AbstractBeing a complex type of discourse, legal discourse is realized through legal texts written in legal language, which are regarded as special-purpose texts different from other kinds of texts in respect of their text-internal and text-external properties. A great variety of legal texts reflects the diversity of law itself. As different legal texts tend to have different functional, structural and linguistic features, they are classified into genres on the basis of different criteria. The analysis of genres of legal texts contributes to the overall understanding and construction of legal discourse in general and legal texts in particular. This paper aims at the overview and discussion of genres of legal texts focusing on specific features of legal texts and criteria of the classification of legal texts into genres.
Akelaitis, Gintautas. 2012. Jungtukai ar, arba teisės kalbos sintaksinėse konstrukcijose. Specialybės kalba: gramatika ir logika. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas.
Asensio, M. Roberto. 2003. Translating Official Documents. (Translation Practices Explained). London: Routledge.
Balazs, Melinda. 2014. Legal Translation as an Interspace of Language and Law. http://www.upm.ro/ldmd/LDMD-01/Lds/Lds%2001%2040.pdf (accessed 24 September 2016).
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 1987. Language of the Law. Language Teaching, 20, 4, 227-235.
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 1993. Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings. London: Longman.
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 1996. Methodological Issues in Genre Analysis. In Hermes 16. 39-60.
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 1997. Translating Legal Genres. In Sud. Trosborg A. Text Typology in Translation. Amstredam: John Benjamins Publishing, 203-216.
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 2002. Applied Genre Analysis: A Multi-Perspective Model. Ibérica, 4, 3-19.
Bhatia, K. Vijay. 2004. Worlds of Written Discourse: A Genre-Based View. London: MPG Books Ltd.
Biber, Douglas. 1988. Variation Across Speech and Writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biber, Douglas, and Susan Conrad. 2009. Register, genre and style. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Biel, Łucja, and Jan Engberg. 2013. Research Models and Methods in Legal Translation. http:// www.academia.edu/5810009/Research_models_and_methods_in_legal_translation (accessed September 10, 2016).
Biel, Łucja. 2014. Areas of Similarity and Difference in Legal Phraseology: Collocations of Key Terms in UK and Polish Company Law. http://www.slideshare.net/lucjab/phraseology-and-discourse0001 (accessed September 10, 2016).
Bosiacka, A. Jopek. 2013. Comparative Law and Equivalence Assessment of System-Bound Terms in EU Legal Translation. In Linguistica Antverpiensia, 12, 110-146.
Cao, Deborah. 2007. Translating Law. New York: Multilingual Matters.
Couture, Barbara. 1986. Effective Ideation in Written Text: a Functional Approach to Clarity and Exigence. B. Couture (ed.), Functional Approaches to Writing: Research Perspectives, 69-91.
Cozma, Mihaela. 2010. Semantic Peculiarities in the Legal Discourse: a Translation-Oriented Approach. In Professional Communication and Translation Studies, 3 (1-2), 61-66.
Crystal, Davy, and Derek Davy, D. 1969. Investigating English Style. New York: Longman.
Čėsnienė, Žaneta. 2014. Lexical Units Impeding the Perception of Legalese in the Contexts of Plain Language Principles. In Res Humanitariae XVI, 37-53.
Danet, Brenda. 1985. Legal Discourse. T. A. Dijk. Handbook of Discourse Analysis. London: Academic Press, 134-152.
Depraetere, Ilse. 2011. Perspective on Translation Quality. Berlin: De Gruyter GmbH &Co.
Duran, M. Estrella. 2010. Discourse, Grammar and Professional Discourse Analysis: The Function of Conditional Structures in Legal Writing. Ed. Giammoni, S.D., Frade, C. 2010. Reasearching Language and the Law: Textual Features and Translation Issues. Bern: International Academic Publishers.
Gibbons, John, ed. 1994. Language and the Law. London and New York: Longman.
Gracia, J. E. Jorge. 1995. A Theory of Textuality. The Logic and Epistemology. New York: State University of New York Press.
Goodrich, Peter. 1992. Legal Discourse. Houndmills: Macmillan.
Gozdz-Roszkowski, Stanislaw. 2011. Patterns of Linguistic Variation in American Legal English: A Corpus-Based Study. Bern: Peter Lang.
Gozdz-Roszkowski, Stanislaw. 2013. Exploring Near-Synonymous Terms in Legal Language. A Corpus-Based, Phraseological Perspective. Linguistica Antverpiensia, 12. https://lans-tts.uantwerpen.be/index.php/LANS-TTS/article/view/236/214 (accessed December 1, 2016).
Gustaffson, Marita. 1975. Some Syntactic Properties of English Law Language. Turku, Finland: Department of English, University of Turku.
Gustaffson, Marita. 1984. The Syntactic Features of Binominal Expressions in Legal English. Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse, 4 (1-3), 123-141.
Halliday, Michael, and Ruqaiya Hasan. 1990. Language, Context, and Text: Aspects of Language is a Social-Semiotic Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hatim, Basil, and Ian Mason. 1997. The Translator as Communicator. London: Routledge.
Janigova, Slavka. 2008. Syntax of –ing Forms in Legal English. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang GmbH.
Janulevičienė, Violeta, and Sigita Rackevičienė. 2014. Formation of criminal law terms in English, Lithuanian and Norwegian. LSP Journal, 5 (1). http://rauli.cbs.dk/index.php/lspcog/article/view/4174/4796 (accessed September 27, 2016).
Kniūkšta, Pranas. 2005. Administracinė kalba ir jos vartosena. Vilnius: Lietuvių kalbos institutas.
Lee, David. 2001. Genres, Registers, Text Types, Domains, and Styles: Clarifying the Concepts and Navigating a Path through the BNC Jungle. Language Learning and Technology, 5 (3), 37-72.
Lehrberger, John. 1986. Sublanguage Analysis. Grishman, R., and Kittredge, R., Analyzing Language in Restricted Domains: Sublanguage Description and Processing. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 19-38.
Lisina, Natalia. 2013. Stylistic Features of Legal Discourse. A Comparative Study of English and Norwegian Legal Vocabulary. Thesis. Oslo: University of Oslo.
Macko, Daiva. 2012. The Use of Software Analysis of Lexical Properties of Legal Discourse. In Kalbų studijos, 20, 18-26.
Maley, Yon. 1994. The Language of the Law. In ed. Gibbons J. Language and The Law. London: Longman, 11-50.
Marcinkevičienė, Rūta. 2004. Spaudos žanrų tipologija. Vakarietiškoji patirtis. Darbai ir dienos, 38, 191-234.
Marcinkevičienė, Rūta. 2007. Spaudos tekstų žanrai. Kaunas: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas.
Mattila, E. S. Heikki. 2013. Comparative Legal Lingusitics. Language of Law, Latin and Modern Lingua Francas. Ashgate Publishing Limited.
Mažeikienė, Viktorija. 2012. Grammatical Equivalence in Translation and Translation Shifts in English-Lithuanian Translations of Official Texts. Specialybės kalba: gramatika ir logika. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas.
Mockienė, Liudmila, and Sigita Rackevičienė. 2015. Sources of One-Word Terms Used in UK and Lithuanian Constitutional Law Acts. Taikomoji kalbotyra, 7. http://taikomojikalbotyra.lt/lt/2015/03/sources-of-one-word-terms-used-in-uk-and-lithuanian-constitutional-law-acts (accessed October 12, 2016).
Newmark, Peter. 1982. Approaches to Translation. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Textbook of Translation. London: Prentice Hal.
Neumann, K. Richard. 1998. Legal Reasoning and Legal Writing: Structure, Strategy and Style. Aspen Law and Business.
Nielsen, Sandro. 2010. Translational Creativity: Translating Cenre Conventions in Statutes. Vertimo studijos, 3, 23-35.
Paulauskienė, Aldona. 2004. Teisininkų kalba ir bendrosios normos. Vilnius: Justicija.
Pearson, Jennifer. 1998. Terms in Context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Pečkuvienė, Laima. 2012. Priesagos -imas (-ymas) vediniai administracinėje kalboje: vartosena ir normos. Specialybės kalba: gramatika ir logika. Vilnius: Mykolo
Romerio universitetas. Piehl, Aino. 2013. Fine Tuning Style and Precision: Adapting Directive Citations to Finnish Statutes. Linguistica Antverpiensia, 12, 161-181.
Pogožilskaja, Liudmila. 2012. Peculiarities of Formal Structure of Terminology of Constitutional Law in Lithuanian and English. In Specialybės kalba: gramatika ir logika. Vilnius: Mykolo Romerio universitetas.
Rudnickaitė, Guoda. 2012. Teisės aktų kalba ir forma. Juristas, 9, 35-37.
Sager, Juan. 1993. Language Engineering and Translation. Consequences of Automation. Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Schäffner, Christina. 2002. The Role of Discourse Analysis for Translation and in Translator Training. Clevedon: Short Run Press Ltd.
Schneidereit, Gaby. 2007. Legal Language as a Special Language: Structural features of English Legal Language. Munich: Grin Publishing GmbH.
Stubbs, Michael. 1996. Text and Corpus Analysis: Computer Assisted Studies of Language and Culture. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Swales, M. John. 1990. Genre analysis: English in academic and research settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Šarčevic, Susan. 2000. New approach to Legal Translation. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Tessuto, Girolamo. 2012. Investigating English Legal Genres in Academic and Professional Contexts. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
Tiersma, M. Peter. 1999. Legal Language. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Tiersma, M. Peter. 2003. The Creation, Structure, and Interpretation of the Legal Text. http://www.languageandlaw.org/LEGALTEXT.HTM (accessed October 15, 2016).
Trosborg, Anna. 1997. Rhetorical Strategies in Legal Language: Discourse Analysis of Statutes and Contracts. Tűbingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
Trosborg, Anna, ed. 1997. Text Typology and Translation. The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
Tsou, K. Benjamin, and Oi Y. Kwong. 2003. When Laws Get Common: Comparing the Use of Legal Terms in Two Corpora. Language and Linguistics, 4(3), 609-629.
Varo, A. Enrique, and Brian Hughes. 2002. Legal Translation Explained. St. Jerome Publishing: Manchester.
Vladarskienė, Rasuolė. 2006. Teisės akto formos įtaka jo kalbai. Jurisprudencija, Mokslo darbai, 8(86), 51-55.
Yankova, Diana. 2006. Semantic Relations in Statutory Texts: A study of English and Bulgarian. SKY Journal of Linguistics 19, 189-222
When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.
PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT
This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform
(“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).
The parties to this Agreement are:
the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.
§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT
a) The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.
b) The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.
d) Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.
§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE
a) The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.
a) The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.
b) The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.
a) The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.
a) The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.
b) The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.
§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
a) This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.
b) In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply.
c) Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.
d) Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.
e) This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.
f) Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general
g) The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.
I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.
The Author The Publisher