Main Article Content
The rule of law, guaranteed in democratic countries, requires that those who are subject to the law should be able to know the law (the principle of legal certainty). Hence, a citizen should have an access to laws in a language that he or she knows. Therefore, in multilingual settings, the principle of legal multilingualism requires that legal acts be drafted in all official languages and provides that all language versions be equally authentic and contribute to the meaning of a legal act. Thus, citizens can read laws in a language they understand. On the other hand, since no two languages are identical, the discrepancies between language versions, due to the nature of language or a mistake, are inevitable. The paper identifies methods applied by judges of the Court of Justice of the European Union and national courts to deal with the discrepancies between language versions of EU legal acts. Through case law analysis, the paper demonstrates whether the principle of legal multilingualism actually guarantees legal certainty and what courts can do to make the right to remain unilingual in a multilingual setting real.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.
PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT
This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform
(“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).
The parties to this Agreement are:
the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.
§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT
a) The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.
b) The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.
d) Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.
§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE
a) The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.
a) The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.
b) The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.
a) The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.
a) The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.
b) The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.
§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
a) This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.
b) In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply.
c) Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.
d) Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.
e) This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.
f) Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general
g) The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.
I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.
The Author The Publisher
- Akehurst, Michael. 1972. Preparing the Authentic English Text of the EEC Treaty. In An Introduction to the Law of the European Economic Community, ed. B.A. Wortley, 20-31. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
- Baaij, Cornelis J.W. 2012. Fifty Years of Multilingual Interpretation in the European Union. In The Oxford Handbook of Language and Law, ed. P. Tiersma and L.M. Solan, 217-231. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Biel, Łucja. 2014. Lost in the Eurofog: The Textual Fit of Translated Law. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Edition.
- Bobek, Michal. 2007. The binding force of Babel, The Enforcement of EC Law Unpublished in the Languages of the New Member States, EUI Working Papers Law 2007/06.
- Cao, Deborah. 2007. Translating law. Clevedon; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters. Christiansen,
- Pia Vanting. 2006. Language policy in the European Union. European/ English/Elite/Equal/Esperanto Union? Language Problems & Language Planning vol. 30, no 1: 21–44, http://www.esperanto-jongeren.nl/pdf/EuropeanUnion.pdf (accessed August 30, 2014).
- Coulmas, Florian. 1991. European Integration and the idea of the national language. Ideological roots and economic consequences. A Language Policy for the European Union: prospect and quandaries: 1-43.
- Derlén, Mattias. 2009. Multilingual interpretation of European Union law, Kluwer Law International.
- Derlén, Mattias. 2011. In defence of (limited) multilingualism. In Linguistic Diversity and European Democracy, ed. A. L. Kjær and S. Adamo, 143-166. Surrey: Ashgate.
- Doczekalska, Agnieszka. 2009. Drafting and interpretation of EU law – paradoxes of legal multilingualism. In Formal Linguistics and Law, Trends in Linguistics – Studies and Monographs (TiLSM), ed. G. Grewendorf and M. Rathert, 339-370. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- Doczekalska, Agnieszka. Jaśkiewicz, Jacek. 2014. Wykładnia aktów wielojęzycznego prawa pochodnego Unii Europejskiej przez polskie sądy administracyjne. In Zeszyty Naukowe Sadów Administracyjnych, nr 5(56)/2014: 66-76.
- European Commission. 2012. FAQs on multilingualism and language learning, Brussels, 25 September 2012, MEMO/12/703, available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_MEMO-12-703_en.pdf, (accessed August 30, 2014).
- Gazzola, Michele. 2006. Managing Multilingualism in the European Union: Language Policy Evaluation for the European Parliament, Language Policy vol. 5: 393– 417.
- Guggeis, Manuela. 2014. Multilingualism in the European Union Decision-Making Process. In Criminal Proceedings, Languages and the European Union:_Linguistic and Legal Issues, ed. Francesca Ruggieri, 45-56. Berlin:_Springer.
- Luttermann, Karin 2009. Multilingualism in the European Union, Status quo and perspectives: The reference language model. In Formal Linguistics and Law, Trends in Linguistics - Studies and Monographs (TiLSM), ed. G. Grewendorf and M. Rathert, 315-338. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
- McCluskey, Brian. 2001. Respecting multilingualism in the enlargement of the European Union - the organisational challenge. Terminologie et Traduction, vol. 2: 7-21.
- Paunio, Elina. 2013. Legal Certainty in Multilingual EU Law. Language, Discourse and Reasoning at the European Court of Justice, Ashgate.
- Pool, Jonathan. 1996. Optimal language regimes for the European Union. In International Journal of the Sociology of Language vol. 121: 159-179, http://panlex.org/pubs/etc/optlangeu.pdf (accessed August 30, 2014).
- Pym, Anthony. 2001. The Use of Translation in International Organizations Contribution to the workshop “Translation and Institutions” at the conference Language Study in Europe
- at the Turn of the Millenium, Societas Linguistica Europea, Leuven, August 2001; http://usuaris.tinet.cat/apym/online/translation/transinst.html, (accessed August 30, 2014).
- Reuter, Paul. 1953 La Communauté européenne du charbon et de l’acier, Paris: Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence, R.Pichon et R. Durand-Auzias.
- Robin-Olivier, Sophie. 2014. The Evolution of Direct Effect in the EU: Stocktaking, Problems, Projections. International Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 12(1): 165-188.
- Somssich,_Réka. Várnai,_Judit. Bérczi Anna. 2010. Study on lawmaking in the EU multilingual environment, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.
- Stevens, Lisbeth. 1967. The Principle of Linguistic Equality in Judicial Proceedings and in the Interpretation of Plurilingual Legal Instruments: The Régime Linguistique in the Court of Justice of the European Community. Northwestern University Law Review, vol. 62, no 5: 701-734.
- Šarcevic, Susan. 2013. Mulitingual lawmaking and legal (un)certainty in the European Union. International Journal of Law, Language & Discourse, Vol. 3, no 1: 1-29.
- Šarcevic, Susan. 2014. Legal Translation and Legal Certainty/Uncertainty: From the DCFR to the CESL Proposal. In Translating the DCFR and Drafting the CESLA pragmatic perspective, ed. Bárbara Pasa, Lucía Morra, 47-70. Munich: Sellier.
- Wagner, Emma. Bech, Svend. Martínez, Jesús M. 2014. Translating for the European Union Institutions, New York: Routledge.
- Wojciechowski, Maciej, 2010. Wybrane aspekty problematyki pewności prawa. Gdańskie Studia Prawnicze vol. XXIV: 559-571.