educational process
teacher-student relations
cultural dimensions
discourse analyses
core curriculum

How to Cite



National curricula are documents describing the knowledge, skills and social competences that students should acquire at the appropriate stages of education. In our article, we assume that these documents have the power to buttress the existing status quo or to change reality. Generally speaking, they are an attempt at transforming selected areas of culture in a deliberate, planned, and systemic manner.

This paper, by means of  Hofstede’s 4-D model of cultural differences among societies (viz power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity), is aimed at studying the way Polish and Ukrainian national curricula define the educational processes and Teacher-Student relations, in order to reveal the correlation between the cultural differences and learning/teaching process in Poland and Ukraine. A critical discourse analysis of the two state curricula has been done to interpret their contents.


Baranowski, Mariusz and Anna Odrowaz-Coates. 2018. “Critical Thinking - Tightening the Link Between Business and Education.” Forum Oświatowe 30(2): 117-133.

Baskervilleon, Rachel. 2013. “Hofstede never studied culture.” Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28 (1):1-14.

Boski, Paweł. 2010. Kulturowe ramy zachowań społecznych. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.

Bourdieu, Pierre and Wacquant, Loïc J.D. 2004. Science of Science and Reflexivity, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Dobrołowicz, Justyna. 2016. „Analiza dyskursu i jej zastosowanie w badaniach edukacyjnych.” Jakościowe badania pedagogiczne (1) 1:34-48.

Houellebecq, Michael. 2016. Uległość. Warszawa: W.A. B. Str. 352. 9788328021204.

Giddens, Anthony. 1993. New Rules of Sociological Method: A Positive Critique of Interpretive Sociologies, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Grzymała-Kazłowska, Aleksandra. 2004. „Socjologicznie zorientowana analiza dyskursu na tle współczesnych badań nad dyskursem.” Kultura i Społeczeństwo, 48(1):13-34.

Hofstede, Geert. 1980. Culture‘s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values. Beverly-Hills, CA: Sage.

Hofstede, Geert. 1986. “Cultural differences in teaching and learning.” International Journal of intercultural relations, 10(3):301-320.

Hofstede, Geert. 2001. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations, 2nd ed. Sage:Thousand Oaks, CA.

Hofstede, Geert. 2019. Cultural dimensions. Retrieved September 26, 2019 (

Hofstede, Geert; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Minkov, Michael. 2010. Cultures and organizations: software of the mind: intercultural cooperation and its importance for survival. 3rd ed. New York; London: McGraw-Hill.

Hostede Insights. Retrieved September 20, 2019 (,ukraine/).

Jones, Michael. 2007, Hofstede - Culturally Questionable? paper published as Jones, M, Hofstede – Culturally questionable? Oxford Business & Economics Conference.Oxford, UK, 24-26 June 2007.

Kolman, Ludek; Noorderhaven, Niels; Hofstede, Geert., and Dienes, Elisabeth. 2003. “Cross-cultural differences in Central Europe”. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1):76-88.

Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education”. 2014. Kyiv: Verchovna Rada News, 37-38/2014, pp. 2004/ Zakon Ukrainy „Pro Wyshchu Osvitu”. 2014. Kyiv: Vidomosti verchownoji Rady, 37-38/2014, st. 2004.

Monitor edukacji i kształcenia. Retrieved September 20, 2019 (

Nychkalo, Nellya. 2017. “New Ukrainian School”: The Present and the View to the Future.” Labor et Educatio, (5):89-106.

Odrowąż-Coates, Anna. 2017. “Leadership, culture, and ethics in the Polish context.” The Polish Review, 62 (2):87-104

Osiński, Zbigniew. 2010. Reformowanie polskiej edukacji historycznej w XX wieku. Krztałt reform a potrzeby, zainteresowania i możliwości ucznia. [w] Szkolnictwo pijarskie w czasach minionych a współczesne problemy edukacji historycznej, t. III, red. Ausz, M. Wróbel-Lipowa, K. Karków-Lublin.

Ostrowicka, Helena. 2014. „Kategoria dyskursu w języku i w badaniach edukacyjnych – w poszukiwaniu osobliwości pedagogicznie zorientowanej analizy dyskursu.” Forum Oświatowe, 2(52), 47-68. Retrieved September 29, 2019 (

Prykarpatska, Iryna. 2008. “Why are you late?: Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Study of Complaints in American English and Ukrainian”. Revista Alicantina de Estudios Inglesses 21, pp.50-72

Strelau, Jan and Doliński, Dariusz. 2008. Psychologia akademicka. Sopot: Gdańskie Wydawnictwo Psychologiczne.

Śliwerski, Bogusław. 2009.Współczesna myśl pedagogiczna: znaczenia, klasyfikacje, badania. Kraków: Impuls.

The State Standard of Basic and General Secondary Education in Ukraine, Decree from April 20th, 2011.

Ukraine - Government Education expenditure. Retrieved September 20, 2019

Wackowski, Kazimierz. And Blyznyuk, Tetyana. (2017). “Modern Ukrainian and Polish business cultures: G. Hofstede’s classification.” Економiчний часопис-XXI, 165(5-6): 71-74. Retrieved September 24, 2019 ('s_classification)

Woldan, Alois .2009. Culture Dimensions in Ukraine. In Juliane Besters-Dilger (Ed.): Ukraine on its Way to Europe: Interim Results of the Orange Revolution. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang AG, pp. 275–293.

Akty prawne

Regulation of the Minister of National Education of Poland of 14 February 2017 (ROZPORZĄDZENIE MINISTRA EDUKACJI NARODOWEJ1 z dnia 14 lutego 2017 r. w sprawie podstawy programowej wychowania przedszkolnego oraz podstawy programowej kształcenia ogólnego dla szkoły podstawowej, w tym dla uczniów z niepełnosprawnością intelektualną w stopniu umiarkowanym lub znacznym, kształcenia ogólnego dla branżowej szkoły I stopnia, kształcenia ogólnego dla szkoły specjalnej przysposabiającej do pracy oraz kształcenia ogólnego dla szkoły policealnej).

Bibik red. 2018. New Ukrainian School: Teachers’ Advisor. Kyiv: Litera./ Nova ukrainska shkola: poradnyk dla wchytela/ za N.M.Bibik. – Kyiv; Litera LTD, 2018.

The State Standard of Primary Education in Ukraine, Decree from November 23rd, 2011.

Manuscript authors are responsible for obtaining copyright permissions for any copyrighted materials included within manuscripts. The authors must provide permission letters, when appropriate, to the Society Register Editors.

In addition, all published papers in Society Register are published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 Unported License.

1.1 The Author hereby warrants that he/she is the owner of all the copyright and other intellectual property rights in the Work and that, within the scope of the present Agreement, the paper does not infringe the  legal rights of another person. The owner of the copyright work also warrants that he/she is the sole and original creator thereof and that is not bound by any legal constraints in regard to the use or sale of the work.

1.2. The Publisher warrants that is the owner of the PRESSto platform for open access journals, hereinafter referred to as the PRESSto Platform.

2. The Author grants the Publisher non-exclusive and free of charge license to unlimited use worldwide over an unspecified period of time in the following areas of exploitation:

2.1. production of multiple copies of the Work produced according to the specific application of a given technology, including  printing, reproduction of graphics through mechanical or electrical means (reprography) and digital technology;

2.2. marketing authorisation, loan or lease of the original or copies thereof;

2.3. public performance, public performance in the broadcast, video screening, media enhancements as well as broadcasting and rebroadcasting,  made available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them;

2.4. inclusion of the Work into a collective work (i.e. with a number of contributions);

2.5. inclusion of the Work in the electronic version to be offered on an electronic platform, or any other conceivable introduction of the Work in its electronic version to the Internet;

2.6. dissemination of electronic versions of  the Work in its electronic version online, in a collective work or independently;

2.7. making the Work in the electronic version available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, in particular by making it accessible via the Internet, Intranet, Extranet;

2.8. making the Work available according to appropriate license pattern CC BY-NC 4.0 as well as another language version of this license or any later version published by Creative Commons.

3. The Author grants the Publisher permission to reproduce a single copy (print or download) and royalty-free use and disposal of rights to compilations of the Work and these compilations.

4. The  Author grants the Publisher permission to send metadata files related to the Work, including to commercial and non-commercial journal-indexing databases.

5. The Author represents that, on the basis of the license granted in the present Agreement, the Publisher is entitled and obliged to:

5.1.  allow third parties to obtain further licenses (sublicenses) to the Work and to other materials, including derivatives thereof or compilations made, based on or including the Work, whereas the provisions of such sub-licenses will be the same as with the Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) Creative Commons sub-license or another language version of this license, or any later version of this license published by Creative Commons;

5.2. make the Work available to the public in such a way that members of the public may access the Work from a place and at a time individually chosen by them, without any technological constraints;

5.3. appropriately inform members of the public to whom the Work is to be made available about sublicenses in such a way as to ensure that all parties are properly informed (appropriate informing messages).

6. Because of the royalty-free provision of services of the Author (resulting from the scope of obligations stipulated in the present Agreement), the Author shall not be entitled to any author’s fee due and payable on the part of the Publisher (no fee or royalty is payable by the Publisher to the Author).

7.1. In the case of third party claims or actions for indemnity against the Publisher owing to any infractions related to any form of infringement of intellectual property rights protection, including copyright infringements, the Author is obliged to take all possible measures necessary to protect against these claims and, when as a result of legal action, the Publisher, or any third party licensed by the Publisher to use the Work, will have to abandon using the Work in its entirety or in part or, following a court ruling in a legal challenge, to pay damages to a third party, whatever the legal basis

7.2. The Author will immediately inform the Publisher about any damage claims related to intellectual property infringements, including the author’s proprietary rights pertaining to a copyrighted work, filed against the Author. of liability, the Author is obliged to redress the damage resulting from claims made by third party, including costs and expenditures incurred in the process.

7.3. To all matters not settled herein provisions of the Polish Civil Code and the Polish Copyright and Related Rights Act shall apply. 


Download data is not yet available.