CONCEPTUAL ORIGINS OF LEGAL LINGUISTICS
PDF

Keywords

inquiries into the language of law
legal linguistics and its method
legal-linguistic topics
mainstream legal linguistics
future legal linguistics

How to Cite

GALDIA, M. (2021). CONCEPTUAL ORIGINS OF LEGAL LINGUISTICS. Comparative Legilinguistics, 47, 17–56. https://doi.org/10.2478/cl-2021-0011

Abstract

This essay is a survey of methods applied and topics scrutinized in legal-linguistic studies. It starts with the elucidation of the epistemic interest that led to the emergence and to the subsequent expansion of the mainstream legal-linguistic knowledge that we dispose of today. Thus, the essay focuses upon the development of problem awareness in the emerging legal-linguistic studies as well as upon the results of research that might be perceived as the state of the art in the mainstream legal linguistics. Meanwhile, some methodologically innovative tilts and twists that enrich and inspire contemporary legal linguistics are considered as well. Essentially, this essay traces the conceptual landscape in which the paradigms of legal-linguistic studies came about. This conceptual landscape extends from the research into the isolated words of law and the style used by jurists to the scrutiny of legal texts and legal discourses in all their socio-linguistic complexity. Within this broad frame of reference, many achievements in legal-linguistic studies are mentioned in order to sketch the consequences of processes in which legal-linguistic paradigms take shape. The author concludes upon a vision of legal linguistics called pragmatic legal linguistics as the newest stage in the intellectual enterprise that aims to pierce the language of the law and by so doing to understand law better.

https://doi.org/10.2478/cl-2021-0011
PDF

References

In the references, only publications concerning general aspects of legal linguistics are listed. Literature concerning specific legal-linguistic issues is provided in Additional materials mentioned in footnotes.

Aarnio, Aulis. 1987. The Rational as Reasonable: A Treatise on Legal Justification. Dordrecht: Reidel.

Andruszkiewicz, Marta. 2016. On Some of the Aspects of the Linguistic Theory of Law. Studies in Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric vol. 49: 221-229.

Cao, Deborah. 2004. Chinese Law. A Language Perspective. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Cornu, Gérard. 2005. Linguistique juridique. 3d ed. Paris: Montchrestien.

Dworkin, Ronald. 1991. Law’s Empire. London: Fontana Press.

Engberg, Jan, Kjaer, Anne Lise. 2011. Approaches to Language and the Law – Some Introductory Notes. Hermes – Journal of Language and Communication Studies vol. 46: 7-10.

Galdia, Marcus. 2014. Legal Discourses. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang.

Galdia, Marcus. 2017. Lectures on Legal Linguistics. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang.

Galdia, Marcus. 2020. The Comparative Element in Comparative Legal Linguistics. Comparative Legilinguistics vol. 43: 57-76.

Galdia, Marcus. 2021. Legal Constructs. Reflections upon Legal-Linguistic Methodology. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Rys.

Gibbons, John. 2003. Forensic Linguistics. An Introduction to Language in the Justice System. Oxford: Blackwell.

Husa, Jaakko. 2015. A New Introduction to Comparative Law. Oxford/Portland: Hart.

Husa, Jaakko. 2020. Language of Law and Invasive Legal Species – Endemic Systems, Colonisation and Viability of Mixed Law. Global Journal of Comparative Law vol. 9: 149-182.

Jackson, Bernard S. 1985. Semiotics and Legal Theory. London/Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Kalinowski, George. 1964. Introduction à la logique juridique: éléments de sémiotique juridique, logique des normes et logique juridique. Paris: Librairie générale de droit et de jurisprudence.

Kozanecka, Paulina, Matulewska, Aleksandra, Trzaskawka, Paula. 2017. Methodology of Interlingual Comparison of Legal Terminology. Towards General Legilinguistic Translatology. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Contact.

Lindroos, Emilia. 2015. Im Namen des Gesetzes. Eine vergleichende rechtslinguistische Untersuchung zur Formelhaftigkeit in deutschen und finnischen Strafurteilen. Rovaniemi: Lapin yliopisto.

Lizisowa, Maria Teresa. 2016. Komunikacyjna teoria języka prawnego. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Contact.

Lundmark, Thomas. 2012. Charting the Divide Between Common and Civil Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Marmor, Andrei. 2014. The Language of Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mattila, Heikki E.S. 2002. Towards the Science of Legal Linguistics. In The Development of Legal Language, Mattila, H.E.S. (ed.), 167-191. Helsinki: Kauppakaari.

Mattila, Heikki E.S. 2012a. Jurilinguistique comparée: Langage du droit, latin et langages modernes. Montréal: Y. Blais.

Mattila, Heikki E.S. 2012b. Legal Vocabulary. In The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law, Tiersma, P.M., Solan, L.M. (eds.), 27-38. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mattila, Heikki E.S. 2013. Comparative Legal Linguistics. Language of Law, Latin and Modern Lingua Francas, 2nd ed. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Mattila, Heikki E.S. 2018. Legal Language. In Languages for Special Purposes, Humbley, J., Budin, G., Laurén, C. (eds.), 113-150. Berlin/Boston: W. de Gruyter.

Matulewska, Aleksandra. 2013. Legilinguistic Translatology. A Parametric Approach to Legal Translation. Bern: P. Lang.

Mellinkoff, David. 1963. The Language of the Law. Boston/Toronto: Little, Brown & Co.

Pigolkin, A. S. (ed.). 1990. Jazyk zakona. Moskva: Juridicheskaya literatura.

Poscher, Ralf. 2012. Ambiguity and Vagueness in Legal Interpretation. In The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law, Tiersma P.M., Solan L.M. (eds.), 128-144. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Salmi-Tolonen, Tarja. 2008. Language and the Functions of Law. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland.

Sourioux, Jean-Louis, Lerat, Pierre. 1975. Le langage du droit. Paris: Presses universitaires de France.

Tiersma, Peter M. 1999. Legal Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Additional materials mentioned in footnotes

Aarnio, Aulis. 1989. Das regulative Prinzip der Gesetzesauslegung. Überlegungen zum Problem der Möglichkeit der einzig richtigen Entscheidung, Rechtstheorie vol. 20: 409-431.

Alexy, Robert. 1983. Theorie der juristischen Argumentation. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.

Andruszkiewicz, Marta. 2021. The Heritage of Cultural Determinants of Law and Literature: Methodological Findings, International Journal for the Semiotics of Law 34: 611-621. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11196-020-09743-4.

Austin, John Langshaw.1962. How to Do Things with Words? Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Beaudoin, Louis. 2002. Legal Translation in Canada. In The Development of Legal Language, H.E.S. Mattila (ed.), 115-130. Helsinki: Kauppakaari.

Benedetti, Giuseppe. 1999. Diritto e linguaggio. Variazioni sul ‘diritto muto’, Europa e diritto privato vol. 1: 137-152.

Broekman, Jan M. 1984. Text als Institution. In Rechtstheorie, Supplement 6, Recht als Sinn und Institution, 145-167.

Chan, Ho-yan. 2014. 两岸三地 (Liang An San Di), vol. 1. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.

Chan, Ho-yan. 2015. 两岸三地 (Liang An San Di), vol. 2. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.

Chan, Ho-yan. 2017. 两岸三地 (Liang An San Di), vol. 3. Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong Press.

Dölle, Hans. 1949. Vom Stil der Rechtssprache. Tübingen: Mohr.

Felder, Ekkehard, Vogel, Friedemann (eds.) 2017. Handbuch Sprache im Recht. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Frändberg, Åke. 2001. Rättsordningen och rättstillämpningen. In Svensk rätt – en översikt, ed. Strömholm, S., 7-26. Uppsala: Justus.

Gaakeer, Jeanne. 2012. On the Study Methods of Our Time: Methodologies of Law and Literature. In Intersections of Law and Culture, Gisler, B., Borella, S.S., Wiedmer, C. (eds.), 133-149. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Galdia, Marcus. 1998. Lakisaksa, in: Encyclopaedia Iuridica Fennica, vol. VI, Kansainväliset suhteet. 550-555. Helsinki: Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys.

Galdia, Marcus. 2013. Strategies and Tools for Legal Translation. Comparative Legilinguistics vol. 16: 13-29.

Geer, Louis de. 1985 (1853). Om den juridiska stilen. Stockholm: Rediviva.

Gény, François. 1921. Science et technique en droit privé positif, vol. 3. Paris: Sirey.

Goodman, Nelson. 1978. Ways of Worldmaking. Indianapolis: Hackett Publ.

Gotti, Maurizio. 2012. Text and Genre. In The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law, Tiersma P.M., Solan L.M. (eds.), 53-66. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goźdź-Roszkowski, Stanisław. 2011. Patterns in Linguistic Variation in American Legal English. A Corpus-Based Study. Frankfurt a.M.: P. Lang.

Großfeld, Bernhard. 1997. Sprache und Schrift als Grundlage unseres Rechts, Juristenzeitung 1997/633-646.

Großfeld, Bernhard. 1990. Unsere Sprache: Die Sicht des Juristen. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.

Grunau, Martin. 1961. Spiegel der Rechtssprache. Flensburg: Verlag Kurt Gross.

Habermas, Jürgen. 1981. Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, vol. 1 and 2. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.

Hare, R.M. 1952. The Language of Morals. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Hart, H.L.A. 1961. The Concept of Law. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Husa, Jaakko. 2007. Kreikan oikeus ja oikeuskieli. Helsinki: Suomalainen Lakimiesyhdistys.

Javornik-Čubrić, Marijana. 2018. Što je pravna lingvistika, Lingua Montenegrina vol. 22: 31-37.

Kubacki, Artur Dariusz. 2014. Pluricentryzm w niemieckim języku standardowym i specjalistycznym, Comparative Legilinguistics vol. 17: 163-181.

Laurén, Christer. 2002. Iconism and Special Language. In The Development of Legal Language. Mattila, H.E.S. (ed.), 11-20. Helsinki: Kauppakaari.

Leveneur, Laurent (ed.) 2016. Dossier spécial. Code civil. Projet de réforme du droit des contracts, du régime général et de la preuve des obligations. Paris: LexisNexis.

Mimin, Pierre. 1970. Le style des jugements. 4th ed. Paris: Librairies Techniques.

Nowak-Michalska, Joanna. 2012. Modalność deontyczna w języku prawnym na przykładzie polskiego i hiszpańskiego kodeksu cywilnego. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Rys.

Perelman, Chaim, Olbrechts-Tyteca, Lucie. 1958. Traité de l’argumentation – La nouvelle rhétorique. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

Prieto Ramos, Fernando. 2015. Quality Assurance in Legal Translation: Evaluating Process, Competence and Product in the Pursuit of Adequacy, International Journal for the Semiotics of Law vol. 28 (1): 11-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11196-014-9390-9.

Ross, Alf. 1966. Om ret og retfærdighed. En indførelse i den analytiske retsfilosofi. København: Nyt Nordisk Forlag K. Busck.

Schauer, Frederick (ed.). 1993. Law and Language. Aldershot/Hong Kong: Dartmouth.

Schönherr, Fritz. 1985. Sprache und Recht. Aufsätze und Vorträge. Wien: Manz‘sche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung.

Schroeder, François Michel. 1978. Le nouveau style judiciaire. Paris: Dalloz.

Shaw, Julia A. 2011. The Continuing Relevance of Ars Poetica to Legal Scholarship and Modern Lawyer, International Journal for the Semiotics of Law vol. 25/1: 71-93.

Tiersma, Peter M., Solan, Lawrence M. (eds.) 2012. The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Vogel, Friedemann (ed.) 2019. Legal Linguistics Beyond Borders: Language and Law in a World of Media, Globalisation and Social Conflict. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot.

Wedberg, Birger. 1928. Lagstil. Några citat och reflektioner. Stockholm: Norsted.

Weihofen, Henry. 1980. Legal Writing Style. 2nd ed. St. Paul: West Publishing Co.

Weisberg, Richard. 1992. Poethics and Other Strategies of Law and Literature. New York: Columbia University Press.

Wright, Georg Henrik von. 1951. Deontic Logics, Mind vol. 60: 1-15.

When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.

PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT

This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform

 (“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).

The parties to this Agreement are:

the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.

§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT

a)     The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.

b)     The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.

c)     The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.

d)     Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.

§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE

a)     The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.

§3.  WARRANTIES

a)     The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.

b)     The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.

c)     The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.

§4. TERM

a)     The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.

§5. PAYMENT

a)     The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.

b)     The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.

§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT

a)     This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.

b)     In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply. 

c)     Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.

d)     Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective. 

e)      This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.

f)     Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general

g)     The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.

I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.

The Author                             The Publisher

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.