Main Article Content
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of culinary tourism experience between gender groups in Iranian culinary education tours. The research sample was randomly selected from 50 foreign tourists who participated in Persian Food Torus Institute’s culinary tours during four months. Kim et al. (2012) model of Memorable Tourism Experiences (MTEs) is used to design the research questionnaire and data. The results show that there is a significant difference in women’s desire for enjoyment, sense of freedom, power and refreshment rather than men. But in terms of tourism experiencenovelty, local culture, meaningfulness, and knowledge gained for both men and women, it was no difference.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (Applies from Vol. 39 No. 3. 2020)
To Vol.39 No. 3.2020:
Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
- Arganini C., Saba A., Comitato R., Virgili F., Turrini A., 2012. Gender differences in food choice and dietary intake in modern western societies. In: Public health-social and behavioral health. IntechOpen.
- Azevedo A., 2010. Designing unique and memorable experiences: Co-creation and the surprise factor. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Systems 3(1): 42–54.
- Berbesque J., 2009. Sex differences in food preference of Hazda Hunter-Gatherers. Evolutionary Psychology 7(4): 601–616.
- Bourdieu P., 2013. Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Routledge.
- Canadian Tourism Commission, 2002. Acquiring a Taste for Cuisine Tourism: A Product Development Strategy. Ottawa: CTC.
- Charles N., Kerr M., 1988. Women food and families. Manchester University Press.
- Chiang C.Y., Jogaratnam G., 2006. Why do women travel solo for purposes of leisure? Journal of Vacation Marketing 12(1): 59–70.
- DeVault M.L., 1994. Feeding the family: The social organization of caring as gendered work. University of Chicago Press.
- Everett S., Aitchison C., 2008. The role of food tourism in sustaining regional identity: A case study of Cornwall, South West England. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 16(2): 150–167.
- Fields K., 2002. Demand for gastronomy product: motivational factors. In: A.Hjalager, G.Richards (eds.), Tourism and Gastronomy. Routledge, London: 37–50.
- Fox R., 2007. Reinventing the gastronomic identity of Croatian tourist destinations. International Journal of Hospitality Management 26(3): 546–559.
- Furst T., Connors M., Bisogni C.A., Bobal J., Falk L.W., 1996. Food choice: a conceptual model of the process. Appetite 26: 247–266.
- Getz D., 2000. Explore Wine Tourism: Management, Development and Destinations. New York: Cognizant Development Corporation.
- Hall C. M., & Sharples L., 2004. The consumption of experiences or the experience of consumption? An introduction to the tourism of taste. In: Food tourism around the world. Routledge: 13–36.
- Hall C. M., Sharples L., Mitchell R., Macionis N., Cambourne B., 2004. Food tourism around the world. Routledge.
- Hall C.M., Mitchell R. D., 2001. Wine and food tourism. In: N.Douglas, N.Douglas, R.Derrett (eds.), Special Interest Tourism, John Wiley & Sons, Brisbane.
- Harris M., 1985. Good to Eat: Riddles of Food and Culture (Previously published as The Sacred Cow and the Abominable Pig). 2nd Edition 1998, Waveland Press Inc., Long Grove, Illinois USA.
- Hjalager A.M., Richards G., 2003. Tourism and gastronomy (Vol. 11). Routledge.
- Hudson S., Ritchie J.R.B., 2009. Branding a memorable destination experience. The case of ‘Brand Canada’. International Journal of Tourism Research 11(2): 217–228.
- Jensen K.O., Holm L., 1999. Preferences, quantities and concerns: Sociocultural perspectives on the gendered consumption of foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53(5): 351–359.
- Kim J-H., 2009. Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Unpub. PhD Thesis, Indiana University, Bloomington.
- Kim J-H., 2010. Determining the factors affecting the memorable nature of travel experiences. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing 27(8): 780–796.
- Kim J-H., 2013. A cross-cultural comparison of memorable tourism experiences of American and Taiwanese college students. Anatolia – An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 24(3): 1–15.
- Kim J-H., Ritchie J.R., McCormick B., 2012. Development of a scale to measure memorable tourism experiences. Journal of Travel Research 51(1): 12–25.
- Kim S., Lee C., Klenosky B., 2003. The influence of push and pull factors at Korean national parks. Tourism Management 24: 169–180.
- Kim Y. H., Kim M., Goh B. K., 2011. An examination of food tourist’s behaviour: Using the modified theory of reasoned action. Tourism management 32(5): 1159–1165.
- Kim Y.G., Eves A., Scarles C., 2009. Building a model of local food consumption on trips and holidays: a grounded theory approach. International Journal of Hospitality Management 28: 423–431.
- Kim Y.H., Duncan J.L., Jai T.M., 2014. A case study of a southern food festival: using a cluster analysis approach. Anatolia – An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research 25(3): 457–473.
- King J., 2002. Destination marketing organisations – Connecting the experience rather than promoting the place. Journal of Vacation Marketing 8(2): 105–108.
- Kivela J., Crotts J.C., 2006. Tourism and gastronomy: Gastronomy’s influence on how tourists experience a destination. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research 30(3): 354–377.
- Kristensen A.D., 2017. Food as an element in developing tourist experiences. A case study of the Finnmark region in Northern Norway. MA Thesis, UiT the Arctic University of Norway.
- Lagiewski R.M., Zekan B., 2006. Experiential marketing of tourism destinations. Paper presented at the Turk-Kazakh International Tourism Conference Turkey.
- Long L.M., 2013. Culinary tourism. Springer, Netherlands: 1–8.
- Lupton D., 1996. Food, the Body and the Self. Sage.
- MacCannell D., 1976. The tourist: A New Theory of Leisure Class. Schocken, New York.
- Mak A.H., Lumbers M., Eves A., 2012. Globalisation and food consumption in tourism. Annals of tourism research 39(1): 171–196.
- Marino M., Masella R., Bulzomi P., Campesi I., Malorni W., & Franconi F., 2011. Nutrition and human health from a sex–gender perspective. Molecular Aspects of Medicine 32(1): 1–70.
- Matlovičová K., Pompura M., 2013. The Culinary Tourism in Slovakia Case Study of the Traditional Local Sheep’s Milk Products in the regions of Orava and Liptov. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites 2(12): 129–144.
- Meiselman H.L., Johnson J.L., Reeve W., Crouch J.E., 2000. Demonstrations of the influence of the eating environment on food acceptance. Appetite 35: 231–237.
- Olsen S.O., 2003. Understanding the relationship between age and seafood consumption: the mediating role of attitude, health involvement and convenience. Food quality and Preference 14: 199–209.
- Quan S., Wang N., 2004. Towards a structural model of the tourist experience: An illustration from food experiences in tourism. Tourism management 25(3): 297–305.
- Randall E., Sanjur D., 1981. Food preferences – their conceptualization and relationship to consumption. Ecology of food and nutrition 11(3): 151–161.
- Rozin P., 2006. The integration of biological, social, cultural and psychological influences on food choice. In: R.Shepherd, M.Raats (eds.), The Psychology of Food Choice. Oxfordshire, CAB: 19–39.
- Scarpato R., 2002. Gastronomy as a Tourist Product: The Perspective of Gastronomy Studies. In A.M. Hjalager, G.Richards (eds.), Tourism and Gastronomy Routledge, London and New York: 51–70.
- Sengel T., Karagoz A., Cetin G., Dincer F.I., Ertugral S.M., Balık M., 2015. Tourists’ approach to local food. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 195: 429–437.
- Smith S.L.J., 1994. The tourism product. Annals of Tourism Research 21: 582–595.
- Sobal J., 2005. Men, meat, marriage: Models of masculinity. Food & Foodways 131(2): 135–158.
- Wadolowska L., Babicz-Zelinska E., Czarnocinska J., 2008. Food choice models and their relation with food preferences and eating frequency in the polish population. Food Policy 33: 122–134.
- Wagner H.A., 2001. Marrying food and travel... culinary tourism. Canada’s Food News, Foodservice Insights, March.
- Williams A., 2006. Tourism and hospitality marketing: Fantasy, feeling and fun. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 18(6): 482–495.
- Wilson G., 1989. Family food systems, preventive health and dietary change: a policy to increase the health divide. Journal of Social Policy 18(2): 167–185.
- Wolf E., 2002. Culinary Tourism: A Tasty Economic Proposition. International Culinary Tourism Task Force.
- Wolf E., 2004. Culinary Tourism: A Tasty Economic Proposition. Portland, OR, International Culinary Tourism Association.
- Wood R. C., 1990. Sociology, gender, food consumption and the hospitality industry. British Food Journal 92(6): 3–5.
- Wood R. C., 1995. The sociology of the meal. Edinburgh University Press.
- Wood R.C., 1992. Gender and trends in dining out. Nutrition & Food Science 92(5): 18–21.
- Xia Y., 2017. Chinese Visitors’ Participation in Culinary Tourism in the Öresund Region. MA Thesis, Lund University.
- Yüksel A., Yüksel F., 2003. Measurement of tourist satisfaction with restaurant services: A segment-based approach. Journal of Vacation Marketing 9(1): 52–68.
- Zubaida S., Tapper R., 1994. Culinary cultures of the Middle East. Tauris Academic Studies.