AbstractThe paper presents the options available when selecting equivalents of the Chinese term 机关 jīguān in legal context. The author undertook the conceptual analysis of the potential German and Polish equivalents of 机关 applied in the General Principles of the Civil Law of the People’s Republic of China of April 12, 1986 (中华人民共和国民法通则 Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó mínfă tōngzé) and Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China of April 9, 1991 (中华人民共和国诉讼法 Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó mínshì sùsòng fă). The corpus under study included the translation of the mentioned statutes into English proposed by Centre of Laws and Regulations in Law Press China (法规中心，法律出版社 Făguī zhōngxīn, Fălǜ chūbănshè). English and German are often intermediary languages in the process of finding equivalents in Polish-Chinese translation. The term 机关 used in a legal and/or administrative context is translated into English, German and Polish differently depending on the context.
Cao Deborah. 2004. Chinese law: A language perspective. Hants: Ashgate Publishing.
Grzybek Joanna. 2013. Alternatywne metody rozwiązywania sporów w przekładzie chińsko-polskim i polsko-chińskim. Studium badawcze terminologii z zakresu arbitrażu. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Contact.
Keller Perry. 1994. Sources of Order in Chinese Law, In The American Journal of Comparative Law, 42(4), 711-759.
Peerenboom Randall P. 2002. China’s Long March Toward Rule of Law, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ross Claudia, Ross Lester. 2000. Language and Law: Sources of Systemic Vagueness and Ambiguous Authority in Chinese Statutory Language, In The Limits of the Rule of Law in China, ed. Karen Turner, James V. Feinerman and R. Kent Guy, 221-270, Seattle: The University of Washington Press.
Šarčević Susan. 2000. New Approach to Legal Translation. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Bu Xiang (不详).1998. 新汉英法学词典. 法律出版社.
Chen Leping (沈乐平), Zou Ligang (邹立刚) (ed.) 1999. 英汉国际商事法律词典.法律出版社.
Chen Zhongcheng (陈忠诚) (编者). 2000. 法律用语辩证词典.北京：法律出版社.
Gu Dengjun (贾登峻). 2008. 英汉法律词典. 北京: 法律出版社.
He Gaoda (何高大). 2002. 英汉双向法律词典. 上海：上海交通大学出版社.
Liang Huasheng (梁华生). 2004. 德汉经济和济法词典.北京：中国对外翻译出版社.
Liao Meizhen (廖美珍), Li Xinhua (李鑫华), Zhang Siyou (张四友). 2001. 汉英国际贸易和金融词典. 北京：外语教学与研究出版社.
Song Lei (宋雷) (编者). 2005. 英汉法律用语大辞典. 北京：法律出版社.
Song Lei (宋雷) (编者). 1998. 常用汉英法律词典. 法律出版社.
Wahrig-Burfeind Renate (ed). 1997. Wahrig. Deutsches Wörterbuch. Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Lexicon Verlag Gmbh.
Wu Guanghua (吴光华) (编者). 2004. 英汉综合大辞典. 大连：大连理工大学出版社.
Xia Dengjun (夏登峻) (编者). 2008. 英汉法律词典. 北京：法律出版社.
Xin Chunying (信春鹰) (编者). 2003. 法律辞典. 北京：法律出版社.
Xue Bo (薛波) (编者). 1995. 汉英法律词典. 外文出版社.
Yu Shutong (余叔通), Wen Jia (文嘉). 2005. 新汉英法学词典. 北京：法律出版社.
BVerGE – Bundesverfassungsgericht
ChCPL – General Principles of the Civil Law of the People's Republic of China adopted by the Fourth Session of the Sixth National People's Congress on April 12, 1986 - 中华人民共和国民法通则 Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó mínfă tōngzé,
ChCL – The Civil Procedure Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted by the Fourth Session of the Seventh National People's Congress on April 9, 1991 – chin. 中华人民共和国民事诉讼法 Zhōnghuá rénmín gònghéguó mínshì sùsòng fă.
Polish Code of Administrative Proceedings of June 14, 1960 – Kodeks postępowania administracyjnego
When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.
PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT
This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform
(“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).
The parties to this Agreement are:
the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.
§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT
a) The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.
b) The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.
d) Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.
§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE
a) The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.
a) The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.
b) The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.
a) The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.
a) The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.
b) The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.
§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
a) This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.
b) In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply.
c) Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.
d) Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.
e) This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.
f) Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general
g) The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.
I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.
The Author The Publisher