WHEN UNIVERSITY BECOMES THE ENEMY: HATE SPEECH ATTACKS ON FACEBOOK

Main Article Content

VIVIANE DE MELO RESENDE
YARA MARTINELLI
ERNANI VIANA SARAIVA

Abstract

The extreme right hate speech propagated currently in Brazil addresses a broad social spectrum, from feminist movements to traditional communities. The academic community and higher education institutions are also targets, as they are identified as poles of democratic resistance. Specific hate speech towards academy in Brazil is the subject of this paper. The persecution of academic community and knowledge itself occurs through the discursive dispute especially on social networks, and thus in this analytical exercise, we looked up at Facebook’s largest bolsonarista’s group – the “Jair Bolsonaro Presidency Support Group”, which brings together 317,000 members. We analyzed the memetic discourse on the page, focusing memes that were published between April and June 2019, thematizing higher public education, and presenting a bimodal verb-visual composition. These criteria led to the collection of 115 memes analyzed with the support of a QDA package. Analysis reveals the disqualification of university institutions and their actors through ironies, negative associations including stereotypes, simplification of debate to the shallower. Students are often associated with nudity as immorality, professors of indoctrination and ridicule, protesters of ignorance, or bad character. Political debate is reduced to extreme left-right polarization, with the criminalization of the left.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
RESENDE, V. D. M., MARTINELLI, Y., & SARAIVA, E. V. (2020). WHEN UNIVERSITY BECOMES THE ENEMY: HATE SPEECH ATTACKS ON FACEBOOK. Society Register, 4(1), 23-36. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2020.4.1.03
Section
Articles
Author Biographies

VIVIANE DE MELO RESENDE, Universidade de Brasília

Viviane de Melo Resende is professor of Linguistics at the University of Brasilia, Brazil.

YARA MARTINELLI, Universidade de Brasília

Yara Martinelli is International Relations fellow at the University of Brasilia, Brazil.

ERNANI VIANA SARAIVA, Fluminense Federal University

Ernani Viana Saraiva is professor of Management at the Fluminense Federal University, Brazil.

References

  1. Ballestrin, Luciana. 2018. “Desafios à democracia e as experiências do Sul Global.” Keynote Speech at 4º Simpósio Nacional sobre Democracia e Desigualdade. Brasília, Brasil.
  2. Barbosa, Muryatan. 2018. “Desafios à democracia e as experiências do Sul Global.” Keynote Speech at 4º Simpósio Nacional sobre Democracia e Desigualdade. Brasília, Brasil.
  3. Benesch, Susan. 2012. “Dangerous Speech: A Proposal to Prevent Group Violence.” World Policy Journal XXIX/3. Retrieved November 20, 2019 (https://worldpolicy.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Dangerous-Speech-Guidelines-Benesch-January-2012.pdf).
  4. Brugger, Winfried. 2007. “Proibição ou proteção do discurso do ódio? Algumas observações sobre o direito alemão e o americano.” Direito Público 4(15): 117-136.
  5. Chagas, Viktor, Fernanda Freire, Daniel Rios and Dandara Magalães. 2017. “A política dos memes e os memes da política: proposta metodológica de análise de conteúdo de memes dos debates eleitorais de 2014.” Intexto 38 (1): 173-196.
  6. Dawkins, Richard. 2001. O gene egoísta. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia.
  7. Fausto, Boris. 1998 “Ensaio bibliográfico: a interpretação do nazismo, na visão de Norbert Elias.” Mana 4 (1): 141-152.
  8. Freitas, Riva and Matheus Castro. 2013. “Liberdade de Expressão e Discurso do Ódio: um exame sobre as possíveis limitações à liberdade de expressão.” Sequência 34(66): 227-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2013v34n66p327
  9. Gagliardone, Iginio, Danit Gal, Thiago Alves nad Gabriela Martinez. 2015. Countering online hate speech. Unesco Publishing. Retrieved November 20, 2019 (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284157227).
  10. Junqueira, Antolo. 2016. “Os memes e sua apropriação pelo marketing digital.” Signos do Consumo 8(2): 19-29. https://www.bing.com/search?q=junqueira%2C+a.+h.+os+memes
  11. Kaysel, André. 2018. “Desafios à democracia e as experiências do Sul Global.” Keynote Speech at 4º Simpósio Nacional sobre Democracia e Desigualdade. Brasília, Brasil.
  12. Silva, Andréa. 2018. “Memes, educação e cultura de compartilhamento nas redes sociais.” Artefactum 17(2): 1-19. http://artefactum.rafrom.com.br/index.php/artefactum/article/view
  13. Silva, Rosane, Andressa Nichel, Anna Clara, Lehmann Martins and Carlise Borchardt. 2011. “Discursos de ódio em redes sociais: jurisprudência brasileira.” Revista Direito GV 7(2): 445-465. http://bibliotecadigital.fgv.br/ojs/index.php/revdireitogv/article/view
  14. Waldron, Jeremy. 2017. “Dignity and defamation: the visibility of hate.” Harvard Law Review 123 (7): 1597-1654.