coal-fired power plant
chemical pollution
Carassius auratus gibelio
Perca fluviatilis
bioaccumulation factor
trophic magnification factor
Lake Kenon

How to Cite

Tsybekmitova, G. T., Gorlacheva, E. P., & Tashlykova, N. A. (2021). STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHEMICAL POLLUTION WITH COALFIRED POWER PLANT ON THE FISH OF LAKE KENON (TRANS-BAIKAL TERRITORY, RUSSIA). Quaestiones Geographicae, 40(1), 51–62.


In this study, contamination of potentially toxic elements (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) and species dominant in the fish community of Lake Kenon – Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch 1782) and Perca fluviatilis (Linnaeus 1758) – were investigated. Chemical elements in samples were determined by atomic emission spectrometry (iCAP-6500, Thermo Scientific, USA) and mass spectrometry (X-7, Thermo Elemental, USA). It was reported that water in Lake Kenon contained low concentrations of the studied metals. The bottom sediments are enriched with Mn, Zn, Hg and Pb. Bioaccumulation factors of chemical elements accumulated from the surrounding water for P. fluviatus and C. auratus gibelio in descending order are as follows: Zn > Pb > Hg > Cu. P. fluviatus accumulates Hg in equal measure from both water and bottom sediments. Manganese and mercury are accumulated in the muscles of C. auratus gibelio from bottom sediments. The high accumulation ratio of Zn and Hg in C. auratus gibelio was obtained from Chara sp. (24 times) and Chironomus spp. (38 times), respectively. High accumulation ratio of Zn (26 times) and Hg (29 times) in P. fluviatus was obtained from amphipods. At the same time, Hg in P. fluviatus muscles was accumulated at high level from Chironomus spp. (67 times). In this way, management decisions for mitigation practices in Lake Kenon should be focussed on for the disposal of wastewater from the ash dump contaminated with chemical elements.


Afshan S., Ali S., Ameen S., Farid M., Bharwana A.S., Hannan F., Ahmad R., 2014. Effect of different heavy metal pollution on fish. Research Journal of Chemical and Environmental Sciences 2(1): 35–40.

Alekseenko V.A., Alekseenko L.P., 2003. Geochemical barriers (in Russian). Logos, Moscow: 137.

Alimov A.F., 2000. On the theory of water ecosystem operation (in Russian). Nauka, St Petersburg: 147.

Alimov A.F., Bogatov V.V, Golubkov S.M., 2013. Production hydrobiology (in Russian). Nauka, St Petersburg: 339.

Ayllon F., Garcia-Vazquez E., 2000. Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in European minnow Phoxinus phoxinus and mollie Poecilia latipinna: An assessment of the fish micronucleus test. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 467(2): 177–186. DOI: 10.1016/S1383-5718(00)00033-4.

Bazarova B.B., 2013. Chemical element contents in charaphyta of the Lake Kenon (the Transbaikal region) (in Russian). Water: Chemistry and Ecology 11(65): 54–60.

Bury N.R., Walker P.A., Glover C.N., 2003. Nutritive metal uptake in teleost fish. Journal of Experimental Biology 206: 11–23. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.00068.

Cardwell A.J., Hawker D.W., Greenway M., 2002. Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from southeast Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere 48(7): 653–663. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00164-9.

Chale F.M.M., 2002. Trace metal concentration in water, sediments and fish tissues from Lake Tanganyika. Science of Total Environment 299(1–3): 155–161. DOI: 10.1016/s0048-9697(02)00252-8.

Chanchal V., Sangeeta M., Hussain A., 2016. Heavy metal contamination of groundwater due to fly ash disposal of coal-fired thermal power plant, Parichha, Jhansi, India. Cogent Engineering 3(1): 1179243. DOI: 10.1080/23311916.2016.1179243.

Craig J.F., 1978. A study of the food and feeding of perch, Perca fluviatilis L., in Windermere. Freshwater Biology 8: 59–68. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2427.1978.tb01426.x.

Czarnowska L., Frangopoulos C.A., 2012. Dispersion of pollutants, environmental externalities due to a pulverized coal power plant and their effect on the cost of electricity. Energy 41(1): 212–219. DOI: 10.1016/

David I.G., Matache M.L., Tudorache A., Chisamera G., Rozylowicz L., Radu G.L., 2012. Food chain biomagnification of heavy metals in samples from the lower Prut floodplain natural park. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal 11(1): 69–73.

Dobrovolsky V.V., 2003. Fundamentals of biogeochemistry. Publishing Center “Academy”, Moscow: 400.

Dörner H., Berg S., Jacobsen L., Hülsmann S., Brojerg M., Wagner A., 2003. The feeding behaviour of large perch Perca fluviatilis (L.) in relation to food availability: A comparative study. Hydrobiologia 506(1–3): 427–434. DOI: 10.1023/B:HYDR.0000008608.22869.99.

Duan D., Ran Y., Cheng H., Chen J., Wan G., 2014. Contamination trends of trace metals and coupling with algal productivity in sediment cores in Pearl River Delta, South China. Chemosphere 103: 35–43. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.11.011.

Ebrahimpour M., Pourkhabbaz A., Baramaki R. et al., 2011. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in freshwater fish species, Anzali, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 87(4): 386–392. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-011-0376-y.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), 2002. Quality Criteria for Water. Washington, 440(9): 76–123. Online: (accessed 23 December 2020).

Ergene S., Cavaş T.,Celik A., Köleli N., Kaya F., Karahan A., 2007. Monitoring of nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of three fish species from the Goksu Delta (Turkey): Genotoxic damage in relation to water pollution. Ecotoxicology 16(4): 385–391. DOI: 10.1007/s10646-007-0142-4.

Friant S.L., 1979. Trace metal concentrations in selected biological, sediment and water column samples in a northern New England river. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 11: 455–465. DOI: 10.1007/BF00283437.

Gileva T.A., Zinivjev E.A., Kostitsyna N.V., 2014. Heavy metals content in organs and tissues of fish inhabiting different type reservoirs of the Perm Region (in Russian). Agrarian Bulletin of the Urals 8(126): 73–77.

Gorlacheva E.P., Afonin A.V., 2017. Silver Crucian Carp Carassius Auratus Gibelio (Bloch, 1782) as an indicator of ecosystem health in Lake Kenon (in Russian). Scholarly Notes of Transbaikal State University 12(1): 6–12.

Hashim R., Song T.H., Muslim N.Z.M., Yen T.P., 2014. Determination of heavy metal levels in fishes from the lower reach of the Kelantan River, Kelantan, Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research 25(2): 21–39.

Heath A.G., 2002. Water Pollution and Fish Physiology. Lewis Publishers: Boca Raton, Florida.

Heaven S., Ilyushenko M.A., Tanton T.W., Ullrich S.M., Yanin E.P., 2000. Mercury in the River Nura and its floodplain, Central Kazakhstan: I. River sediments and water. Science of the Total Environment 260(1–3): 35–44. DOI: 10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00540-4.

Huang X., Hu J., Qin F., Quan W., Cao R., Fan M., Wu X., 2017. Heavy metal pollution and ecological assessment around the Jinsha coal-fired power plant (China). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(12): 1589. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph14121589.

Itigilova M.Ts., Chechel A.P., Zamana L.V. et al., 1998. Ecology of an inner-city water body (in Russian). Publishing House SB RAS, Novosibirsk: 237.

Jezierska B., Witeska M., 2001. Summary of metal-induced disturbances in fish organism. In: Metal Toxicity to Fish. Wydawnictvo Akademii Podlaskej, Siedlce: 214–243.

Kabata-Pendias A., Mukherjee A.B., 2007. Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, Berlin: 550.

Kolker A., Senior C.L., Quick J.C., 2006. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems. Applied Geochemistry 21(11): 1821–1836. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2006.08.001.

Komov V.T., Stepanova I.K., Gremyachikh V.A., 2004. Mercury content in fish muscles from water bodies of the North-West of Russia: Causes of intensive accumulation and assessment of the negative effect on human health. In: B.A.Flerov (ed), Actual problems of aquatic toxicology. IBI RAS, Borok: 99–123.

Mataphonov P.V., Shoydokov A.B., 2020. Toxic pollution assessment of Chita TPP-1 cooling reservoir by applying the method of head capsule morphological deformations in Chironomid larvae. Amurian Zoological Journal 12(2): 201–210. DOI: 10.33910/2686-9519-2020-12-2-201-210.

McConnell J.R., Edwards R., 2008. Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic. PNAS 105(34): 12140–12144. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0803564105.

Moiseenko T.I., Kudryavtseva L.P., Gashkina N.A., 2005. Assessment of the geochemical background and anthropogenic load by bioaccumulation of microelements in fish. Water Resources 32:640–652. DOI: 10.1007/s11268-005-0081-5.

Moiseenko T.I., Gashkina N.A., 2020. Distribution and bioaccumulation of heavy metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) in fish: Influence of the aquatic environment and climate. Environmental Research Letters 15: 115013. DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/abbf7c.

Nazyrov A.D., 2003. Biaccumulation of heavy metalls, dioxins and influence on hematological and biochemical indicators of hydrobionts river Ufa (in Russian). Abstract of the dissertation. Academic Press, Ufa.

Nikanorov A.M., Zhulidov A.V., 1991. Biomonitoring of metals in freshwater ecosystems. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad: 310.

Nyukkanov А.N., 1996. The content of mercury compounds, lead and cadmium in fish from freshwater waterbody Yakutia. Abstract of the dissertation. RRIVM, Pokrov: 22. Online: (accessed 20 Desember 2019).

Nzeve J.K., Njuguna S.G., Kitur E.C., 2014. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis spirulus Niger from Masinga Reservoir, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology 8(10): 58–63.

Pandey G., Madhuri S., 2014. Heavy metals causing toxicity in animals and fishes. Research Journal of Animal, Veterinary and Fishery Sciences 2(2): 17–23.

Pastukhov M.V., 2012. Ecological aspects of mercury accumulation by hydrobionts of the Baikal-Angarsk water system. Online: (accessed 10 February 2019).

Peňaz M., Kokeš J., 1981. Notes on the diet, growth and reproduction of Carassius auratus gibelio in two localities in southern Slovakia. Folia Zoologica 30(1), 83–94.

Popov P.A., 2002. Assessment of the ecological status of water bodies using ichthyoindication methods. Novosibirsk National Research State University Press, Novosibirsk: 270.

Popov P.A., Androsova N.V., 2008. Indication of the ecological state of water bodies of Siberia from the content of heavy metals in fishes. Geography and Natural Resources 3: 36–41.

Popov P.A, Androsova N.V., 2014. Metal content in the muscular tissue of fish the Ob River. Tomsk State University Journal of Biology 4(28): 108–122. DOI: 10.17223/19988591/28/7.

Rahman M.S., Molla A.H., Saha N., Rahman A., 2012. Study on heavy metals levels and its risk assessment in some edible fishes from Bangshi River, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Food Chemistry 134:1847–1854.

Sani U., 2011. Determination of some heavy metals concentration in the tissues of Tilapia and Catfishes. Biokemistri. 23(2): 73–80.

Shipunov A.B., Baldin E.M., Volkova P.A., Korobeinikov A.I., Nazarova S.A., Petrov S.V., Sufiyanov V.G., 2014. Visual statistics, we use R! (in Russian) DMK Press, Mosсow.

Scheffer M., van Nes E.H., 2007. Shallow lakes theory revisited: various alternative regimes driven by climate, nutrients, depth and lake size. In: Gulati R.D., Lammens E., De Pauw N., Van Donk E. (eds) Shallow Lakes in a Changing World. Developments in Hydrobiology, vol 196. Springer, Dordrecht.

Sikhynbaeva J.S., Shakirov B.S., Zholdasbekova K.A., Ashitova N.Zh., 2014. Some questions about the impact of energy on the environment. International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research 3(2): 89–90.

Spry D.J., Wiener T.G., 1991. Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish from low-alkalinity lakes: A critical review. Environmental Pollution 71(2–4): 243–304. DOI: 10.1016/0269-7491(91)90034-T.

Sunda W.G., Guillard R.R.L., 1976. The relationship between cupric ion activity and the toxicity of copper to phytoplankton. Journal of Marine Research 34: 511–529.

Szczerbowski J.A., Szczerbowski A., 1996. Karasie [The genus Carassius]. IRŚ, Olsztyn, 45–88.

Tsybekmitova G.Ts., 2016. Filtration water quality of ash dump TPP-1 and possible ways of their stream into the Kenon Lake (Zabaikalsky Krai) (in Russian). Water: Chemistry and Ecology 2: 11–17.

Tsybekmitova G.Ts., Kuklin A.P., Tsyganok V.I., 2019. Heavy metals in bottom sediments of Lake Kenon (The Trans-Baikal Territory, Russia). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 103: 286–291. DOI: 10.1007/s00128-019-02645-7.

Tulonen T., Pihlström M., Arvola L., Rask M., 2006. Concentrations of heavy metals in food web components of small, boreal lakes. Boreal Environment Research 11: 185–194. DOI: 10.12691/jephh-1-1-1.

Usmanova L.I., Zamana L.V., Usmanov M.T., 2018. Geochemistry of underground and surface water in the zone of influence of the ash daump of Chita TPP-1. International Research Journal 11(77): 91–95. DOI: 10.31554/978-5-7925-0536-0-2018-379-382.

Van der Oost R., Beyer J., Vermeulen N.P.E., 2003. Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment: a review. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 13: 57–149. DOI: 10.1016/S1382-6689(02)00126-6.

Vetrov V.A., Kornakova E.F., Kuznetsova A.I., Korobeinikova L.G., 1989. Metal Content in Baikal Fish. In: Israel Yu.A. (Ed.) Problems of Ecological Monitoring and Ecosystem Modelling. Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad: 88–100.

Vinodhini R., Narayanan M., 2009. Heavy metal induced histopathological alterations in selected organs of the Cyprinus carpio L. (Common Carp). International Journal of Environmental Research 3(1): 95–100. DOI: 10.3906/vet-0711-18.

Vosylienė M.Z., Jankaitė A., 2006. Effect of heavy metal model mixture on rainbow trout biological parameters. Ekologija 4:12–17. Online: (accessed 14 Desemder 2019).

Wang X., Chu Z., Zha F., Liu S., Liu G., Dong Z., 2015. Determination of heavy metals in water and tissues of Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus Gibelio) collected from subsidence pools in Huainan Coal Fields (China). Ananlytical Letters 48(5): 861–877. DOI: 10.1080/00032719.2014.961606.

Wood C.M., Farrell A.P., Brauner C.J., 2012. Homeostasis and toxicology of non-essential metals. Academic, New York: 67–123.

Younis E.M., Al-Asgah A.N., Abdel-Warith A-W.A, Al-Mutairi A.A., 2015. Seasonal variations in the body composition and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Nile tilapia collected from drainage canals in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 22: 443–447. DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2014.11.020.

Zamana L.V., Strizhova T.A., Chechel L.P., 1998. Hydrochemical parameters of a lake and its catchment area (in Russian). In: Ecology of an inner-city water body. Publishing House Science SB RAS, Novosibirsk: 29–36.

Zamana L.V., Usmanova L.I., Usmanov M.T., 2011. Ecological and geochemical assessment of underground waters used by residents of the outskirts of Chita for decentralized supply (in Russian). Water: Chemistry and Ecology 12: 105–109.

Zholobova Y.S., Kushchiy N.A., Savon D.Y., Safronov A.E., 2016. Minimization of ecological impact by application of new technologies of coal preparation and mining waste disposal (in Russian). Gornyi Zhurnal 5: 109–112. DOI: 10.17580/gzh.2016.05.18.

Zhuldybina T.V., 2010. Hydrochemical regime of water streams of Chita Oblast (in Russian). Geography and Natural Resources 1: 99–102.