Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852)
preschool pedagogy
nursery school
Maria Weryho-Radziwiłowiczowa (1858-1944)

How to Cite



The article presents the profile of Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782-1852), the basic postulates of his philosophy and pedagogy. It describes the origin of kindergartens, which became the bedrock of young child education spreading across the world, and the birth of the institution of kindergarten. Froebel’s thought reached many countries, among others Great Britain, USA and Poland, thanks to its popularizers. The first Polish kindergarten was set up thanks to Teresa Mleczkowa. However, it was Maria Weryho-Radziwiłowiczowa (1858-1944), who contributed the most to the popularization of Froebel’s pedagogy. Together with J. Strzemeska, she developed the methodology of working with young children on the basis of Froebel’s concept. She adjusted Froebel’s pedagogy to Polish conditions by rejecting some of its elements and adding some new ones. Unfortunately, the 20th century in Polish pedagogy was a moment, when F. Froebel was forgotten. The situation was very different in the international arena: there were institutions arising in the world, which through publications and research spread the views of the German pedagogue. Modern Polish popularizers of Froebel (among others Barbara Bilewicz-Kuźnia, association) undertook to interpret the thought of F. Froebel and with a new curriculum proposal for preschool education The Gift of Play they are trying to revive Froebel’s pedagogy by adjusting it to the modern conditions. As a result of their actions, more and more kindergartens are transformed into Froebel preschools. However, they are still considered pedagogical alternatives.


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Bilewicz-Kuźnia B (2017), Renaissance of Friedrich Froebl's pedagogical views in pre-school education of the 21st century - research in action [in:] M. Nawrot-Borowska M., D. Zając, Child and childhood. Selected research contexts, Bydgoszcz, Publisher of University of Casimir the Great

Bilewicz-Kuźnia B., Kustosz S., Małek K. (2017), Pre-school education program. A The Gift of Play’s, Lublin, Publisher of

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Manning J.P (2005), Rediscovering Froebel: A call to re-examine his life nad gifts, „Early Childhood Educational Journal” vol. 32, no 6

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Moraczewska B. (2015), Precursor of institutional upbringing of young children in Poland – Maria Weryho-Radziwiłłowiczowa (1858–1944), „Gdańsk studies. Visions and reality”, vol. XII

Parczewska T., Bilewicz-Kuźnia B. (2013), Pre-school education in Poland and in the world. Selected Issues, Lublin, Publisher of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University

Strzemeska J., Weryho M. (1895), Pre-school education. Manual for educators, Warsaw, Bookseller Teodor Parnicki

Weston P. (2000), Friedrich Froebel his life, times & significance, London, University of Surrey Roehampton

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