The Unification Church, or the Unificationism, also known as HAS-UWC (Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity) or ‘Moonies’ (the term deemed now as disrespectful) but originating from the name of the founder Sun Myung Moon, who set up this Christian religious movement in Northern Korea in 1954 has approximately 3 million followers worldwide. Its existence and popularity are a global phenomenon, interesting not only for sociologists of religion but for politicians, philosophers and people of faith. The impact of this movement and the two-way social change remain a rare subject of study and this paper aims to fill the gaps and to discuss contemporary situation in regards to its followers.
Anderson, Scott, and Jon Lee Anderson. 1986. Inside the League: The Shocking Exposé of how Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated the AntiCommunist League. New York, NY: Dodd, Mead and Co.
Barker, Eileen. 1978. Living the Divine Principle: Inside the Reverend Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Church in Britain. Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions 45 (1):7593.
Barker, Eileen. 1979. Sun Myung Moon and the Scientists. The Teilhard Review XIV (1):3537.
Barker, Eileen. 1983. Doing Love: Tensions in the Ideal Family. In The Family and the Unification Church, edited by G. G. James. New York:
Unification Theological Seminary; Rose of Sharon Press.
Barker, Eileen. 1984. The Making of a Moonie: Brainwashing or Choice? Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Barker, Eileen. 1989. New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction. London: HMSO.
Barker, Eileen. 1993. Charismatization: The Social Production of `an Ethos Propitious to the Mobilization of Sentiments’. In Secularization, Rationalism and Sectarianism, edited by E. Barker, J. T. Beckford and K. Dobbelaere. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Barker, Eileen. 2004. What Are We Studying? A Sociological Case for Keeping the „Nova”. Nova Religio 8 (1):88-102.
Barker, Eileen. 2012. Ageing in New Religions: The Varieties of Later Experiences. Diskus: The Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions 12. http://diskus.basr.ac.uk/index.php/DISKUS/article/view/21/20
Barker, Eileen. 1997. But Who’s Going to Win? National and Minority Religions in PostCommunist Society. In New Religious Phenomena in Central and Eastern Europe, edited by I. Borowik and G. Babinski. Kraków: Nomos.
Barker, Eileen. 2016. From The Children Of God to The Family International: A Story of Radical Christianity and Deradicalising Transformation. In The Handbook of Contemporary Christianity: Movements, Institutions & Allegiance, edited by S. Hunt. Leiden: Brill.
Barker, Eileen. 2018 forthcoming. What Do They Do About It? Radical Reactions by NRMs to Internal Abuses by ISKCON, The Children of God/The Family International and the Jesus Fellowship. In Radical Changes in Minority Religions, edited by Eileen Barker and Beth Singler. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.
Beverley, James A. 2004. Spirit Revelation and the Unification Church. In Controversial New Religions, edited by J. R. Lewis and J. A. Petersen. New
York: Oxford University Press.
Bjornstad, James. 1976. The Moon Is Not the Son. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany Fellowship.
Boettcher, Robert. 1980. Gifts of Deceit: Sun Myung Moon, Tongsun Park, and the Korean Scandal. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Bramwell, Mark. 2016. End of the Cosmic Conflict: Today’s Movement in Light of the Immutable Providence of God. http://fatherslegacy.net/end-of-the-cosmic-conflict-bymark-bramwell/
Bramwell, Mark. 2018. The Family Pledge and the Family Peace Association. Acta Comparanda VI: 149-157.
Breen, Michael. 1997. Sun Myung Moon: The Early Years 1920-1953. Hurstpierpoint, West Sussex: Refuge Books.
Bromley, David G. 1985. Financing the Millennium: The Economic Structure of the Unificationist Movement. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 24(3):253-274.
Bromley, David G., ed. 1988. Falling from the Faith: Causes and Consequences of Religious Apostasy. Newbury Park CA: Sage.
Bromley, David G., and James T. Richardson, eds. 1983. The Brainwashing/Deprogramming Controversy: Sociological, Psychological, Legal and Historical Perspectives. Vol. V, Studies in Religion and Society. New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
Bromley, David, and Anson Shupe. 1979. “Moonies” in America: Cult, Church and Crusade. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Bryant, M. Darrol, and Durwood Foster, eds. 1980. Hermeneutics and Unification Theology. Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary.
Bryant, M. Darrol, and Susan Hodges, eds. 1978. Exploring Unification Theology. Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary.
Bugliosi, Vincent. 1977. Helter Skelter: The Manson Murders. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
CAUSA. 1980. Introduction to the CAUSA Worldview. New York: CAUSA International.
Chryssides, George D. 1991. The Advent of Sun Myung Moon: The Origins, Beliefs and Practices of the Unification Church. London: MacMillan.
Coleman, Lee. 1985. Using Psychiatry to Fight ‚Cults’: Three Case Histories. In Scientific Research and New Religions: Divergent Perspectives, edited by B. K. Kilbourne. San Francisco: American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Pacific Division.
Cozin, Mark. 1973. A Millenarian Movement in Korea and Great Britain. In A Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain (6), edited by M. Hill. London: SCM Press.
Dubrow-Eichel, Steven Kenneth. 1989a. Deprogramming: An Investigation of Change Processes and Shifts in Attention and Verbal Interactions: A Dissertation in Education Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Pennsylvania in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Dubrow-Eichel, Steve K. 1989b. Deprogramming: A Case Study Part I: Personal Observations of the Group Process. Cultic Studies Journal 6 (2):1-117.
Dubrow-Eichel, Steve K. 1990. Deprogramming: A Case Study Part II: Conversation
Analysis. Cultic Studies Journal 7 (2):174-216.
Edwards, Christopher. 1979. Crazy For God. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Eng, Monica, Delroy Alexander, and David Jackson. 2006. Sushi and Rev. Moon. Chicago Tribune 11 April. http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/watchdog/chi-0604sushi-1story-story.html
Enroth, Ronald. 1977. Youth, Brainwashing, and the Extremist Cults. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Enroth, Ronald. 1979. The Lure of the Cults. New York: Christian Herald.
Fautré, Willy, ed. 2012. Japan: Abduction & Deprivation of Freedom for the Purposes of Religious De-conversion. Brussels: Human Rights Without Frontiers International.
Fefferman, Dan. 2010. Deprogramming in Japan: Abductions and Secret Confinement Continue for Decades after Being Stopped in the West. In CESNUR. Turin. http://www.cesnur.org/2010/to_fefferman.htm
Fefferman, Dan. 2016. Schism in the Unification Church. Paper presented to the 2016 CESNUR Conference, July 5-10, Daejin University, Republic of Korea. http://www.cesnur.org/2016/daejin_fefferman.pdf
Fefferman, Dan. 2018. Unification Political Theology: Past, Present and Future. Acta Comparanda VI: 159-168.
Fisher, Marc, and Jeff Leen. 1997a. A Church in Flux Is Flush with Cash. Washington Post November 23. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/national/longterm/island/unification/main.htm
Fisher, Marc, and Jeff Leen. 1997b. Stymied in U.S., Moon’s Church Sounds a Retreat. Washington Post November 24. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wpsrv/national/longterm/cult/unification/part2.htm
Ford, Arthur. 1969. Unknown but Known: My Adventure into the Meditative Dimension. London: Psychic Press Ltd. http://www.euro-tongil.org/swedish/english/eford.htm
Fraser, Donald M. 1978. Investigation of Korean-American Relations. Washington DC: Subcommittee on International Organizations of the
Committee on International Relations U.S. House of Representatives.
Galanter, Marc. 1980. Psychological Induction into the Large Group: Findings from a Modern Religious Sect. American Journal of Psychiatry 137(12):1574-79.
Giambalvo, Carol, Michael Kropveld, and Michael Langone. 2013. Changes in North American Cult Awareness Organizations. In Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements, edited by E. Barker. Farnham: Ashgate.
Guinn, Jeff. 2013. Manson: The Life and Times of Charles Manson. London: Simon and Shuster.
Hall, John R. 1996. The Apocalypse at Jonestown. In Cults in Context: Readings in the Study of New Religious Movements, edited by L. L. Dawson. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
Heftmann, Erica. 1983. Dark Side of the Moonies. New York: Penguin Books.
Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity, ed. 1972. Holy Song Book: Collection of Unification Church Songs: HSA Publications.
Hong, Nansook. 1998. In the Shadow of the Moons: My Life in the Reverend Sun Myung Moon’s Family. Boston; New York: Little, Brown and Co.
Horowitz, Irving Louis, ed. 1978. Science, Sin, and Scholarship: The Politics of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church. London: The MIT Press.
Introvigne, Massimo. 2000. The Unification Church. Salt Lake City: Signature Books.
Introvigne, Massimo. 2018. The Dynamics of the Schisms and the Birth of the Family Peace Association. Acta Comparanda VI: 135-141.
Jarvis, John Paul. 2011. Shooting the Moon: Kahr Arms, Kook-jin Moon and the Unification Church. Guns.com, 28 April. http://www.guns.com/2011/04/28/shooting-the-moonkahr-arms-kook-jin-moon-and-the-unification-church/
Johnson, Kurt. 1982. Social Action and Politics. In Lifestyle, Conversations with Members of the Unification Church, edited by R. Quebedeaux. Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary.
Jones, Kristina, Celeste Jones, and Juliana Buhring. 2007. Not Without My Sister. London: HarperElement.
Krause, Charles A. 1978. Guyana Massacre: The Eyewitness Account. New York: Berkley Books.
Kim, Chong Sun. 1978. Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Lanham, MD; London: University Press of America.
Kim, Jongsuk. 2017. The Split of the Unification Movement (Advanced Copy). Cheunan City, Chungnam-do, Republic of Korea Jongsuk Kim.
Kim, Young Oon. 1987. Unification Theology (Revised). 2nd ed. New York, NY: HSA-UWC. http://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Books/Utheo/
Kim, Young Whi. 1977. The Divine Principle Study Guide (Part I). London: HSA-UWC.
Kim, Young Whi. 1985. Guidance for Heavenly Tradition (Volume II). 2 vols. Vol.2. Frankfurt: Vereinigungskirche.
Kwak, Chung Hwan. 1980. The Tradition, Book One. New York: HSA-UWC. http://www.unification.org/ucbooks/TT1/index.html
Levitt, Zola. 1976. The Spirit of Sun Myung Moon. Irvine, California: Harvest House.
Lifton, Robert J. 1961. Thought Reform: A Psychiatric Study of `Brainwashing’ in China. London: Gollancz.
Lofland, John. 1977 (1st edition 1966). Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. 2nd ed. New York, London: Irvington.
Martin, W. R. 1985. The Kingdom of the Cults. Minneapolis: Bethany House Publishers.
Matczak, Sebastian A. 1982. Unificationism: A New Philosophy and World View. New York: Learned Publications.
McGuire, Meredith B. 1997. Religion The Social Context. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Mickler, Michael L. 1980a. A History of the Unification Church in the Bay Area: 1960-74. MA, Graduate Theological Union, University of California, Berkeley.
Mickler, Michael L. 1980b. A History of the Unification Church in America, 1959-1974: Emergence of a National Movement. New York: Garland.
Mickler, Michael L. 1990. The Unification Church. New York: Garland.
Mickler, Michael. 2013a. A Unification Position on Gun Control. Applied Unificationism: A Blog of Unification Theological Seminary 3 June. http://www.tparents.org/Library/Unification/Talks/Mickler/Mickler-130603.pdf https://appliedunificationism.com/2013/06/03/a-unification-position-on-gun-control
Mickler, Michael L. 2013b. The Post-Sun Myung Moon Unification Church. In Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements, edited by
Eileen Barker. Farnham: Ashgate.
Mickler, Michael L. 2016. Spirit World Messages, Cross Removals and Coronations:Balancing Messianic Necessity and Coalition-Building. Journal of Unification Studies XVII https://www.tparents.org/UTS/JUS-17-2016/JUS-17-04.pdf
Mickler, Michael (text), and Michael Inglis, eds. 2000. 40 Years in America: An Institutional History of the Unification Movement. New York: HSA Publications, 4 West 43rd St, NY.
Moon, Hyun Jin (Preston). 2016. The Korean Dream: A Vision for a Unified Korea. Bloomington, IN: Archway.
Moon, Hyung Jin (Sean). 2016. Cheon Il Guk State of the Union Address. Newfoundland, PA: Sanctuary Church.
Moon, Sun Myung. 1973. Divine Principle. Thornton Heath: Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.
Moon, Sun Myung. 1996. Exposition of the Divine Principle. New York: Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.
Moon, Sun Myung. 2010. As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Washington DC: The Washington-Times Foundation.
Moore, Rebecca. 2003. Drinking the Kool-Aid: The cultural Transformation of a Tragedy. Nova Religio 7 (2):92-100.
Niebuhr, H. Richard. 1957 (originally 1929). The Social Sources of Denominationalism. New York: Meridian (originally Holt). Original edition, 1929.
Nevalainen, Kirsti. 2005. Shamanistic Origin of the Unification Church. Joensuu: Self Published.
Nielsen, Donald A. 1984. Charles Manson’s Family of Love. Sociological Analysis 45(4).
Pak, Bo Hi. 1999a. Truth is My Sword: Collected Speeches in the Public Arena. 2 vols. Vol. I. New York: Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.
Pak, Bo Hi. 1999b. Truth is My Sword: Inspirational Messages and Personal Testimonies to Reverend Moon. 2 vols. Vol. II. New York: Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity.
Patrick, Ted, and Tom Dulack. 1976. Let Our Children Go. New York: Ballantine. Quebedeaux, R., ed. 1982. Lifestyle, Conversations with Members of the Unification Church. Barrytown: Unification Theological Seminary.
Quebedeaux, Richard, and Rodney Sawatsky, eds. 1979. Evangelical-Unification Dialogue. New York: Rose of Sharon Press, Inc.
Quinn, Jon. 2006.The Divine Principle in Plain Language: The Basic Theology of Sun Myung Moon. USA: Principled Publications. http://www.divineprinciple.com/dp_text_all_2.pdf
Rochford, E. Burke, and Jennifer Heinlein. 1998. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. ISKCON Communications Journal 6 (1):43-69.
Salonen, Neil Albert.1982. History of the Unification Church. In Lifestyle, Conversations with Members of the Unification Church, edited by R. Quebedeaux. Barrytown: Unification Theological Seminary. http://www.tparents.org/UTS/Life/Life.pdf
Sherwood, Carlton. 1991. Inquisition: The Persecution and Prosecution of the Reverend Sun Myung Moon. Washington DC: Regnery Gateway.
Shupe, Anson D., and David G. Bromley. 1980. The New Vigilantes: Deprogrammers, AntiCultists, and the New Religions. Beverly Hills: Sage.
Sontag, Frederick. 1977. Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church: An In-Depth Investigation of the Man and the Movement. Nashville: Abingdon.
Stark, Rodney, and William Sims Bainbridge. 1979. Of Churches, Sects, and Cults. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 18 (2):117-133.
Underwood, Barbara, and Betty Underwood. 1979. Hostage to Heaven: Four years in the Unification Church by an Ex Moonie and the mother who fought to free her. New York, NY: Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.
Wallis, Roy. 1984. The Elementary Forms of the New Religious Life. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Weber, Max. 1947. The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Translated by A. M. Henderson and T. Parsons. New York: Free Press.
Weiner, Rex, and Deanne Stillman. 1979. Woodstock Census: The Nationwide Survey of the Sixties Generation. New York: Viking Press.
Wessinger, Catherine. 2000. How the Millennium Comes Violently: From Jonestown to Heaven’s Gate. Chappaqua, NY: Seven Bridges Press.
Wilson, Andrew. 2015. The Only-Begotten Daughter. Applied Unificationism: A Blog of Unification Theological Seminary 13 April.
Wilson, Bryan R. 1970. Religious Sects: A Sociological Study. London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson.
Wilson, Bryan R. 1973. Magic and the Millennium: A Sociological Study of Religious Movements of Protest among Tribal and Third-World Peoples. London: Heinemann.
Wood, Allen Tate. 1979. Moonstruck: A Memoir of my life in a cult. New York: William Morrow and Co.
Wood, Allen Tate. 2001 “My Four and One Half Years with The Lord of The Flies.” http://www.atwood7.com/essays/lordofflies.html
Wright, Stuart. 1987. Leaving Cults: The Dynamics of Defection. Washington DC: Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi. 2001. Cults in Japan: Legal Issues. Cultic Studies Journal 18:43-68. http://www.icsahome.com/articles/cultsinjapan-csj-18
Yamaguchi, Hiroshi. 2003. Japanese Activities to Counter Cults. Cultic Studies Review 2(3):225-229. http://www.icsahome.com/articles/japanese-activities-to-counter-cults
Yu, Chai-shin, and R. Guisso, eds. 1988. Shamanism: The Spirit World of Korea. Berkeley CA: Asian Humanities Press.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.