This introductory article is intended to open the volume of work prepared by the participants of the 12th UNESCO Janusz Korczak Chair International Summer School. The participants presented these papers at the RC25 ISA Interim International Conference in Warsaw, entitled: "Language and Society. Research Advances in Social Sciences" (26-27.09.2019), exploring the concepts of gender equality and children's equality in liberal and conservative discourses and practices invested in language. The papers in this volume primarily use the methodology of discourse analysis and a range of tools and methods within this framework. The purpose is to shed light on how discourses inform preferences, behaviours and representations, towards the positioning of individuals in society, based on their respective gender and their individual status - whether an adult or a child. It is interesting to explore what is expected of the holders of these positions and whether they are able to confront and renegotiate their situation. The authors look into gendered childhood, analysing if differences can be found in so-called conservative and liberal discourses. The gender aspect of childhood and the resistance towards children’s expected positions interlinked to their gender is visible to diverse degrees in this selection of papers. The concept of social positioning due to one's gender is at the heart of this volume. Therefore, this Editorial forms a theoretical backstage for the volume of works included in the special post-conference issue of Society Register.
Baranowski, Mariusz and Anna Odrowaz-Coates. 2018. “Critical Thinking - Tightening the Link Between Business and Education.” Forum Oświatowe 30(2): 117-133.
Becker, Gary, S. 1981. A Treatise on the Family. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
Boudon, Raymond. 1974. Education, Opportunity and Social Inequality. New York: Wiley.
Breen, Richard, Luijkx, Ruud, Muller, Walter and Pollak Reimhard. 2009. “Non-Persistent Inequality in Educational Attainment: Evidence from Eight European Countries.” American Journal of Sociology 114 (5): 1475-1521.
Buchli, Victor and Arthur Clarke. Upton D. 2004. “Editorial.” Home Cultures 1(1): 1–4.
Campione-Barr, Nicol and Smetana Judith. 2003. “Parenting styles.” in International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family, edited by James J. Ponzetti. New York: Macmillan Library Reference.
Caplow, Theodore. 1968. Two against One: Coalitions in Triads. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
CBOS 2007. Social perception of conservatism and liberalism. Research report. CBOS. Retrieved November 26, 2017 (www.cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2007/K_121_07.PDF).
Clifton, Jenny and David Hodgson. 1997. “Rethinking practice through a children’s rights perspective.” Chapter 2 in Social Action with Children and Families. A Community Development Approach to Child and Family Welfare, edited by C r e s c y Cannan and Chris Warren. London: Routledge.
Crompton, Rosemary. 1999. Restructuring Gender Relations and Employment: The Decline of the Male Breadwinner. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dyke, Martin and Alison Fuller. 2012. “Approaches to reflexivity: navigating educational and career pathways” British Journal of Sociology of Education 6: 831–848.
Everett, Jim. 2013. The 12 Item Social and Economic Conservatism Scale (SECS). PLoS ONE 8(12), e82131. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0082131
Feldman, Stanley and Christopher Johnston. 2014. “Understanding the determinants of political ideology: Implications of structural complexity”. Political Psychology 35(3): 337–358.
Fraser, Nancy. 1994. “After the Family Wage: Gender Equality and the Welfare State”. Political Theory 22: 591-618.
French, John and Bertram Raven. 1959. “The Basis of Power.” In Studies in Social Power, edited by David Cartwright & Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gonzalez-Arnal, Stella, Gill Jagger and Kathleen Lennon. 2014. Embodied Selves. Palgrave Macmillan ISBN: 9781137283696, DOI: 10.1057/9781137283696
Gornick, Janet and Marcia Meyers. 2008. “Institutions that Support Gender Egalitarianism in Parenthood and Employment” in Institutions for Gender Egalitarianism: Creating the Conditions for Egalitarian Dual Earner/Dual Caregiver Families, edited by Gornick, Janet C., Marcia K. Meyers, et al. New York and London: Verso.
Graham, Jesse, Brian Nosek and Haidt Jonathan. 2009. “Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96(5):1029-46. doi: 10.1037/a0015141.
Greene, Shelia and Diane Hogan. 2005. Researching Children’s Experience: Approaches and Methods. London: Sage.
Greig, Anen, Jaye Taylor and MacKay, Tommy. 2007. Doing Research with Children. Los Angeles: Sage.
GUS 2017. Household Budget Survey in 2016. Retrieved December 04, 2017 (https://stat.gov.pl/obszarytematyczne/warunki-zycia/dochody-wydatki-i-warunki-zycia-ludnosci/budzety-gospodarstwdomowych-w-2016-r-,9,11.html).
Haidt, Janathan and Jesse Graham. 2007. “When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize”. Social Justice Research 20: 98-116.
Harré, Romano. 2012. “Positioning theory: moral dimensions of social-cultural psychology.” Pp. 191-206 in The Oxford Handbook of Culture and Psychology, edited by J. Valsiner. New York: Oxford University.
Harré, Romano., Luc van Lagenhove. 1999. Positioning theory: Moral contexts of intentional action. Oxford: Blackwell.
Hirsh, Jacob and Colin DeYoung., Xiaowen Xu., Peterson Jordan. 2010. “Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: Associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 36(5): 655–664.
Hodges, Melissa and Michelle Budig. 2010. “Who gets the daddy bonus? Organizational hegemonic masculinity and the impact of fatherhood on earnings”. Gender & Society 24: 717–745. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891243210386729
Hunter, James. 1992. Culture Wars: The Struggle to Control the Family, Art, Education, Law, and Politics in America. New York: Basic Books.
Janowicz, Kamila. 2017. “Współczesne ojcostwo w oczach młodych bezdzietnych kobiet i męż czyzn”. Pp. 238–256 in Kobiety i mężczyźni. Różnice, podobieństwa, edited by Łukasik, Andrzej., Krystyna, Węgrzyn-Białogłowicz, Anna, Englert-Bator. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego.
Jory, Brian, Ellen Rainbolt, Jeanne Karns, Amy, Freeborn, and Cassandra Greer. 1996. “Communication Patterns and Alliances between Parents and Adolescents during a Structured Problem Solving Task.” Journal of Adolescence 19: 339–346.
Ryota, Kanai, Tom, Feilden, Colin, Firth and Geraint Rees. 2011. “Political Orientations Are Correlated with Brain Structure in Young Adults”. Current Biology 21(8): 677-680. https://www.cell.com/current-biology/fulltext/S0960-9822(11)00289-2
Knight, Kathleen. 1999. “Liberalism and conservatism. Measures of Political Attitudes” Pp. 59-158 in Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, edited by Robinson JP, Shaver PR, Wrightsman LS. San Diego: Academic Press, CA.
Lake, Kristine. 2011. “Character Education from a Children’s Rights Perspective: An Examination of Elementary Students’ Perspectives and Experiences.” The International Journal of Children’s Rights 19(4): 679-690. http://booksandjournals.brillonline.com/content/journals/10.1163/157181811x547281
Lévi-Strauss, Claude. 1969. The Elementary Structures of Kinship. Boston, MA: Beacon.
Long, Roderick. 1997. “Beyond Patriarchy. A libertarian Model of the Family.” Formulations 4(3).
Lundberg, Shelly and Elaina, Rose. 2000. “Parenthood and the earnings of married men and women.” Labor Economics 7: 689-710. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-5371(00)00020-8
Montesanti, Stephanie and Wilfreda Thurston. 2015. “Mapping the role of structural and interpersonal violence in the lives of women: implications for public health interventions and policy.” BMC Women’s Health 15: 100. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-015-0256-4
Odrowąż-Coates, Anna. 2015a. “A gated community as a ‘soft’ and gendered total institution”. International Sociology 30(3): 33-249, Sage. http://doi.org/10.1177/0268580915578759
Odrowąż-Coates, Anna. 2015. “Gender Crisis in Poland, Catholic Ideology and the Media.” Sociology Mind 5: 27-34. http://doi.org/10.4236/sm.2015.51004
Odrowąż-Coates, Anna. 2019. Socio-educational Factors and the Soft Power of Language: The Deluge of English in Poland and Portugal. New York: Lexington Books.
Okin, Susan. 1989. Justice, Gender, and the Family. New York: Basic Books.
Oswin, Natalie. 2010. “The Modern Model Family at Home in Singapore: A Queer Geography”. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 35(2): 256–68.
Percheski, Christine and Christoper Wildeman. 2008. “Becoming a dad: Employment trajectories of married, cohabiting and nonresident fathers.” Social Science Quarterly 89: 482–501. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00543.x
Purvis, Dara. 2019. “The Constitutionalization of Fatherhood.” Case Western Reserve Law Review 69(3): 541-601.
Ridgeway, Cecilia. L. 2011. Framed by gender: How gender inequality persists in the modern world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schneider, David. 1980. American Kinship: A Cultural Account. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Sharma, Mandeep, Novrattan Sharma and Amrita Yadava. 2011. “Parental styles and depression among adolescents.” Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology 37(1): 60–68.
Stockard, Janice. 2002. Marriage in Culture: Practice and Meaning across Diverse Societies. New York: Harcourt.
Szulich-Kałuża, Justyna and Dariusz Wadowski. 2014. “Tendencje przemian ojcostwa i roli ojca we współczesnym społeczeństwie.” Pp. 53-74 in Ojcostwo dzisiaj, edited by Dorota Kornas-Biela. Lublin: Fundacja Cyryla i Metodego.
Warming, Hanne. 2011. “Getting under their skins? Accessing young children’s perspectives through ethnographic fieldwork.” Childhood 18(1): 39–53.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.