SITUATION OF ROMANIAN ROMA LIVING IN ENCAMPMENTS IN POLAND AND OPPORTUNITIES OF PARTICIPATION IN SPORTING ACTIVITIES THE CASE OF POZNAŃ

Main Article Content

Katarzyna Czarnota

Abstract

The phenomenon of migration and the challenges in the new hosting country have been often analysed in relation to the newcomers arriving from states outside of the European Union. However, in Poland these are the citizens of the EU who face discrimination. At the same time, despite the principles of the EU programs concerning different spheres and operations of integrative and inclusive character aimed at foreign nationals, including sport initiatives, Roma have been systematically omitted and excluded since the 1990s. This situation caused this group to be deprived of the right to work, health care, welfare and adequate housing and education. Opportunities of participating in sporting activities are very limited. In Poland, only a few non-governmental organisations and anti-racist activist initiatives attempt to cooperate with the members of this community. The first part of the article contains a broad introduction to the situation of Romanian Roma in Poland which is necessary in the light of the lack of studies on this subject within Polish sociology, and allows the reader to grasp the wider context of the discussion on the issue of access to sporting activities. Then, drawing on the research and activist experience, the author describes local sport initiatives available to Roma children living in the Poznań encampment, with emphasis on informal initiatives.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Czarnota, K. (2018). SITUATION OF ROMANIAN ROMA LIVING IN ENCAMPMENTS IN POLAND AND OPPORTUNITIES OF PARTICIPATION IN SPORTING ACTIVITIES THE CASE OF POZNAŃ. Society Register, 2(1), 77-98. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2018.2.1.05
Section
Articles

References

  1. Aorno, Theodor 2001. The Culture Industry. Selected Essays On Mass Culture. London: Routledge.
  2. Asylum Information Database. Retrieved May 16, 2018 (http://www.asylumineurope.org).
  3. Bakewell, Oliver. 2000. “Repatriation and Self-Settled Refugees in Zambia: Bringing Solutions to the Wrong Problems.” Journal of Refugee Studies 13(4): 356–73. DOI: 10.1093/jrs/13.4.356
  4. Balibar, Etienne and Immanuel Wallerstein.1991. Race, Nation, Class. Ambiguous Identities. London-New York: Verso.
  5. Balibar, Etienne. 1991. “Is There a ‘Neo-Racism’?” Pp. 17-28 in Race, Nation, Class. Ambiguous Identities edited by E. Balibar and I. Wallerstein. London-New York: Verso.
  6. Blerski, Eryk. Sport w polskim ruchu antyfaszystowskim przed 1939 r. 2013. Redakcja Rozbrat. Retrieved May 16, 2018 (http://www.rozbrat.org/historia/33-walki-spoleczne-w-polsce/3957-sport-w-polskimruchu-antyfaszystowskim-przed-1939-r).
  7. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  8. Braham, Mark. March 1993. UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), The Untouchables: A survey of the Roma People of Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved May, 19 (http://www.refworld.
  9. org/docid/580605e74.html).
  10. Brenner, Neil. 2013. Implosions/explosions. Towards a Study of Planetary Urbanization. Berlin: Jovis.
  11. Certeau, Michel de. 1984. The Practice of Everyday Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  12. Chambers, Robert. 1979. Rural Refugees in Africa: What the Eyes do not See. Disasters 3(4): 381-92. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7717.1979.tb00175.x
  13. Choudry, Aziz and Dip Kapoor. 2010. NGOization: Complicity, Contradictions, and Prospects. London: Zed Books.
  14. Colectivo Situaciones. 2003. On the Researcher-Militant, European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies (EIPCP). Retrieved May 21, 2018 (http://eipcp.net/transversal/0406/colectivosituaciones/en).
  15. Convention, Relating to the Status of Refugees. Retrieved April, 16, 2018 (https://amnesty.org.pl/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Konwencja_Dotyczaca_Uchodzcow.pdf).
  16. Crisp, Jeff. 2008. Beyond the Nexus: UNHCR’s Evolving Perspective on Refugee Protection and International Migration. Geneva: UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Service.
  17. Croteau, David, William Hoynes and Charlotte Ryan. 2005. Rhyming Hope and History. Activists, Academics, and Social Movement Scholarship. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  18. Croteau, David. 2005. Which Side Are You On? The Tension between Movement Scholarship and Activism in Rhyming Hope and History. Activists.
  19. Czarnota, Katarzyna. 2018. “Participatory Research with Romanian Roma Immigrants Living in Polish Settlements. Methodology, Results and Barriers.” In Participatory Social Work Research, Practise, and Education. International Experiences, edited by M. Granosik, A. Gulczyńska, M. Kostrzyńska, B. Littlechild. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego.
  20. Diken, Bülent. 2004. “From refugee camps to gated communities: biopolitics and the end of the city.” Citizenship Studies 8:83-106. DOI: 10.1080/1362102042000178373
  21. Environmental Justice Atlas. Retrieved April 16, 2018. (https://ejatlas.org)
  22. Eur-Lex. Aces to the European Union low. Council conclusions of 18 November 2010 on the role of sport as a source of and a driver for active social inclusion 2010/C 326/04. Retrieved May 16, 2018. (https://
  23. eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52010XG1203%2804%29).
  24. Fagaró, Beatrix and Piroska Béki. 2015. “Development strategy of Roma sports as a tool of sport integration.” Studia Sportiva 9(1): 151-156. DOI: 10.5817/StS2015-1-18.
  25. Fals-Borda, Orlando. 2006. “The North-South Convergence: A 30 Year Personal Assessment of PAR.” Action Research 4(3):351–358. DOI: 10.1177/1476750306066806
  26. Fare Network. 2018. Roundtable Roma inclusion and the role of sport. 15 February 2018. Retrieved May 16, 2018 (http://farenet.org/news/roundtable-roma-inclusion-role-sport/)
  27. Fejfer, Kamil. 2017. „W 2016 były o trzy przestępstwa z nienawiści mniej niż w 2015. I trzy razy więcej niż w 2014” [“In 2016 there were 3 hate crimes less than in 2015”. And three times more than in 2014],
  28. Oko Press, January 06. Retrieved April 13, 2017. (https://oko.press/2016-byly-o-przestepstwa-nienawisci-
  29. niz-2015-razy-wiecej-niz-2014).
  30. Fotis, Filippou. 2013. Some lessons from history have still not been learned, Amnesty International: Campaigns Europe End Central Asia Discrimination. Retrieved May 26, 2017 (https://www.amnesty.org/
  31. en/latest/campaigns/2013/08/some-lessons-from-history-have-https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2013/08/some-lessons-from-history- have- still-not-been-learned/).
  32. Gazeta Wyborcza Kraków. 1996.” W Mogile bez wizy”, April 20. p.2.
  33. Gazeta Wyborcza. 1996. “Czy cygańskie obozowisko w Warszawie trzeba było zlikwidować?”, June 21, p. 2.
  34. Giulianotti, Richard. 2015. Sport: A Critical Sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  35. Glaser, Barney and Anselm Strauss. 2009. Odkrywanie teorii ugruntowanej: strategie badania jakościowego. Kraków: Nomos.
  36. Goldberg, David T. 2000. “Modernity, Race and Morality.” In Racist Culture. Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning. Malden, Oxford: Blackwell.
  37. Górzyński, Oskar. 2016. “Polska coraz mniej przyjazna obcokrajowcom. Rośnie liczba rasistowskich napaści [Poland grows less friendly towards foreigners. Number of racists attacks on the increase], Gazeta Wyborcza, April 29. Retrieved April 4, 2017 (http://wiadomosci.wp.pl/polska-coraz-mniej-przyjazna-obcokrajowcom- rosnie-liczba-rasistowskich-napasci-6025270537736833a).
  38. Graeber, David. 2009. Direct Action: An Ethnography. Oakland: AK Press.
  39. Hale, Charles R. 2001. “What is Activist Research?” Social Science Research Council 2(1-2):13-15.
  40. Haraway, Donna. 1988. “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective.” Feminist Studies 14(3): 575-599. DOI: 10.2307/3178066
  41. Hansen, Art and Anthony Oliver-Smith. 1982. Involuntary Migration and Resettlement: The Problems and Responses of Dislocated People. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  42. Harrell-Bond, Barbara. 1988. “The Sociology of Involuntary Migration: An Introduction.” Current Sociology Journal 36(2): 1-6. DOI: 10.1177/00113928803600200318
  43. Haudenhuyse, Reinhard. 2017. (ed.) “Sport for Social Inclusion.” Special issue of Social Inclusion. Retrieved May 16, 2017 (https://idrottsforum.org/sport-for-social-inclusion-special-issue-of-social-inclusion).
  44. Hovil, Lucy and Opportuna Kweka. 2008. Going Home or Staying Home? Ending Displacement for Burundian Refugees in Tanzania. International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI), Centre for the Study of Forced Migration and Social Science Research Council. Citizenship and Displacement in the
  45. Great Lakes Region. Working Paper No. 1.
  46. Hovil, Lucy. 2007. “Self-Settled Refugees in Uganda: An Alternative Approach to Displacement?” Journal of Refugee Studies 20(4): 599–620. DOI: 10.1093/jrs/fem035
  47. Hovil, Lucy. 2013. I can’t be a citizen if I am still a refugee: Former Burundian Refugees Struggle to Assert their New Tanzanian Citizenship’. International Refugee Rights Initiative (IRRI). Citizenship
  48. and Displacement in the Great Lakes Region. Working Paper No. 9.
  49. Jakubowska, Honorata. 2017. „Emocje” Pp. 25-34 in Socjologia sportu edited by H. Jakubowska and P. Nosal. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  50. Juris, Jeffrey S. 2007. “Practicing Militant Ethnography with the Movement for Global Resistance (MRG) in Barcelona.” Pp. 164-176 in Constituent Imagination: Militant Investigations, Collective Theorization
  51. edited by S. Shukaitis and D. Graeber. Oakland: AK Press.
  52. Keynote Address at Romani Studies Conference, Dr. Ian Hancock, UC Berkley. Retrieved May 19, 2018 (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NTsqiP196Uw).
  53. Kostka, Joanna and Katarzyna Czarnota. 2017. “Modes of knowledge production in the study of radical urban movements.” Interface: a journal for and about social movements 9(1): 368–388.
  54. Kostka, Joanna. 2015. „Romowie w Europie. Integracja czy asymilacja?” Pp. 49-73 in Własnym głosem o sobie. Imigranci romscy w Polsce edited by T. Marcinkowski. Gorzów Wielkopolski: Zachodni Ośrodek Badań Społecznych i Ekonomicznych.
  55. Kubiak, Zenon. 2015. “Koczowisko Romów przy ul. Lechickiej zostanie zlikwidowane?”, Wirtulana Polska, June 02. Retrived June 10, 2018. (https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/koczowisko-romow-przy-ul-lechickiej-
  56. zostanie-zlikwidowane-6027418019295873a).
  57. Lehmann, Alicja. 2018. ”Wyważyli drzwi, rzucali kamieniami – sprawcy ataku na koczowisko Romów w Poznaniu w rękach policji. „Przypadkiem przechodzili [They broke down door and threw stones - perpetrators
  58. of the attack on Roma encampment captured by the police. Claim to happened to be passing by.” Gazeta Wyborcza. April 07.
  59. Lenartowicz, Michał. 2012. „Klasowe uwarunkowania sportu z perspektywy teoretycznej Pierre’a Bourdieu.” Kultura i Społeczeństwo 3: 51-74.
  60. Mc Garry, Aidan. 2017. Romaphobia: The Last Acceptable Form of Racism. Londyn: Zed Books.
  61. Miles, Matthew B. 2000. Analiza danych jakościowych. Białystok: Trans Humana.
  62. Młyn. 1998. “Rumuni do Domu.” Gazeta Wyborcza Rzeszów, September 04, p. 2.
  63. Mucha, Janusz. 1986. Socjologia jako krytyka społeczna: orientacja radykalna i krytyczna we współczesnej socjologii zachodniej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
  64. Picker, Giovanni. 2017. Racial Cities: Governance and the Segregation of Romani People in Urban Europe. Abingdon-New York: Routledge.
  65. Pur Rahnama, Iza. 1996. “Raport NIK o likwidacji koczowisk cygańskich.” Gazeta Wyborcza, December 24, p.3.
  66. Richmond, Anthony. 1988. “Sociological Theories of International Migration: The Case of Refugees.” Current Sociology 36(7): 7–25. DOI: 10.1177/001139288036002004
  67. Russell, Bertie. 2015. “Beyond Activism/Academia: Militant Research and the Radical Climate and Climate Justice Movement(s).” Area 47(3):222-229. DOI: 10.1111/area.12086.
  68. Smith, George W. 1990. “Political Activist as Ethnographer.” Social Problems 4: 629- 648. DOI:10.2307/800586
  69. Stropnik, Nada. 2011. Slovenia. Promoting Social Inclusion of Roma. A Study of National Policies. Institute for Economic Research, Ljubljana. Retrieved May 16, 2018 (http://ec.europa.eu/social/BlobServlet?
  70. docId=8985&langId=en).
  71. Tammaru, Tiit, Maarten van Ham, Marcińczak Szymon and Sako Mustard. Eds. 2014. Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities. Abingdon: Routledge.
  72. Urząd do Spraw Cudzoziemców [Foreginers Department], Ponad 234 tys. cudzoziemców z prawem pobytu w Polsce [Over 234 thousand foreigners with residence permit in Poland]. Retrieved April 11, 2017
  73. (https://udsc.gov.pl from 10.08.2016, https://udsc.gov.pl/ponad-234-tys-cudzoziemcow-z-prawempobytu-w-polsce).
  74. Van Barr, Huub. 2016. “Evictability and the Biopolitical Borderig of Europe.” Antipode 49: 212-230. DOI: 10.1111/anti.12260.
  75. Van Damme, Wim. 1995. “Do Refugees Belong in Camps: Experiences from Goma and Guinea.” Lancet 346: 360-362. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(95)92231-8.
  76. Van Damme, Wim. 1999. “How Liberian and Sierra Leonean Refugees Settled in the Forest Region of Guinea (1990– 1996).” Journal of Refugee Studies 12(1): 36-53. DOI: 10.1093/jrs/12.1.36
  77. Vincze, Eniko. 2013. “Urban Landfill, Economic Restructuring and Environmental Racism.” Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai–Sociologia 18(12): 389-405.
  78. Vincze, Eniko. 2013. “Spatialization and racialization of social exclusion. The social and cultural formation of „Gypsy Ghettos” in Romania in a European context.” Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai – Sociologia 2: 5-21.
  79. Wacquant, Loic. 2002. “From Slavery to Mass Incarceration. Rethinking the ‘race question’ in the USA.” New Left Review 13: 41-60.
  80. West, Cornel. 2002. “A Genealogy of Modern Racism.” Pp. 90-112 in Race Critical Theories. Text and Context edited by Ph. Essed and D. Th. Goldberg. Oxford, Malden: Blackwell.