PDF (Język Polski)


Chinese characters
Korean alphabet
Hunmin-jeongeum Manuscript
a profane name of the Korean alphabet
writing with borrowed Chinese characters
Confucian nobleman
Korean and Chinese mixed up style
new-style novel

How to Cite

OH, K.- geun. (2016). EVOLUTION OF OFFICIAL LANGUAGE IN KOREA. Comparative Legilinguistics, 22, 65–76. https://doi.org/10.14746/cl.2015.22.04


Chinese characters and Buddhist books reached Korea about third century of the Common Era. From that moment Korea became the official part of the Chinese culture and civilization (Cheon So-yeong 2007, 362). Despite the fact that ideographic Chinese characters were not fit for the Korean language, Koreans, having no writing system of their own, adopted the script. Chinese characters became the basis for the Korean writings and official documents till mid-19thcentury. Initially, texts were formulated in Chinese. The sentence order typical of the Chinese language was used in them too. At the same time Koreans read out such texts adapting the pronunciation of Chinese characters to the rules of Korean phonetics. With the flow of time, new styles of writing started emerging including gugyeol and idu. Gugyeol was a style in which the sentence word order was still typical of the Chinese language. It was, however, enriched with Korean grammatical morphemes which were absent in Chinese but were vital for Korean. The next stage in the development of Korean writings is called idu. What is typical of idu is the fact that the sentence word order changed into typical of Korean spoken language (e.g. the verb was transferred at the end of the sentence). None of the methods was fully efficient. Therefore, the most significant breakthrough was the invention of the Korean alphabet called hangeul by the king Sejong.

PDF (Język Polski)


An, Byeong-hui, Gwang-ho Lee. 2007. 中世國語文法論 [Gramatyka średniowiecznego języka koreańskiego]. Seul: Hakyeonsa.

An, Byeong-hui, Yong-seon Yun, Ho-gwon Lee. 2007. 국어연습 [Ćwiczenie języka koreańskiego średniowiecza], Seul: KNOU Press.

Cheon, So-yeong. 2007. 우리 말의 문화찾기 [W poszukaniu kultury naszego języka]. Seul: Hanguk-munhwasa.

Hwang, Pae-gang. 1998. 한국문학의이해 [Zrozumieć literaturę koreańską]. Seul: Saemunsa.

Im, Yong-gi, i Yun-pyo Hong (red.). 2006. 국어사 연구 어디까지 와 있는가 [Na jakim etapie jest badanie historii języka koreańskiego]. Paju: Taehaksa.

Jang, Bu-il, Nam-cheol Jo, i Sang-jin Lee. 2011. 한국근현대문학사 [Historia współczesnej literatury koreańskiej]. Seul: KNOU Press.

Jo, Dong-il, Jong-mun Seo, i Jong-seong Pak. 2012. 국문학의 역사 [Historia literatury koreańskiej]. Seul: KNOU Press.

Kim, Gyo-bin et al., 2007, 중국의 종교와 사상 [Religie i systemy filozoficzne Chin], Seul, KNOU Press.

Kim, Jin-ho. 2006. 재미있는 한국어 이야기 [Ciekawa historia języka koreańskiego]. Seul: Bagijeong.

Kim, Jung-ha. 2005. 개화기 소설연구 [Studium powieści modernistycznej]. Seul: Gukhak-jaryowon.

Kim, Yun-sik, i Hyeon Kim. 1997. 한국문학사 [Historia literatury koreańskiej]. Seul: Mineumsa.

Kwon, Yeong-min. 2004. 한국현대문학사 1 [Historia współczesnej literatury koreańskiej t. 1]. Seul: Mineumsa.

Lee Gi-mun, i So-won Jang. 2007. 國語史 [Historia języka koreańskiego]. Seul: KNOU Press.

Lee Hui-seung, Byeong-hui An, i Jae-yeong Han. 2011. 한글 맞춤법 강의 [Wykład ortografii języka koreańskiego]. Seongnam: Sinsu-munhwasa.

Lee Ik-seop, i So-won Jang. 2007. 국어학개론 [Zarys nauki o języku koreańskim]. Seul: KNOU Press.