Main Article Content

Albert Parker
Clifford D. Ollier


The global temperature trends provided by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are artificially exaggerated due to subjective and unidirectional adjustments of recorded values. The present paper aims to promote the use of the raw stations’ data corrected only for urban heat island formation. The longer temperature records of Australia exhibit significant oscillations with a strong quasi-60 years’ signature of downward phases 1880 to 1910, 1940 to 1970 and 2000 to present, and upwards phases 1910 to 1940 and 1970 to 2000. A longer oscillation with downward phase until 1910 and an upwards phase afterwards is also detected. The warming since 1910 occurred at a nearly constant rate. Over the full length of the long Australian records since the end of the 1800s, there is no sign of warming or increased occurrence of extreme events. The monthly highest and mean maximum temperatures do not exhibit any positive trend. The differences between monthly highest and lowest, or monthly mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures, are all reducing because of urban heat island formation.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Parker, A., & Ollier, C. D. (2017). DISCUSSION OF THE “HOTTEST YEAR ON RECORD” IN AUSTRALIA. Quaestiones Geographicae, 36(1), 79-91. https://doi.org/10.1515/quageo-2017-0006


  1. Ashcroft L., Karoly D.J., Gergis J., 2014. Southeastern Australian climate variability 1860–2009: a multivariate analysis. International Journal of Climatology 34(6): 1928–1944.
  2. Ayers G.P., 2016. Australia’s Air Temperature Trend Reviewed. Journal of Southern Hemisphere Earth Systems Science 66(3): 270–280.
  3. Boretti A., 2013. Statistical analysis of the temperature records for the Northern Territory of Aaustralia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 114(3): 567–573.
  4. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2009. Australian stations measuring maximum air temperature; more than 50y of data and 80% complete record; Produced: 12 February 2009. Online: www.bom.gov.au/climate/how/long_T_sites.csv (accessed October 10, 2014).
  5. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2014a. Climate Data Online (CDO). Online: www.bom.gov.au/climate/data/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  6. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2014b. ACORN-SAT. Online: www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/acorn-sat/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  7. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2014c. Australian Water Availability Project (AWAP). Online: www.bom.gov.au/jsp/awap/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  8. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2014d. ACORN-SAT daily temperatures. Online: www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/acorn/sat/data/acorn.sat.maxT.090015.daily.txt (accessed October 10, 2014).
  9. BOM [Bureau of Meteorology], 2017. Australian climate variability & change - Trend maps. Online: http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/index.shtml#tabs=Tracker&tracker=trend-maps (accessed February 23, 2017).
  10. Davis C.J., Hanna E.G., 2016. Temperature and rainfall trends in northern Australia 1911–2013: implications for human activity and regional development. Climate Research 71(1): 1–16.
  11. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis, 2017a. Station Data Based on GHCN v2, Ending in Oct 2011. Online: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/station_data_v2 (accessed February 23, 2017).
  12. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis, 2017b. Station Data Based on GHCN v3. Online: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/stdata/ (accessed February 23, 2017).
  13. GISTEMP Team, 2017. GISS Surface Temperature Analysis (GISTEMP). NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. Online: data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/ (accessed January 31, 2017).
  14. Hansen J., Ruedy R., Sato M., Lo K., 2010. Global surface temperature change. Reviews of Geophysics 48 RG4004: 1–29. doi:10.1029/2010RG000345.
  15. Humlum O., 2017. Global temperatures; An overview to get things into perspective. Climate4you. Online: www.climate4you.com (accessed February 23, 2017).
  16. JoNova, 2014. Australian summer maximums warmed by 200. Online: joannenova.com.au/2014/10/australian-summer-maximums-warmed-by-200/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  17. Kenskingdom, 2014. Rutherglen: Spot the Outlier. Online: kenskingdom.wordpress.com/2014/09/02/rutherglen-spot-the-outlier/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  18. KNMI [Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut], 2014. Climate Explorer. Online: climexp.knmi.nl/ (accessed October 10, 2014).
  19. Marohasy J., 2017. Blog. Online: jennifermarohasy.com/ (accessed January 31, 2017).
  20. Mearns E., 2015. Temperature adjustments in Australia. Climate Etc. Online: judithcurry.com/2015/03/17/temperature-adjustments-in-australia (accessed September 12, 2016).
  21. Parker A., 2013a. Why global warming went missing since the year 2000. Nonlinear Engineering 2(3–4):129–135.
  22. Parker A., 2013b. Melbourne urban heat island contamination of temperature trend maps in Victoria, Australia. Nonlinear Engineering 2(1–2): 39–62.
  23. Parker A., 2014a. Present contributions to sea level rise by thermal expansion and ice melting and implication on coastal management. Ocean and Coastal Management 98: 202–211.
  24. Parker A., 2014b. The temperature record of Alice Spring, Northern Territory of Australia revisited. Environmental Science: An Indian Journal 10(3):81–87.
  25. Parker A., 2015a. The ACORN Adjustments of Australian temperatures are in the wrong direction. Physical Science International Journal 6(4): 245–252.
  26. Parker A., 2015b. The artefacts of data biases in surface temperatures are certain only to hide the hiatus., American Journal of Geophysics, Geochemistry and Geosystems 1(3): 66–70.
  27. Parker A., 2016. Australian temperature measurements disprove engineered products. New Concepts in Global Tectonics Journal 4(4): 693–698.
  28. Parker A., Ollier C.D., 2015a. Deliberate misrepresentation of the rainfall patterns of Australia: There are no rainfall reductions in Australia caused by the globally increasing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emission. Environmental Science: An Indian Journal 10(10): 376–383.
  29. Parker A., Ollier C.D., 2015b. The warming of Australia is man-made, but not by carbon dioxide. Environmental Science: An Indian Journal 10(5): 172–183.
  30. Parker A., Ollier C.D., 2015c. Unreliability of global temperature trends: the circular logic of comparing models with models or with models inspired reconstructions to circumvent lack of validation versus actual measurements. Nonlinear Engineering 4(4): 249–259.
  31. Parker A., Ollier C.D., 2015d. Carbon dioxide flux measurements based on satellite observations differ considerably from the consensus values. Energy & Environment 26(3): 457–463.
  32. RSS [Remote Sensing Systems], 2017. MSU & AMSU Time Series Trend. Online: images.remss.com/msu/msu_time_series.html (accessed February 2, 2017).
  33. Trewin B., 2013. A daily homogenized temperature data set for Australia. International Journal of Climatology 33(6): 1510–1529.
  34. UNSW School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 2014. Handprint of human-caused climate change in Australia. Online: www.bees.unsw.edu.au/handprint-human-caused-climate-change-australia (accessed October 10, 2014).
  35. WAclimate, 2017. Average temperature trends across Western Australia. Online: waclimate.net/ (accessed January 31, 2017).
  36. Watts A., 2013. Claim humans play role in Australia’s angry hot summer. Online: wattsupwiththat.com/2013/06/27/claim-humans-play-role-in-australias-angry-hot-summer/ (accessed October 10, 2014).