Main Article Content
Polysemy is a relatively important problem in translation and it requires a translation solution which is adequate to the context. The phenomenon of polysemy seems to be slightly difficult to be defined precisely in linguistics as lingusts analyze polysemy in reference with homonymy. Even if legal language aims at expressing accurately meanings, there are many examples of polysemous terms in statutory instruments including constitutions or statutes which are produced by a virtual author – the legislator. The purpose of the paper is to provide methodological means for finding and to applying adequate translational strategies of dealing with polysemous terms occurring in Greek and Polish legal languages. Some legal terms (words and phrases) derived from the morpheme «πολιτ» [polit] of constitutional, administrative and civil Greek and Polish legal language are investigated. The author of the paper emphasises the connection between the terms and the context in which they occur and points out that context analysis is the only way to find successful translational equivalents meeting the requirements of the pragmatic methodology of legal translation. The research might be prolegomena to further lexicographic studies of the so-called lesser spoken languages including for example Greek and Polish languages. The obtained results of the research might be used in translation studies and practice, language teaching and comparative law.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
When submitting a paper the author agrees to the following publishing agreement and processing personal data.
PUBLICATION AGREEMENT, COPYRIGHT LICENSE, PERSONAL DATA PROCESSING CONSENT
This is a publication agreement and copyright license (“Agreement”) regarding a written manuscript currently submitted via Pressto platform
(“Article”) to be published in Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Journal”).
The parties to this Agreement are:
the Author or Authors of the submitted article (individually, or if more than one author, collectively, “Author”) and Comparative Legilinguistics International Journal for Legal Communication (“Publisher”), address al. Niepodległości 4, 61-874 Poznań, represented by its editor in chief Aleksandra Matulewska.
§1. LICENSE OF COPYRIGHT
a) The Author and the Publisher agree that the Author grants a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which is incorporated herein by reference and is further specified at Creative Commons — Attribution 4.0 International — CC BY 4.0 copyright license in the Article to the general public.
b) The Author grants to the Publisher a royalty-free, worldwide nonexclusive license to publish, reproduce, display, distribute, translate and use the Article in any form, either separately or as part of a collective work, including but not limited to a nonexclusive license to publish the Article in an issue of the Journal, copy and distribute individual reprints of the Article, authorize reproduction of the entire Article in another publication, and authorize reproduction and distribution of the Article or an abstract thereof by means of computerized retrieval systems (such as Westlaw, Lexis and SSRN). The Author retains ownership of all rights under copyright in the Article, and all rights not expressly granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author grants to the Publisher the power to assign, sublicense or otherwise transfer any and all licenses expressly granted to the Publisher under this Agreement.
d) Republication. The Author agrees to require that the Publisher be given credit as the original publisher in any republication of the Article authorized by the Author. If the Publisher authorizes any other party to republish the Article under the terms of paragraphs 1c and 1 of this Agreement, the Publisher shall require such party to ensure that the Author is credited as the Author.
§2. EDITING OF THE ARTICLE
a) The Author agrees that the Publisher may edit the Article as suitable for publication in the Journal. To the extent that the Publisher’s edits amount to copyrightable works of authorship, the Publisher hereby assigns all right, title, and interest in such edits to the Author.
a) The Author represents and warrants that to the best of the Author’s knowledge the Article does not defame any person, does not invade the privacy of any person, and does not in any other manner infringe upon the rights of any person. The Author agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Publisher against all such claims.
b) The Author represents and warrants that the Author has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to grant the licenses granted in this Agreement.
c) The Author represents and warrants that the Article furnished to the Publisher has not been published previously. For purposes of this paragraph, making a copy of the Article accessible over the Internet, including, but not limited to, posting the Article to a database accessible over the Internet, does not constitute prior publication so long as the as such copy indicates that the Article is not in final form, such as by designating such copy to be a “draft,” a “working paper,” or “work-in-progress”. The Author agrees to hold harmless the Publisher, its licensees and distributees, from any claim, action, or proceeding alleging facts that constitute a breach of any warranty enumerated in this paragraph.
a) The agreement was concluded for an unspecified time.
a) The Author agrees and acknowledges that the Author will receive no payment from the Publisher for use of the Article or the licenses granted in this Agreement.
b) The Publisher agrees and acknowledges that the Publisher will not receive any payment from the Author for publication by the Publisher.
§6. ENTIRE AGREEMENT
a) This Agreement supersedes any and all other agreements, either oral or in writing, between the Author and the Publisher with respect to the subject of this Agreement. This Agreement contains all of the warranties and agreements between the parties with respect to the Article, and each party acknowledges that no representations, inducements, promises, or agreements have been made by or on behalf of any party except those warranties and agreements embodied in this Agreement.
b) In all cases not regulated by this Agreement, legal provisions of Polish Copyright Act and Polish Civil Code shall apply.
c) Any disputes arising from the enforcement of obligations connected with this Agreement shall be resolved by a court competent for the headquarters of the Publisher.
d) Any amendments or additions to the Agreement must be made in writing and signed by authorised representative of both parties, otherwise being ineffective.
e) This Agreement is signed electronically and the submission of the article via the PRESSto platform is considered as the conclusion of the Agreement by the Author and the Publisher.
f) Clause for consent to the processing of personal data - general
g) The Author shall give his or her consent to the processing of their personal data in accordance with the Act of 10 May 2018 on the protection of personal data and Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of persons physical in connection with the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46 / EC (General Data Protection Regulation) for the purpose and in connection with making publications available on the PRESSto scientific journals platform and DeGruyter platform, guaranteeing the security of services rendered, and improving them.
I HAVE READ AND AGREE FULLY WITH THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT.
The Author The Publisher
- Bednarczuk, Leszek. 1986. Język nowogrecki. w: Języki indoeuropejskie. T.1. red. Leszek Bednarczuk. s. 399-450. Warszawa: PWN.
- Biel Łucja. 2008. Legal terminology in translation practice: dictionaries, googling or discussion forums? SKASE Journal of Translation and Interpretation, Vol. 3:1, s. 22-38. http://www.skase.sk/Volumes/JTI03/pdf_doc/BielLucja.pdf (dostęp 15.02.13).
- Biniewicz, Jęrzy, Starzec Anna. 1995 Styl naukowy. W Przewodnik po stylistyce polskiej, red. S. Gajda, s. 397-430. Opole: Uniwersytet Opolski.
- Cruse, David A. 1986. Lexical Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Crystal David, 2008, A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. Sixth Edition, Malden USA: Blackwell Publishing.
- Dębski, Antoni. 2006. Translatologia. Podstawowe problemy, stan i perspektywa badań, zainteresowania badaczy. Rocznik Przekładoznawczy. Studia nad teorią, praktyką i dydaktyką przekładu 2. Red. Zieliński L., Pławski M. s. 11-40. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Mikołaja Kopernika.
- Finch, Geofrey. 2000. Linguistic Terms and Concepts. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
- Gołąb, Zbigniew, Heinz, Adam, Polański Kazimierz. 1968. Słownik terminologii językoznawczej. Warszawa: PWN.
- Gortych, Karolina. 2007. Retoryka polityczna XX-wiecznej Grecji. Historyczne i lingwistyczne aspekty wybranych tekstów. Niepublikowana rozprawa doktorska. Poznań.
- Grzybek, Joanna, 2009. Polysemy, Homonymy, and Other Sources of ambiguity in the Language of Chinese Contracts. Comparative Legilinguistics. International Journal for Legal Communication 1/2009. s. 207-216. Poznań: UAM.
- Jurewicz, Oktawiusz. 1999, Gramatyka historyczna języka nowogreckiego. Warszawa: PWN.
- Jopek-Bosiacka, Anna, 2006. Przekład prawny i sądowy. Warszawa: PWN.
- Kierzkowska, Danuta. 2008. Tłumaczenie prawnicze, Warszawa: Translegis.
- Kovacs, Eva. 2011. Polysemy in Traditional vs. Cognitive Linguistics. Eger Journal of English Studies XI (2011). s. 3–19. http://anglisztika.ektf.hu/new/english/content/tudomany/ejes/ejesdokumentumok/2005/Kovacs_2005.pdf (dostęp 20.01.13).
- Kubacki, Artur. 2013. Teksty paralelne jako narzędzie pomocnicze przy sporządzaniu tłumaczeń specjalistycznych. Comparative Legilinguistics. International Journal for Legal Communication 13/2013. W druku. Poznań: UAM.
- Löbner, Sebastian. 2002. Understanding Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Lyons, John. 1975. Wstęp do językoznawstwa. Warszawa: PWN.
- Lyons, John. 1987. Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Matulewska Aleksandra, 2007, Lingua Legis in Translation, Amsterdam: Peter Lang Publishing House.
- Nida, Eugene A., Taber, Charles R. 1969. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
- Palmer, Frank, Robert. 1981. Semantics: a New Outline. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Pytel, Waldemar A. 2004. Słownictwo fachowe jako identyfikator LSP. w: Języki specjalistyczne 4. red. Jerzy Lukszyn. s. 101-110. Warszawa: 2004.
- Tseronis, Assimakis. 2002. Diglossical past and present lexicographical practise: the case of the Greek dictionaries. CLSL, Working Paper No. 119. s. 1-39. Lancaster. http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/pubs/clsl/clsl119.pdf (dostęp 20.02.2013)
- Ullman, Stephen. 1962. Semantics: An Introduction to the Science of Meaning. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
- van Vaerenbergh, Leona, 2009. Polysemy and synonymy: Their managemet in Translation Studies Dictionaries and in Translator Training. A case study. w The Metalanguage of Translation. s. 45-64. Amsterdaam: John Bejamins.
- Weinsberg, Adam. 1983. Językoznawstwo ogólne. Warszawa: PWN.
- Weinsberg Adam. 1986. Gramatyka porównawcza języków indoeuropejskich. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego.
- Wojnicki, Stanisław. 1991. Subjęzyki specjalistyczne. w Teoretyczne podstawy terminologii red. Franciszek Grucza. s. 61–77. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich. Wydawnictwo.
- Wróblewski, Bronisław. 1948. Język prawny i prawniczy, Polska Akademia Umiejętności. Prace Komisji Prawniczej Nr 3. Kraków.
- Yule, George. 2010. The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Źrałka, Edyta. 2007. Teaching specialised translation through official documents. The Journal of Specialised Translation (Issue 07). s. 74-91. http://www.jostrans.org.
- issue07/issue07_toc.php (dostęp 01.02.13).
- Χριστίδης, Αναστάσιος-Φοίβος. 2001. Ιστορία της Ελληνικής Γλώσσας. Από τις αρχές έως την ύστερη Αρχαιότητα. Θεσσαλονίκη: Ινστιτούτο Νεοελληνικών Σπουδών [Ίδρυμα Μανόλη Τριανταφυλλίδη].