INSTITUTIONAL MULTILINGUALISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – POLICY, RULES AND PRACTICE

Main Article Content

Karolina PALUSZEK

Abstract

This paper examines the rules and working practices of main institutions of European Union in relation to EU policy multilingualism. The institutions analysed in this research include the Commission, the Council of the European Union, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Parliament. After presenting the legal basis of EU multilingualism, the study identifies the achievements and difficulties met by EU institutions in the process of its realisation.

Topic highlighted in this study include:

  • Problems resulting from the status and number of official EU languages.
  • The distinction made between EU institutions obliged to observe citizens’ language rights and other bodies that can seemingly make their own rules.
  • Inconsistencies between the practice of internal and external communication of the EU institutions, presenting examples from individual institutions, as well as from judicial practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Finally, the article presents an evaluation of the solutions to the observed problems presented in the literature, along with the author’s own conclusions.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
PALUSZEK, K. (2015). INSTITUTIONAL MULTILINGUALISM IN THE EUROPEAN UNION – POLICY, RULES AND PRACTICE. Comparative Legilinguistics, 24, 119-142. https://doi.org/10.14746/cl.2015.24.06
Section
Articles

References

  1. Athanassiou, P. 2006. The Application of Multilingualism in the European Union Context. Legal Working Paper Series, No. 2 (March 2006). http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/scplps/ecblwp2.pdf (accessed February 28, 2016).
  2. Baaij C.J.2012. The EU Policy on Institutional Multilingualism: Between Principles and Practicality. Language & Law, Vol. 1. (urn:nbn:de:0009-30-33384) (accessed February 28, 2016)
  3. Court of Justice of the European Union, official information on traineeships, published at: http://curia.europa.eu/jcms/jcms/Jo2_7008/ (accessed February 28, 2016)
  4. Creech, R. L. 2005. Law and Language in the European Union – The Paradox of a Babel “United in Diversity.” Groningen: Europe Law Publishing.
  5. European Commission. Official internet site on language policies,
  6. http://ec.europa.eu/languages/policy/language-policy/official_languages_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)
  7. European Commission. Traineeship Office, FAQ for applying trainees, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/stages/information/faq_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)
  8. European Commission. 2011a. Answer given by Mrs Reding on behalf of the Commission to the question E-002764/2011, from 10 May 2011, OJ C 309 E, 21/10/2011
  9. European Commission. 2011b. Answer given by Mrs Reding on behalf of the Commission to the question P-003280/2011, from 29 April 2011, OJ C 309 E, 21/10/2011
  10. European Commission. 2012. Special Eurobarometer 386 Europeans And Their Languages. available at: http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_386_en.pdf (accessed February 28, 2016)
  11. European Commission, 2012a. Answer given by Mrs Reding on behalf of the Commission to the question E-007013/2012, from on 28 August 2012, OJ C 219 E, 31/07/2013
  12. European Commission. 2013. MEMO, Frequently asked questions on languages in Europe, IP/13/875, from 26 September 2013, available at: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-13-825_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)
  13. European Commission and Directorate-General for Education and Culture, 2009. Multilingualism - a bridge to mutual understanding. Publication available at: http://bookshop.europa.eu/en/multilingualism-pbNC7809630/ (accessed February 28, 2016)
  14. European Data Protection Supervisor. Official internet site. Complaint form available at: https://secure.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/edps/Supervision/Complaints (accessed February 28, 2016)
  15. Polish language version of the internet site: https://secure.edps.europa.eu/EDPSWEB/edps/lang/pl/EDPS (accessed February 28, 2016)
  16. Florenz, Karl-Heinz. 2011. Question to the European Commission from 22 March 2011 , E-002764/2011, OJ C 309 E, 21/10/2011
  17. Federal Union of European Nationalities (FUEN). Official internet site. www.fuen.org. (accessed February 28, 2016)
  18. Gazzola, Michelle. 2006. Managing multilingualism in the European Union: language policy evaluation for the European Parliament. Available at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10993-006-9032-5, (accessed February 28, 2016)
  19. Gobbo, F. 2005. May European Union adopt a Lingua Franca? English vs. International Auxiliary Languages (IALs) pros and cons”, paper presented at LGC Conference 2005, July 8, Cardiff, (Gobbo 2005)
  20. Griesbeck, Nathalie. 2011. Question to the European Commission from 6 December 2011, E-011475/2011
  21. Maalouf, Amin. Group of Intellectuals for Intercultural Dialogue. 2008. Statement cited in Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Multilingualism: an asset for Europe and a shared commitment {SEC(2008) 2443} {SEC(2008) 2444} {SEC(2008) 2445} /* COM/2008/0566 final *
  22. Orban, Leonard. 2008. Multilingualism ‘cost of democracy’ in the EU (2008, November 12). EurActiv.com. from http://www.euractiv.com/en/culture/orban-multilingualism-cost-democracy-eu/article-177107 (accessed February 28, 2016)
  23. Orban, Leonard. 2007. Towards a lingua franca of the Mediterranean? Multilingualism in Europe Lectio Magistralis for the XIII International Summer School, Gorizia, 14 September 2007, European Commission – SPEECH/07/529 14/09/2007, available at:
  24. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-07-529_en.htm?locale=EN (accessed February 28, 2016)
  25. Orban, Leonard. Interview prepared by EurActiv.sk's editor in Bratislava, during Multilingualism Commissioner Leonard Orban's visit to Slovakia, available at http://www.euractiv.com/culture/orban-multilingualism-cost-democracy-eu/article-177107 (accessed February 28, 2016)
  26. Papanikolaou, Georgios. 2012. Question to the Commission from 12 July 2012, E-007013/2012, OJ C 219 E, 31/07/2013
  27. United Nations internet page on languages, http://www.un.org/en/sections/about-un/official-languages/index.html (accessed February 28, 2016)
  28. Ó Riain, Seán.2010. Irish and Translation – the EU Context. Études irlandaises [En ligne], 35-2 | 2010. http://etudesirlandaises.revues.org/1958 (accessed February 28, 2016)
  29. Phillipson, Robert. 2003. English-Only Europe?: Challenging Language Policy. London: Routledge.
  30. Sârbu, Daciana Octavia. 2011. Question to the European Commission from 7 April 2011, P-003280/2011, OJ C 309 E, 21/10/2011
  31. Vassiliou, Androulla. 2014. Speech from 24 June 2014, Brussels, International Annual Meeting on Language Arrangements, Documentation and Publications, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-14-492_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)
  32. Vassiliou, Andoulla. 2013. Statement published in “Learning languages a way out of crisis, says Vassiliou”, http://www.euractiv.com/culture/learning-languages-way-crisis-va-news-518306 (accessed February 28, 2016)
  33. Vassiliou, Androulla. Priorities. Official Internet site. http://ec.europa.eu/archives/commission_2010-2014/vassiliou/about/priorities/index_en.htm
  34. Voss, Axel. 2011. Question to the European Commission from 17 February 2011, E-001300/2011, OJ C 286 E, 30/09/2011
  35. Legal acts and official documents:
  36. The Treaty on the European Union
  37. The Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
  38. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. Official Journal C 83/02, 30.3.2010. available at:
  39. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2010.083.01.0389.01.ENG (accessed August 12, 2014)
  40. Council Regulation 1/1958 determining the languages to be used by the European Economic Community (OJ P 017, 6.10.1958, p.385)
  41. Council Resolution of 21 November 2008 on a European strategy for multilingualism (2008/C 320/01)
  42. Bureau of the European Parliament. 2004. Code of conduct on multilingualism from 19 April 2004, available at:
  43. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/meetdocs/2004_2009/documents/dv/budg20040727/code%20en.pdf (accessed February 28, 2016)
  44. Bureau of the European Parliament. 2008. Code of conduct on multilingualism from 17 November 2008, available at:
  45. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/multilinguisme/code_conduct_multilingualism_en.pdf (accessed February 28, 2016)
  46. Bureau of the European Parliament. 2014. Code of conduct on multilingualism from 16 June 2014, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/pdf/multilinguisme/coc2014_en.pdf (accessed February 28, 2016)
  47. Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice of the European Union of 29 September 2012 [Official Journal L 265 of 29.9.2012] available at:
  48. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/institutions_bodies_and_agencies/ai0049_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)Council Decision 2009/937/EU of 1 December 2009 adopting the Council's Rules of Procedure, available at:
  49. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/institutions_bodies_and_agencies/l14576_en.htm (accessed February 28, 2016)
  50. Council Resolution of 21 November 2008 on a European strategy for multilingualism. (2008/C 320/01)
  51. Rules of Procedure of the Commission [C(2000) 3614] available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:32000Q3614, (accessed February 28, 2016)
  52. Rules of Proceedings of the European Parliament, 8th parliamentary term, available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?pubRef=-//EP//TEXT+RULES-EP+20140701+TOC+DOC+XML+V0//EN&language=EN(accessed February 28, 2016)
  53. Judgments:
  54. Judgment from 12 July 2001, Case T-120/99 Christina Kik v Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market [2001] ECR II-2235
  55. Judgment from 9 September 2003, Case C-361/01 P, Christina Kik v. Office for Harmonisation in the Internal Market (Trade Marks and Designs) (OHIM), [2003] ECR I-08283
  56. Judgment from of 15 March 2005. Case C-160/03 Kingdom of Spain v Eurojust., [2005] ECR I-02077