Democratic movements in Lebanon and children’s understanding of their rights

Main Article Content

Rajaa Sabbagh

Abstract

Children’s rights should be applicable for children, and be acknowledged by children themselves and practice them in the present and future lives. The increasing awareness and concern about children’s rights need a thorough investigation of how children themselves understand their rights. The aim of this study is to analyze the perspective of children in Lebanon of their rights and examine the impact of democratic movements on their understanding of their rights. A qualitative research methodology was employed and data were gathered in the form of semi-structured VoIP interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the collected data. The analysis presented in this paper signifies that the democratic movements are being both a source and an approach of recognizing and practising children’s rights, especially the right to participate, freedom of expression, and equality, along with the right to education, social security, and protection from all forms of abuse. Hence, it could be concluded that democratic movements are important in constructing and reconstructing children’s understanding of their rights.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Sabbagh, R. (2022). Democratic movements in Lebanon and children’s understanding of their rights. Society Register, 6(2), 87-108. https://doi.org/10.14746/sr.2022.6.2.05
Section
Articles
Author Biography

Rajaa Sabbagh, Potsdam University of Applied Sciences

Rajaa Sabbagh is a Palestinian community social worker, from Haifa city, Israel, living in Berlin Germany since 2018. Completed her Master’s degree in Childhood Studies and Children’s Rights (MACR) at the Potsdam University of Applied Sciences in 2020 with excellent credentials. Passionate about research and community social work, aiming to lead essential social changes, improvements, and policy practices through directing and conducting research and social projects on/for children’s rights. As a scientific researcher on Children’s Rights, attention is aimed at children’s agency and their right to participation, as well as their identity.

References

  1. Abramovitch, Rona, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kate Henry, & Michelle Van Brunschot. 1995. “Children's Capacity To Agree To Psychological Research: Knowledge Of Risks And Benefits And Voluntariness.” Ethics & Behavior 5(1):25-48.
  2. Abramovitch, Rona, Jonathan L. Freedman, Kirby Thoden, & Crystal Nikolich. 1991. “Children's Capacity To Consent To Participation In Psychological Research: Empirical Findings.” Child Development 62(5):1100-1109.
  3. Antoun, Randa. 2007. “Lebanese youth: Attitudes, Vision and Inspirations.” Catholic Relief Services, Europe/Middle East Region 33-35.
  4. Ben-Arieh, Asher, Mona Khoury-Kassabri, & Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia. 2006. “Generational, Ethnic, And National Differences In Attitudes Toward The Rights Of Children In Israel And Palestine.” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 76(3):381-388.
  5. Boyden, Jo. 1990. “A Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood.” in Constructing and reconstructing childhood. Contemporary issues in the sociological study of childhood, edited by A. Prout & A. James.‏ Basingstoke: Falmer Press.
  6. Boyden, Jo, Birgitta Ling, & William Myers. 1998. What Works For Working Children. Sweden: Save The Children.
  7. Bronfenbrenner, Urie. 1979. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard: Harvard University Press.
  8. Covell, Katherine, Brian R. Howe, & Justin K. McNeil. 2008. “‘If There's A Dead Rat, Don't Leave It’. Young Children's Understanding Of Their Citizenship Rights And Responsibilities.” Cambridge Journal of Education 38(3):321-339.
  9. Edwards, Michael. 1996. “New Approaches To Children And Development: Introduction And Overview.” Journal of International Development: The Journal of the Development Studies Association 8(6):813-827.
  10. Ennew, Judith. 1994. Street and Working Children: A Guide to Planning. Development Manual 4. London: Save the Children.
  11. Flick, Uwe. 2002. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications.
  12. Flick, Uwe. 2014. An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 5th ed. London: Sage Publications.
  13. Flick, Uwe, Ernst Von Kardoff, & Ines Steinke, eds. 2004. A Companion to Qualitative Research. London: Sage Publications.
  14. Freeman, Michael. 2009. “Children’S Rights As Human Rights: Reading The UNCRC.” Pp. 377-393 in The Palgrave handbook of childhood studies. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  15. Green, Duncan. 1998. Hidden lives: Voices of children in Latin America and the Caribbean. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
  16. ‏Hecht, Tobias. 1998. At home in the street: Street children of Northeast Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  17. ‏Helwig, Charles C. & Elliot Turiel. 2002. “Civil Liberties, Autonomy, And Democracy: Children’s Perspectives.” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 25(3):253-270.
  18. Henderson, Karla A. & M. Deborah Bialeschki. 2002. Evaluating Leisure Services: Making Enlightened Decisions. Pennsylvania: Venture Publishing Inc.
  19. Hughes, Teresa & Mary Kay Helling. 1991. “A Case For Obtaining Informed Consent From Young Children.” Early Childhood Research Quarterly 6(2):225-232.
  20. Humanium., n.d. Children of Lebanon. Realizing Children’s Rights in Lebanon. Retrieved September 05, 2021 (https://www.humanium.org/en/lebanon/).
  21. Hurley, Jennifer C. & Marion K. Underwood. 2002. “Children's Understanding Of Their Research Rights Before And After Debriefing: Informed Assent, Confidentiality, And Stopping Participation.” Child Development 73(1):132-143.
  22. Invernizzi, Antonella & Jane Williams. 2011. The Human Rights Of Children: From Visions To Implementation. Farnham: Ashgate.
  23. KEFYALEW, FIREW. 1996. “The Reality Of Child Participation In Research: Experience From A Capacity-Building Programme.” Childhood 3(2):203-213.
  24. Khalil, Joe F. 2017. “Lebanon’S Waste Crisis: An Exercise Of Participation Rights.” New Media & Society 19(5):701-712.
  25. Khatib, Lina. 2021. “Lebanon Is Experiencing A Social Revolution.” Aljazeera.com (https://www.aljazeera.com/opinions/2019/10/20/lebanon-is-experiencing-a-social-revolution).
  26. Leikin, Sanford. 1993. “Minors’ Assent, Consent, Or Dissent To Medical Research.” IRB: Ethics and Human Research 15(2):1-7.
  27. Liebel, Manfred. 2020. Decolonizing Childhoods: From Exclusion to Dignity. Bristol: Policy Press.
  28. ‏Liebel, Manfred & Ivan Saadi. 2012. Cultural Variations In Constructions Of Children’s Participation. Children’s Rights From Below. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  29. Limber, Suzan P., V Kask, M. Heidmets, & N. H Kaufman. 1999. “Estonian Children's Perceptions Of Rights: Implications For Societies In Transition.” The International Journal of Childre’s Rights 7(4):365-383.
  30. Mayall, Berry. 2002. Towards A Sociology For Childhood: Thinking From Children's Lives. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
  31. Melton, Gary B. 1980. “Children’s Concepts Of Their Rights.” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology 9(3):186-190.
  32. Melton, Gary B. 2006. Background for a General Comment on the Right to Participate; Article 12 and Related Provisions of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Clemson: University Clemson Press.
  33. Melton, Gary B. & Limber Suzan P. 1992. “What Children’s Rights Mean to Children: Children’s Own Views.” Pp. 167–87 in The ideologies of children’s rights. London: Brill, Nijhoff.
  34. Minier, Jenny A. 2001. “Is Democracy A Normal Good? Evidence From Democratic Movements.” Southern Economic Journal 67(4):996-1009.
  35. Mutua, Makau. 2002. Human Rights: A Political and Cultural Critique. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  36. Nagle, John. 2016. Social Movements in violently divided societies: Constructing conflict and peacebuilding. London: Routledge.
  37. Norwegian Refugee Council/Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (NRC/IDMC). 2006. Lebanon: Displaced Return Amidst Growing Political Tension.
  38. Patton, Michael Quinn. 1990. Qualitative Evaluation And Research Methods. Second Edition. London: SAGE Publications.
  39. Punch, Samantha. 2003. “Childhoods In The Majority World: Miniature Adults Or Tribal Children?” Sociology 37(2):277-295.
  40. Qvortrup, Jens. 2014. Childhood Matters: An Introduction. Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice And Politics. 14th ed. Aldershot: Avebury.
  41. Reynaert, Didier, Ellen Desmet, Sara Lembrechts, & Wouter Vandenhole. 2015. “Introduction: A Critical Approach To Children’s Rights.” Pp. 17-40 in Routledge international handbook of children's rights studies. London: Routledge.
  42. Ruck, Martin D., Rona Abramovitch, & Daniel P. Keating. 1998. “Children's And Adolescents’ Understanding Of Rights: Balancing Nurturance And Self-Determination.” Child Development 69(2):404-417.
  43. Said, Edward. 1978. Orientalism. New York: NY: Pantheon.
  44. Saleh, Layla. 2013. “We Thought We Were Playing: Children’s Participation in the Syrian Revolution.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 14(5):80-95.
  45. Saunders, M., P. Lewis, & A. Thornhill. Research methods for business students Pearson.
  46. Save the Children Fund. 1995. Towards a Children’s Agenda: New Challenges for Social Development. London: SCF.
  47. ‏Save the Children. 2008. Child Rights Situation Analysis: Lebanon. London: SCF.
  48. ‏Sinha, Sangeeta & Emilia Garofalo. 2013. “Introduction: Children and Arab Spring.” Journal of International Women’s Studies 14(5):1-3.
  49. Stammers, Neil. 2013. Children’s Rights and Social Movements: Reflection from a Cognate Field.
  50. Stevens, Abigail. 2008. “Remote Interviews: Not so Difficult If You Know How.” Accountancy Ireland 40(6):88-89.
  51. The New York Times. 2019. “Lebanon Roiled By Second Day Of Protests As Frustration Over Chronic Corruption Boils Over.” (https://www.nytimes.com/2019/10/18/world/middleeast/lebanon-protests.html).
  52. Weithorn, Lois A. 1983. “Children's Capacities To Decide About Participation In Research.” IRB: Ethics and Human Research 5(2):1-5.
  53. Weithorn, Lois A., 1998. “Youth Participation in Family and Community Decision Making.” Family Futures 2(1):6-9.
  54. Wimmen, Heiko. 2019. “Lebanon’S Revolt.” Crisis Group. (https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/lebanon/lebanons-revolt).
  55. Yankelovich, Nicole et al. 2004. “Meeting Central: Making Distributed Meetings More Effective". Pp. 419-428 in ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work.