. Routledge.
  33. Smardon R.C., Palmer J.F., Felleman J.P. (eds), 1986. Foundations for visual project analysis. Wiley, New York.
  34. Stephenson J., 2008. The cultural values model: An integrated approach to values in landscapes. Landscape And Urban Planning 84(2): 127–139.
  35. Szczepańska M., Wilkaniec A., 2016. Outdoor advertising in rural areas attractive for tourism. Studia Obszarów Wiejskich 43: 85–98.
  36. Szczepańska M., Wilkaniec A., 2017. Rola zasobów krajobrazu kulturowego obszarów wiejskich w procesie odnowy wsi i rozwoju lokalnego na przykładzie Długiej Gośliny w województwie wielkopolskim (Role of cultural landscape resources of rural areas in the process of rural renewal and local development. The case of Długa Goślina in the Wielkopolska Province). Studia Obszarów Wiejskich 45: 85–104.
  37. The News Agency of the Slovak Republic (TASR), http://
  38. Tomčík M., 2011. Marketing and public space, Proceedings of VŠFS. Prague.
  39. TRANS, 2002. Consideration of proposals for amendments to Annex II of the AGR - transmitted by the Trans-European North-South Motorway (TEM) Project. UNITED NATIONS - Economic and Social Council; on-line: https:// sc1agr/TRANS-SC1-AC5-2002-06e.pdf
  40. Ustawa z dnia 16 kwietnia 2004r. o ochronie przyrody (Act of 16 April 2004 on environmental protection) (Journal of Laws 2004, No 92, item 880).
  41. Van der Wurff R., Bakker P., Picard R.G., 2008. Economic growth and advertising expenditures in different media in different countries. Journal of Media Economics 21(1): 28–52.
  42. Voronych Y., 2013. Visual pollution of urban space in Lviv. Przestrzeń I Forma.
  43. Wakil K., Hussnain M.Q., Tahir A., Naeem M.A., 2016. Regulating outdoor advertisement boards; employing spatial decision support system to control urban visual pollution. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 37(1): 012060. IOP Publishing.
  44. Wilczyński R., 2009. Programy odnowy wsi instrumentem zachowania i kształtowania specyfiki przestrzeni regionalnej (Programmes for rural renewal as a tool for the preservation and shaping of the specificity of regional space). Architecturae et Artibus 1: 83–86.
  45. Wiśniewska W., 2002. Krajobrazy codzienne (Everyday landscapes). Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Łódzkiej 903. Wydawnictwo Politechniki Łódzkiej, Łódź.
  46. Yilmaz D., Sagsöz A., 2011. In the context of visual pollution: Effects to trabzon city center Silhoutte. Asian Social Science 7(5): 98.
  47. Young M.S., Mahfoud J.M., Stanton N.A., Salmon P.M., Jenkins D.P., Walker G.H., 2009. Conflicts of interest: The implications of roadside advertising for driver attention. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour 12(5): 381–388.
  48. Zich F., 2013. Zity prostor, mentalni mapy a reklama. Communication Today 1: 6–17.
  49. Zube E.H., Sell J.L., Taylor J.G., 1982. Landscape perception: Research, application and theory. Landscape Planning 9(1): 1–33.