Children’s rights should be applicable for children, and be acknowledged by children themselves and practice them in the present and future lives. The increasing awareness and concern about children’s rights need a thorough investigation of how children themselves understand their rights. The aim of this study is to analyze the perspective of children in Lebanon of their rights and examine the impact of democratic movements on their understanding of their rights. A qualitative research methodology was employed and data were gathered in the form of semi-structured VoIP interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The analysis presented in this paper signifies that the democratic movements are being both a source and an approach of recognizing and practising children’s rights, especially the right to participate, freedom of expression, and equality, along with the right to education, social security, and protection from all forms of abuse. Hence, it could be concluded that democratic movements are important in constructing and reconstructing children’s understanding of their rights.
Abramovitch, Rona, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry, & Michelle Van Brunschot. 1995. “Children's Capacity To Agree To Psychological Research: Knowledge Of Risks And Benefits And Voluntariness.” Ethics & Behavior 5(1):25-48.
Abramovitch, Rona, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kirby Thoden, & Crystal Nikolich. 1991. “Children's Capacity To Consent To Participation In Psychological Research: Empirical Findings.” Child Development 62(5):1100-1109.
Antoun, Randa. 2007. “Lebanese youth: Attitudes, Vision and Inspirations.” Catholic Relief Services, Europe/Middle East Region 33-35.
Ben-Arieh, Asher, Mona Khoury-Kassabri, & Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia. 2006. “Generational, Ethnic, And National Differences In Attitudes Toward The Rights Of Children In Israel And Palestine.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76(3):381-388.
Boyden, Jo. 1990. “A Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood.” in Constructing and reconstructing childhood. Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood, edited by A. Prout & A. James. Basingstoke: Falmer Press.
Boyden, Jo, Birgitta Ling, & William Myers. 1998. What Works For Working Children. Sweden: Save The Children.
Bronfenbrenner, Urie. 1979. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Covell, Katherine, Brian R. Howe, & Justin K. McNeil. 2008. “‘If There's A Dead Rat, Don't Leave It’. Young Children's Understanding Of Their Citizenship Rights And Responsibilities.” Cambridge Journal of Education 38(3):321-339.
Edwards, Michael. 1996. “New Approaches To Children And Development: Introduction And Overview.” Journal of International Development: The Journal of the Development Studies Association 8(6):813-827.
Ennew, Judith. 1994. Street and Working Children: A Guide to Planning. Development Manual 4. London: Save the Children.
Flick, Uwe. 2002. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications.
Flick, Uwe. 2014. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 5th ed. London: Sage Publications.
Flick, Uwe, Ernst Von Kardoff, & Ines Steinke, eds. 2004. A Companion to Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.
Freeman, Michael. 2009. “Children’S Rights As Human Rights: Reading The UNCRC.” Pp. 377-393 in The Palgrave handbook of childhood studies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Green, Duncan. 1998. Hidden lives: Voices of children in Latin America and the Caribbean. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
Hecht, Tobias. 1998. At home in the street: Street children of Northeast Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Helwig, Charles C. & Elliot Turiel. 2002. “Civil Liberties, Autonomy, And Democracy: Children’s Perspectives.” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 25(3):253-270.
Henderson, Karla A. & M. Deborah Bialeschki. 2002. Evaluating Leisure Services: Making Enlightened Decisions. Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing Inc.
Hughes, Teresa & Mary Kay Helling. 1991. “A Case For Obtaining Informed Consent From Young Children.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 6(2):225-232.
Humanium., n.d. Children of Lebanon. Realizing Children’s Rights in Lebanon. Retrieved September 05, 2021 (https://www.humanium.org/en/lebanon/).
Hurley, Jennifer C. & Marion K. Underwood. 2002. “Children's Understanding Of Their Research Rights Before And After Debriefing: Informed Assent, Confidentiality, And Stopping Participation.” Child Development 73(1):132-143.
Invernizzi, Antonella & Jane Williams. 2011. The Human Rights Of Children: From Visions To Implementation. Farnham: Ashgate.
KEFYALEW, FIREW. 1996. “The Reality Of Child Participation In Research: Experience From A Capacity-Building Programme.” Childhood 3(2):203-213.
Khalil, Joe F. 2017. “Lebanon’S Waste Crisis: An Exercise Of Participation Rights.” New Media & Society 19(5):701-712.
Khatib, Lina. 2021. “Lebanon Is Experiencing A Social Revolution.” Aljazeera.com (https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/10/20/lebanon-is-experiencing-a-social-revolution).
Leikin, Sanford. 1993. “Minors’ Assent, Consent, Or Dissent To Medical Research.” IRB: Ethics and Human Research 15(2):1-7.
Liebel, Manfred. 2020. Decolonizing Childhoods: From Exclusion to Dignity. Bristol: Policy Press.
Liebel, Manfred & Ivan Saadi. 2012. Cultural Variations In Constructions Of Children’s Participation. Children’s Rights From Below. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Limber, Suzan P., V Kask, M. Heidmets, & N. H Kaufman. 1999. “Estonian Children's Perceptions Of Rights: Implications For Societies In Transition.” The International Journal of Childre’s Rights 7(4):365-383.
Mayall, Berry. 2002. Towards A Sociology For Childhood: Thinking From Children's Lives. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Melton, Gary B. 1980. “Children’s Concepts Of Their Rights.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 9(3):186-190.
Melton, Gary B. 2006. Background for a General Comment on the Right to Participate; Article 12 and Related Provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Clemson: University Clemson Press.
Melton, Gary B. & Limber Suzan P. 1992. “What Children’s Rights Mean to Children: Children’s Own Views.” Pp. 167–87 in The ideologies of children’s rights. London: Brill, Nijhoff.
Minier, Jenny A. 2001. “Is Democracy A Normal Good? Evidence From Democratic Movements.” Southern Economic Journal 67(4):996-1009.
Mutua, Makau. 2002. Human Rights: A Political and Cultural Critique. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Nagle, John. 2016. Social Movements in violently divided societies: Constructing conflict and peacebuilding. London: Routledge.
Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC). 2006. Lebanon: Displaced Return Amidst Growing Political Tension.
Patton, Michael Quinn. 1990. Qualitative Evaluation And Research Methods. Second Edition. London: SAGE Publications.
Punch, Samantha. 2003. “Childhoods In The Majority World: Miniature Adults Or Tribal Children?” Sociology 37(2):277-295.
Qvortrup, Jens. 2014. Childhood Matters: An Introduction. Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice And Politics. 14th ed. Aldershot: Avebury.
Reynaert, Didier, Ellen Desmet, Sara Lembrechts, & Wouter Vandenhole. 2015. “Introduction: A Critical Approach To Children’s Rights.” Pp. 17-40 in Routledge international handbook of children's rights studies. London: Routledge.
Ruck, Martin D., Rona Abramovitch, & Daniel P. Keating. 1998. “Children's And Adolescents’ Understanding Of Rights: Balancing Nurturance And Self-Determination.” Child Development 69(2):404-417.
Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: NY: Pantheon.
Saleh, Layla. 2013. “We Thought We Were Playing: Children’s Participation in the Syrian Revolution.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 14(5):80-95.
Saunders, M., P. Lewis, & A. Thornhill. Research methods for business students Pearson.
Save the Children Fund. 1995. Towards a Children’s Agenda: New Challenges for Social Development. London: SCF.
Save the Children. 2008. Child Rights Situation Analysis: Lebanon. London: SCF.
Sinha, Sangeeta & Emilia Garofalo. 2013. “Introduction: Children and Arab Spring.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 14(5):1-3.
Stammers, Neil. 2013. Children’s Rights and Social Movements: Reflection from a Cognate Field.
Stevens, Abigail. 2008. “Remote Interviews: Not so Difficult If You Know How.” Accountancy Ireland 40(6):88-89.
The New York Times. 2019. “Lebanon Roiled By Second Day Of Protests As Frustration Over Chronic Corruption Boils Over.” (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/world/middleeast/lebanon-protests.html).
Weithorn, Lois A. 1983. “Children's Capacities To Decide About Participation In Research.” IRB: Ethics and Human Research 5(2):1-5.
Weithorn, Lois A., 1998. “Youth Participation in Family and Community Decision Making.” Family Futures 2(1):6-9.
Wimmen, Heiko. 2019. “Lebanon’S Revolt.” Crisis Group. (https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/lebanon/lebanons-revolt).
Yankelovich, Nicole et al. 2004. “Meeting Central: Making Distributed Meetings More Effective". Pp. 419-428 in ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work.
Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.
In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.
1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.
1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.
2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:
2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;
2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;
2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting, made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;
2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);
2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;
2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;
2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;
2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.
3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.
4. The Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.
5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:
5.1. allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;
5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;
5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).
6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).
7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis
7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.
7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply.