The concept of equivalence, despite the criticism it has received in the past decades, remains a useful framework for the study of correspondence between legal terms. In the present article, I address the question of direction-asymmetric equivalence in legal translation, i.e. equivalence that does not obey the “one-to-one” principle, and which usually implies that the translator’s decision-making is more difficult in one direction than in the other. This asymmetry may be triggered by intrinsic semantic characteristics of legal terms (synonymy and polysemy), by differences between legal systems (system-specific terms, the procedures used for their translation and their handling in lexicographic sources, competing legal systems, tension between cultural boundedness and neutrality), or by social factors (L1 vs. L2 translation). The instances of directional asymmetry discussed are illustrated with examples from French and Czech.
Cao, Deborah. 2007. Translating Law. Clevedon – Buffalo – Toronto: Multilingual Matters.
Catford, John C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Chromá, Marta. 2004. Legal Translation and the Dictionary. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.
Chromá, Marta. 2011. Synonymy and Polysemy in Legal Terminology and Their Applications to Bilingual and Bijural Translation. Research in Language 9/1: 31-50.
Chromá, Marta. 2014. Právní překlad v teorii a praxi. Nový občanský zákoník. Praha: Karolinum.
De Groot, Gerard-René, and Conrad J. P. van Laer, 2006. The Dubious Quality of Legal Dictionaries. International Journal of Legal Information 34/1: 65-86.
Duběda, Tomáš. 2018. La traduction vers une langue étrangère : compétences, attitudes, contexte social. Meta 63/2: 492-509.
Duběda, Tomáš. 2020. Soudní překladatelé a terminologické nástrahy. Průzkum k překladu právních termínů z češtiny do francouzštiny. Soudní tlumočník 2/2020: 25-28.
Duběda, Tomáš. 2021. K typologii ekvivalentů v právním překladu. Slovo a slovesnost 82/2: 139-158.
Duběda, Tomáš, David Mraček, and Vanda, Obdržálková. 2018. Překlad do nemateřského jazyka: fakta, otázky, perspektivy. Praha: Karolinum.
Dullion, Valérie. 2007. Traduire les lois. Un éclairage culturel. La traduction en français des codes civils allemand et suisse autour de 1900. Cortil-Wodon: E. M. E.
Franco Aixelá, Javier. 2009. An overview of interference in scientific and technical translation. JoSTrans, The Journal of Specialised Translation 11: 75-87.
Gémar, Jean-Claude. 2015. De la traduction juridique à la jurilinguistique : la quête de l’équivalence. Meta 60/3: 476-493.
Klaudy, Kinga. 2009. The Asymmetry Hypothesis in Translation Research. In Translators and their readers. In Homage to Eugene A. Nida, eds. Rodica Dimitriu and Miriam Shlesinger, 283-303. Brussels: Les Editions du Hazard.
Larišová, Markéta. 2008. Francouzsko-český, česko-francouzský právnický slovník. Plzeň: Aleš Čeněk.
Larose, Robert. 1989. Théories contemporaines de la traduction. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.
Lefevere, André. 1992. Translating Literature: Practice and Theory in a Comparative Literature Framework. New York: MLA.
Mayoral Asensio, Roberto. 2003. Translating Official Documents. London – New York: Routledge.
Nida, Eugene A. 1964. Towards a Science of Translating: With Special Reference to Principles and Procedures Involved in Bible Translating. Leiden: Brill.
Nielsen, Sandro. 2014. Database of Legal Terms for Communicative and Knowledge Information Tools. In Legal Lexicography. A Comparative Perspective, ed. Máirtín Mac Aodha, 153-175. Farnham: Ashgate.
Nord, Christiane. 2005. Text Analysis in Translation. Amsterdam – New York: Rodopi.
Pavlović, Nataša. 2007. Directionality in translation and interpreting practice. Report on a questionnaire survey in Croatia. Forum 5/2: 79-99.
Prunč, Erich. 2000. Translation in die Nicht-Muttersprache und Translationskultur. In Translation into Non-Mother Tongues: In Professional Practice and Training, eds. Meta Grosman, Mira Kadrić, Irena Kovačič and Mary Snell-Hornby, 5-20. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Pym, Anthony. 2010. Exploring Translation Theories. London – New York: Routledge.
Schlesinger, Rudolf. 1980. Comparative Law: Cases – Text – Materials. Mineola: Foundation Press.
Snell-Hornby, Mary. 1988. Translation Studies. An Integrated Approach. Amsterdam – Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Šarčević, Susan. 1997. New Approach to Legal Translation. The Hague – London – Boston: Kluwer Law International.
Tomaščínová, Jana. 2019. Úvod do právnické francouzštiny 1, 2. Praha: Karolinum.
LEGILEX-FR. http://lex.ff.cuni.cz/legilex-fr/Index (accessed April 2, 2021).
Sworn Interpreters and Translators Act, Act Nr 354/2019. https://www.zakonyprolidi.cz/cs/2019-354 (accessed April 11, 2021).
When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.
PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT
This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform
(“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).
The parties to this Agreement are:
the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.
§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT
a) The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.
b) The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.
d) Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.
§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE
a) The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.
a) The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.
b) The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.
a) The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.
a) The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.
b) The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.
§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
a) This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.
b) In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply.
c) Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.
d) Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.
e) This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.
f) Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general
g) The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.
I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.
The Author The Publisher