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W istniejącej literaturze przedmiotu opis spraw kryminalnych z udziałem cudzoziemców sięga około piątego wieku. Jednak szczegółowe opisy problemów językowych wymagających udziału tłumaczy prawniczych zaczęły pojawiać się w okresie Edo (1603-1868), np. przypadek włoskiego misjonarza, który nielegalnie wjechał do Japonii w 1709 r., a także rabunek grobów Ainu przez brytyjskich urzędników konsularnych w 1865 r., wskazywały na trudności komunikacyjne między śledczym i oskarżonym w postępowaniu karnym. Jest to powszechne nawet dzisiaj. Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia historię tłumaczeń ustnych w odniesieniu do znanych przypadków, a także analizuje zmiany w kwestiach komunikacyjnych w postępowaniu karnym, w którym udział biorą osoby spoza Japonii. Przedstawiono również perspektywy dotyczące zmiany podejścia prawników do interpretacji prawnej na tle niedawnych reform sądownictwa, w tym wprowadzenia ławników i wizualizacji procesu dochodzenia.
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